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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 CORINTHIANS 9

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    9:1 {Superfluous} (perisson). All the same he does write. "The writing" (to grafein) ought to be superfluous.

    9:2 {I glory} (kaucwmai). Present middle indicative. I still am glorying, in spite of the poor performance of the Corinthians. {Hath been prepared} (pareskeuastai). Perfect passive indicative of paraskeuazw, to make ready, "stands prepared." {Stirred up} (ereqise). First aorist active indicative of ereqizw (from ereqw, to excite), to excite in a good sense here, in a bad sense in #Col 3:21, the only N.T. examples. {Very many of them} (tous pleionas). The more, the majority.

    9:3 {I sent} (epemya). Not literary plural with this epistolary aorist as in #18,22. {That ye may be prepared} (hina pareskeuasmenoi ete). Perfect passive subjunctive in the final clause, "that ye may really be prepared,"as I said" (kaqws elegon) and not just say that ye are prepared. Paul's very syntax tells against them.

    9:4 {If there come with me any of Macedonia and find you unprepared} (ean elqwsin sun emoi makedones kai heurwsin humas aparaskeuastous). Condition of third class (undetermined, but stated as a lively possibility) with ean and the second aorist active subjunctive (elqwsin, heurwsin), a bold and daring challenge. aparaskeuastos is a late and rare verbal adjective from paraskeuazw with a privative, only here in the N.T. {Lest by any means we should be put to shame} (me pws kataiscunqwmen hemeis). Negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive of kataiscunw (see on ¯7:14) in the literary plural. {That we say not, ye} (hina me legwmen humeis). A delicate syntactical turn for what he really has in mind. He does wish that they become ashamed of not paying their pledges. {Confidence} (hupostasei). this word, common from Aristotle on, comes from hufistemi, to place under. It always has the notion of substratum or foundation as here; #11:17; Heb 1:3. The papyri give numerous examples (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_) of the word for "property" in various aspects. So in #Heb 11:1 "faith is the title-deed of things hoped for." In the LXX it represents fifteen different Hebrew words.

    9:5 {I thought} (hegesamen). Epistolary aorist again. See #Php 2:25 for the expression here. {Go before} (proelqwsin). Second aorist active of proercomai. Go to you before I come. {Make up beforehand} (prokatartiswsi). Late and rare double compound verb prokatartizw (in Hippocrates). Only here in N.T. See katartizw in #1Co 1:10. {Your afore-promised bounty} (ten proepeggelmenen eulogian humwn). "Blessing" (eulogia) literally, but applied to good deeds also as well as good words (#Ge 33:11). Note third use of "pro" before. He literally rubs it in that the pledge was overdue. {That the same might be ready} (tauten hetoimen einai). Here the infinitive alone (einai) is used to express purpose without hwste or eis to or pros to with the accusative of general reference (tauten). The feminine form hetoimen is regular (#1Pe 1:5) though hetoimos also occurs with the feminine like the masculine (#Mt 25:10). {And not of extortion} (kai me hws pleonexian). "And not as covetousness." Some offerings exhibit covetousness on the part of the giver by their very niggardliness.

    9:6 {Sparingly} (feidomenws). Late and rare adverb made from the present middle participle feidomenos from feidomai, to spare. It occurs in Plutarch (Alex. 25).

    9:7 {He hath purposed} (proeiretai). Perfect middle indicative of proaireomai, to choose beforehand, old verb, here only in N.T. Permanent purpose also. {Not grudgingly} (me ek lupes). The use of me rather than ou shows that the imperative poieitw (do) or didotw (give) is to be supplied. Not give as out of sorrow. {Or of necessity} (e ex anagkes). As if it were like pulling eye-teeth. {For God loveth a cheerful giver} (hilaron gar doten agapai ho qeos). Our word "hilarious" comes from hilaron which is from hilaos (propitious), an old and common adjective, only here in N.T.

    9:8 {Is able} (dunatei). Late verb, not found except here; #13:3; Ro 14:4. So far a Pauline word made from dunatos, able. {All sufficiency} (pasan autarkeian). Old word from autarkes (#Php 4:11), common word, in N.T. only here and #1Ti 6:6). The use of this word shows Paul's acquaintance with Stoicism. Paul takes this word of Greek philosophy and applies it to the Christian view of life as independent of circumstances. But he does not accept the view of the Cynics in the avoidance of society. Note threefold use of "all" here (en panti, pantote, pasan, in everything, always, all sufficiency).

    9:9 {As it is written} (kaqws gegraptai). #Ps 92:3,9. Picture of the beneficent man. {He hath scattered abroad} (eskorpisen). First aorist active indicative of skorpizw, to scatter, _Koin‚_ verb for skedannumi of the Attic. Probably akin to skorpios (scorpion) from root skarp, to cut asunder. See on ¯Mt 12:30. It is like sowing seed. {To the poor} (tois penesin). Old word from penamai, to work for one's living. Latin _penuria_ and Greek peinaw, to be hungry, are kin to it. Only N.T. instance and to be distinguished from ptwcos, beggar, abjectly poor.

    9:10 {Supplieth} (epicoregwn). Late _Koin‚_ compound verb from epi and coregew, just below (#1Pe 4:11). coregos is old word for leader of a chorus (coros, hegeomai) or chorus-leader. The verb means to furnish a chorus at one's own expense, qen to supply in general. N.T. examples of epicoregew are #2Co 9:10; Ga 3:15; Col 2:19; 2Pe 1:5. {Shall multiply} (plequnei). Future active indicative of plequnw, old verb from plequs, fulness. Cf. #Ac 6:1. {Fruits} (genemata). Correct reading (from ginomai, to become) and not gennemata (from gennaw, to beget). this spelling is supported by LXX where Thackeray shows that genemata in LXX refers to vegetables and gennemata to animals. The papyri support this distinction (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_).

    9:11 {Enriched} (ploutizomenoi). Present passive participle of ploutizw for which see on ¯1Co 1:5; 2Co 6:10 only other N.T. examples. {Liberality} (haploteta). See on ¯8:2. Anacoluthon with nominative participle too far from perisseuete for agreement. More like the independent use of the participle.

    9:12 {Service} (leitourgias). Old word from lews (people, laos), leitos like demosios, public, and ergon, work. So public service either in worship to God (#Lu 1:23) or benefaction to others (#2Co 9:12; Php 2:30). Our word liturgy is this word. {Filleth up} (estin prosanaplerousa). Present active periphrastic indicative of double compound verb prosanaplerow, _Koin‚_ word, here and #11:9 only in N.T., to fill up by adding to. The Corinthians simply added to the total from others. {Unto God} (twi qewi). Dative case and with a certain suddenness as at close of verse #11, really a parenthesis between in the somewhat tangled sentence.

    9:13 {Seeing that they glorify God} (doxazontes ton qeon). Anacoluthon again. The nominative participle used independently like ploutizomenoi in verse #11. {Obedience} (hupotagei). Late and rare word from hupotassw, to subject, middle to obey. Only in Paul in N.T. {Of your confession} (tes homologias humwn). Old word from homologew (homologos, homou, legw), to say together. It is either to profess (Latin _profiteor_, to declare openly) or to confess (Latin _confiteor_, to declare fully, to say the same thing as another). Both confess and profess are used to translate the verb and each idea is present in the substantive. Only the context can decide. Actions speak louder than words. The brethren in Jerusalem will know by this collection that Gentiles make as good Christians as Jews. {For the liberality of your contribution} (haploteti tes koinwnias). this is the point that matters just now. Paul drives it home. On this use of koinwnia see on ¯8:4.

    9:14 {While they themselves long after you} (autwn epipoqountwn). Genitive absolute of present active participle of epipoqew (#5:2). {In you} (ef' humin). Upon you.

    9:15 {Thanks be to God} (caris twi qewi). Third time (verses #11,12,15). {For his unspeakable gift} (epi tei anekdiegetwi autou dwreai). One of Paul's gems flashed out after the somewhat tangled sentence (verses #10-14) like a gleam of light that clears the air. Words fail Paul to describe the gift of Christ to and for us. He may have coined this word as it is not found elsewhere except in ecclesiastical writers save as a variant (B L) for adiegeton in Aristeas 99 (qaumasmon anekdiegeton, "wonder beyond description," Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). See similar word in #Ro 11:33 (anexicniasta, unsearchable) and #Eph 3:8.

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