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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 THESSALONIANS 1

    1 Thessalonians 5 - 2 Thessalonians 2 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    1:1 {Paul, etc.} (paulos, etc.). this address or superscription is identical with that in #1Th 1:1 save that our (hemwn) is added after {Father} (patri).

    1:2 {From God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ} (apo qeou patros kai kuriou iesou cristou). These words are not genuine in #1Th 1:1, but are here and they appear in all the other Pauline Epistles. Note absence of article both after en and apo, though both God and Lord Jesus Christ are definite. In both cases Jesus Christ is put on a par with God, though not identical. See on 1Th 1:1 for discussion of words, but note difference between en, in the sphere of, by the power of, and apo, from, as the fountain head and source of grace and peace.

    1:3 {We are bound} (ofeilomen). Paul feels a sense of obligation to keep on giving thanks to God (eucaristein twi qewi, present infinitive with dative case) because of God's continued blessings on the Thessalonians. He uses the same idiom again in #2:13 and nowhere else in his thanksgivings. It is not necessity (dei) that Paul here notes, but a sense of personal obligation as in #1Jo 2:6 (Milligan). {Even as it is meet} (kaqws axion estin). ofeilomen points to the divine, axion to the human side of the obligation (Lightfoot), perhaps to cheer the fainthearted in a possible letter to him in reply to Paul's First Thessalonian epistle (Milligan). this adjective axios is from ag", to drag down the scales, and so weighty, worthy, worthwhile, old word and appropriate here. {For that your faith groweth exceedingly} (hoti huperauxanei he pistis humwn). Causal use of hoti referring to the obligation stated in ofeilomen. The verb huperauxanw is one of Paul's frequent compounds in huper (huper-bainw, #1Th 4:6; huper-ek-teinw, #2Co 10:14; huper-en-tugcanw, #Ro 8:26; huper-nikaw, #Ro 8:37; huper-pleonazw, #1Ti 1:14) and occurs only here in N.T. and rare elsewhere (Galen, Dio Cass.). Figure of the tree of faith growing above (huper) measure. Cf. parable of Jesus about faith-like a grain of mustard seed (#Mt 13:31f.). {Aboundeth} (pleonazei). Same verb in #1Th 3:12, here a fulfilment of the prayer made there. Milligan finds _diffusive_ growth of love in this word because of "each one" (henos hekastou). Frame finds in this fulfilment of the prayer of #1Th 3:12 one proof that II Thessalonians is later than I Thessalonians.

    1:4 {So that} (hwste). Another example of hwste and the infinitive (enkaucasqai) for result as in #1Th 1:7 which see. {We ourselves} (autous hemas). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive, but not merely hemas (or heautous), perhaps in contrast with en humin (in you), as much as to say, "so that we ourselves, contrary to your expectations, are boasting" (Frame). enkaucaomai occurs here alone in N.T., but is found in the LXX and in _Aesop's Fables_, proof enough of its vernacular use. Paul was not above praising one church to other churches, to provoke them to good works. Here he is boasting of Thessalonica in Macedonia to the Corinthians as he did later to the Corinthians about the collection (#2Co 8:1-15) after having first boasted to the Macedonians about the Corinthians (#2Co 9:1-5). There were other churches in Achaia besides Corinth (#2Co 1:1). {For} (huper). Over, about, like peri (#1Th 1:2). {In all your persecutions} (en pasin tois diwgmois humwn). Their patience and faith had already attracted Paul's attention (#1Th 1:3) and their tribulations qliyesin (#1Th 1:6). Here Paul adds the more specific term diwgmos, old word from diwkw, to chase, to pursue, a word used by Paul of his treatment in Corinth (#2Co 12:10). {Which ye endure} (hais anecesqe). B here reads enecesqe, to be entangled in, to be held in as in #Ga 5:1, but anecesqe is probably correct and the hais is probably attracted to locative case of qliyesin from the ablative h"n after anecesqe, {from which ye hold yourselves back} (cf. #Col 3:13).

    1:5 {A manifest token of the righteous judgment of God} (endeigma tes dikaias krisews tou qeou). Old word from endeiknumi, to point out, result reached (-ma), a thing proved. It is either in the accusative of general reference in apposition with the preceding clause as in #Ro 8:3; 12:1, or in the nominative absolute when ho estin, if supplied, would explain it as in #Php 1:28. this righteous judgment is future and final (verses #6-10). {To the end that you may be counted worthy} (eis to kataxiwqenai humas). Another example of eis to for purpose with first aorist passive infinitive from kataxiow, old verb, with accusative of general reference humas and followed by the genitive ts basileias (kingdom of God). See #1Th 2:12 for {kingdom of God}. {For which ye also suffer} (huper hes kai pascete). Ye {also} as well as we and the present tense means that it is still going on.

    1:6 {If so be that it is a righteous thing with God} (eiper dikaion para qewi). Condition of first class, determined as fulfilled, assumed as true, but with eiper (if on the whole, provided that) as in #Ro 8:9,17, and with no copula expressed. A righteous thing "with God" means by the side of God (para qewi) and so from God's standpoint. this is as near to the idea of absolute right as it is possible to attain. Note the phrase in verse #5. {To recompense affliction to them that afflict you} (antapodounai tois qlibousin hemas qliyin). Second aorist active infinitive of double compound ant-apodidwmi, old verb, either in good sense as in #1Th 3:9 or in bad sense as here. Paul is certain of this principle, though he puts it conditionally.

    1:7 {Rest with us} (anesin meq' hemwn). Let up, release. Old word from aniemi, from troubles here (#2Co 2:13; 7:5; 8:13), and hereafter as in this verse. Vivid word. They shared suffering with Paul (verse #5) and so they will share (meq') the {rest}. {At the revelation of the Lord Jesus} (en tei apokaluyei tou kuriou iesou). Here the parousia (#1Th 2:19; 3:13; 5:23) is pictured as a {Revelation} (Un-veiling, apo-kalupsis) of the Messiah as in #1Co 1:7, 1Pe 1:7,13 (cf. #Lu 17:30). At this Unveiling of the Messiah there will come the {recompense} (verse #6) to the persecutors and the {rest} from the persecutions. this Revelation will be {from heaven} (ap' ouranou) as to place and {with the angels of his power} (met' aggelwn dunamews autou) as the retinue and {in flaming fire} (en puri flogos, in a fire of flame, fire characterized by flame). In #Ac 7:30 the text is {flame of fire} where puros is genitive (like #Isa 66:15) rather than flogos as here (#Ex 3:2).

    1:8 {Rendering} (didontos). Genitive of present active participle of didwmi, to give, agreeing with iesou. {Vengeance} (ekdikesin). Late word from ekdikew, to vindicate, in Polybius and LXX. {To them that know not God} (tois me eidosin qeon). Dative plural of perfect active participle eidws. Apparently chiefly Gentiles in mind (#1Th 4:3; Ga 4:8; Ro 1:28; Eph 2:12), though Jews are also guilty of wilful ignorance of God (#Ro 2:14). {And to them that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus} (kai tois me hupakouousin twi euaggeliwi tou kuriou hemwn iesou). Repetition of the article looks like another class and so Jews (#Ro 10:16). Both Jews as instigators and Gentiles as officials (politarcs) were involved in the persecution in Thessalonica (#Ac 17:5-9; 2Th 1:6). Note the use of "gospel" here as in #Mr 1:15 "believe in the gospel."

    1:9 {Who} (hoitines). Qualitative use, such as. Vanishing in papyri though surviving in Paul (#1Co 3:17; Ro 1:25; Ga 4:26; Php 4:3). {Shall suffer punishment} (diken tisousin). Future active of old verb tinw, to pay penalty (diken, right, justice), here only in N.T., but apotinw once also to repay #Phm 1:19. In the papyri dike is used for a case or process in law. this is the regular phrase in classic writers for paying the penalty. {Eternal destruction} (oleqron aiwnion). Accusative case in apposition with diken (penalty). this phrase does not appear elsewhere in the N.T., but is in IV Macc. 10:15 ton aiwnion tou turannou olethron the eternal destruction of the tyrant (Antiochus Epiphanes). Destruction (cf. #1Th 5:3) does not mean here annihilation, but, as Paul proceeds to show, separation {from the face of the Lord} (apo proswpou tou kuriou) and from the {glory of his might} (kai apo tes doxes tes iscuos autou), an eternity of woe such as befell Antiochus Epiphanes. aiwnios in itself only means age-long and papyri and inscriptions give it in the weakened sense of a Caesar's life (Milligan), but Paul means by age-long {the coming age} in contrast with { this age}, as {eternal} as the New Testament knows how to make it. See on Mt 25:46 for use of aiwnios both with zwen, life, and kolasin, punishment.

    1:10 {When he shall come} (hotan elqei). Second aorist active subjunctive with hotan, future and indefinite temporal clause (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 971ff.) coincident with en tei apokaluyei in verse #7. {To be glorified} (endoxasqenai). First aorist passive infinitive (purpose) of endoxazw, late verb, in N.T. only here and verse #12, in LXX and papyri. {In his saints} (en tois hagiois autou). The sphere in which Christ will find his glory at the Revelation. {And to be marvelled at} (kai qaumasqenai). First aorist passive infinitive (purpose), common verb qaumazw. {That believed} (tois pisteusasin). Why aorist active participle instead of present active pisteuousin (that believe)? Frame thinks that Paul thus reassures those who believed his message when there (#1Th 1:6ff.; 2:13f.). The parenthetical clause, though difficult, falls in with this idea: {Because our testimony unto you was believed} (hoti episteuqe to marturion hemwn ef' humas). Moffatt calls it an anti-climax. {On that day} (en tei hemerai ekeinei). The day of Christ's coming (#2Ti 1:12,18; 4:8).

    1:11 {To which end} (eis ho). So #Col 1:29. Probably purpose with reference to the contents of verses #5-10. We have had the Thanksgiving (verses #3-10) in a long, complicated, but rich period or sentence. Now he makes a brief Prayer (verses #11-12) that God will fulfil all their hopes and endeavors. Paul and his colleagues can still pray for them though no longer with them (Moffatt). {That} (hina). Common after proseucomai (#Col 4:3; Eph 1:17; Php 1:9) when the content of the prayer blends with the purpose (purport and purpose). {Count you worthy} (humas axiwsei). Causative verb (aorist active subjunctive) like kataxiow in verse #5 with genitive. {Of your calling} (tes klesews). klesis can apply to the beginning as in #1Co 1:26; Ro 11:29, but it can also apply to the final issue as in #Php 3:14; Heb 3:1. Both ideas may be here. It is God's calling of the Thessalonians. {And fulfil every desire of goodness} (kai plerwsei pasan eudokian agaqwsunes). "Whom he counts worthy he first makes worthy" (Lillie). Yes, in purpose, but the wonder and the glory of it all is that God begins to count us worthy in Christ before the process is completed in Christ (#Ro 8:29f.). But God will see it through and so Paul prays to God. eudokia (cf. #Lu 2:14) is more than mere desire, rather good pleasure, God's purpose of goodness, not in ancient Greek, only in LXX and N.T. agaqwsune like a dozen other words in -sune occurs only in late Greek. this word occurs only in LXX, N.T., writings based on them. It is made from agaqos, good, akin to agamai, to admire. May the Thessalonians find delight in goodness, a worthy and pertinent prayer. {Work of faith} (ergon pistews). The same phrase in #1Th 1:3. Paul prays for rich fruition of what he had seen in the beginning. Work marked by faith, springs from faith, sustained by faith. {With power} (en dunamei). In power. Connect with plerwsei (fulfil), God's power (#Ro 1:29; Col 1:4) in Christ (#1Co 1:24) through the Holy Spirit (#1Th 1:5).

    1:12 {That} (hopws). Rare with Paul compared with hina (#1Co 1:29; 2Co 8:14). Perhaps here for variety (dependent on hina clause in verse #11). {The name} (to onoma). The Old Testament (LXX) uses onoma embodying the revealed character of Jehovah. So here the {Name} of our Lord Jesus means the Messiahship and Lordship of Jesus. The common Greek idiom of onoma for title or dignity as in the papyri (Milligan) is not quite this idiom. The papyri also give examples of onoma for person as in O.T. and #Ac 1:15 (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp. 196ff.). {In you, and ye in him} (en humin, kai humeis en autwi). this reciprocal glorying is Pauline, but it is also like Christ's figure of the vine and the branches in #Joh 15:1-11. {According to the grace} (kata ten carin). Not merely standard, but also aim (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 609). {Of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ} (tou qeou hemwn kai kuriou iesou cristou). Here strict syntax requires, since there is only one article with qeou and kuriou that one person be meant, Jesus Christ, as is certainly true in #Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.786). this otherwise conclusive syntactical argument, admitted by Schmiedel, is weakened a bit by the fact that kurios is often employed as a proper name without the article, a thing not true of swter in #Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1. So in #Eph 5:5 en ti basileiai tou cristou kai qeou the natural meaning is {in the Kingdom of Christ and God} regarded as one, but here again qeos, like kurios, often occurs as a proper name without the article. So it has to be admitted that here Paul may mean "according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ," though he may also mean "according to the grace of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ."

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