King James Bible Adam Clarke Bible Commentary Martin Luther's Writings Wesley's Sermons and Commentary Neurosemantics Audio / Video Bible Evolution Cruncher Creation Science Vincent New Testament Word Studies KJV Audio Bible Family videogames Christian author Godrules.NET Main Page Add to Favorites Godrules.NET Main Page




Bad Advertisement?

Are you a Christian?

Online Store:
  • Visit Our Store

  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 THESSALONIANS 5

    1 Thessalonians 4 - 2 Thessalonians 1 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    5:1 {But concerning the times and the seasons} (peri de twn cronwn kai twn kairwn). See both words used also in #Tit 1:2f. cronos is rather an extended period and kairos a definite space of time.

    5:2 {Know perfectly} (akribws oidate). Accurately know, not "the times and the seasons," but their own ignorance. {As a thief in the night} (hws kleptes en nukti). As a thief at night, suddenly and unexpectedly. Reminiscence of the word of Jesus (#Mt 24:43; Lu 12:39), used also in #2Pe 3:10; Re 3:3; 16:15. {Cometh} (ercetai). Prophetic or futuristic present tense.

    5:3 {When they are saying} (hotan legwsin). Present active subjunctive picturing these false prophets of {peace and safety} like #Eze 13:10 (Peace, and there is no peace). asfaleia only in N.T. in #Lu 1:4 (which see); #Ac 5:23 and here. {Sudden destruction} (aifnidios oleqros). oleqros old word from ollumi, to destroy. See also #2Th 1:9. aifnidios, old adjective akin to afnw and in N.T. only here and #Lu 21:34 where Westcott and Hort spell it efnidios. {Cometh upon them} (autois epistatai). Unaspirated form instead of the usual efistatai (present middle indicative) from efistemi perhaps due to confusion with epistamai. {As travail upon a woman with child} (hwsper he wdin tei en gastri ecousei). Earlier form wdis for birth-pang used also by Jesus (#Mr 13:8; Mt 24:8). Technical phrase for pregnancy, {to the one who has it in belly} (cf. #Mt 1:18 of Mary). {They shall in no wise escape} (ou me ekfugwsin). Strong negative like that in #4:15 ou me (double negative) and the second aorist active subjunctive.

    5:4 {As a thief} (hws kleptes). As in verse #2, but A B Bohairic have kleptas (thieves), turning the metaphor round.

    5:5 {Sons of light} (huioi fwtos), {sons of day} (huioi hemeras). Chiefly a translation Hebraism (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp. 161ff.). Cf. words of Jesus in #Lu 16:8 and Paul in #Eph 5:9. He repeats the same idea in turning from "ye" to "we" and using nuktos (night) and skotous (darkness), predicate genitives.

    5:6 {So qen} (ara oun). Two inferential particles, accordingly therefore, as in #2Th 2:15 and only in Paul in N.T. {Let us not sleep} (me kaqeudwmen). Present active subjunctive (volitive), let us not go on sleeping. {Let us watch} (gregorwmen). Present active subj. (volitive) again, let us keep awake (late verb gregorew from perfect egregora). {Be sober} (nefwmen). Present active subjunctive (volitive). Old verb not to be drunk. In N.T. only in figurative sense, to be calm, sober-minded. Also in verse #8 with the metaphor of drunkenness in contrast.

    5:7 {They that be drunken are drunken in the night} (hoi mequskomenoi nuktos mequousin). No need of "be" here, they that are drunken. No real difference in meaning between mequskw and mequw, to be drunk, except that mequskw (inceptive verb in -sk") means to get drunk. {Night} (nuktos, genitive by night) is the favorite time for drunken revelries.

    5:8 {Putting on the breastplate of faith and love} (endusamenoi qwraka pistews kai agapes). First aorist (ingressive) middle participle of enduw. The same figure of breastplate in #Eph 6:14, only there "of righteousness." The idea of watchfulness brings the figure of a sentry on guard and armed to Paul's mind as in #Ro 13:12 "the weapons of light." The word qwrax (breastplate) is common in the LXX. {For a helmet, the hope of salvation} (perikefalaian elpida swterias). Same figure in #Eph 6:17 and both like #Isa 59:17. Late word meaning around (peri) the head (kefale) and in Polybius, LXX, and in the papyri. swterias is objective genitive.

    5:9 {But unto the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ} (alla eis peripoiesin swterias dia tou kuriou hemwn iesou cristou). The difficult word here is peripoiesin which may be passive, God's possession as in #1Pe 2:9, or active, obtaining, as in #2Th 2:14. The latter is probably the idea here. We are to keep awake so as to fulfil God's purpose (eqeto, appointed, second aorist middle indicative of tiqemi) in calling us. That is our hope of final victory (salvation in this sense).

    5:10 {For us} (peri hemwn). {Around us}. So Westcott and Hort, but huper (over, in behalf of) as in many MSS. These prepositions often interchanged in N.T. MSS. {Whether we wake or sleep} (eite gregorwmen eite kaqeudwmen). Alternative condition of third class with present subjunctive, though eante--eante more usual conjunction (Robertson, _Grammar_, P. 1017). Used here of life and death, not as metaphor. {That we should live together with him} (hina hama sun autwi zeswmen). First aorist active subjunctive constative aorist covering all life (now and hereafter) together with (hama sun as in #5:17) Jesus.

    5:11 {Build each other up} (oikodomeite heis ton hena). Literally, build ye, one the one (heis nominative in partitive apposition with unexpressed humeis subject of oikodomeite. qen ton hena the accusative in partitive apposition with the unexpressed heautous or allelous. See the same idiom in #1Co 4:6 {one in behalf of the one}, heis huper tou henos. Build is a favorite Pauline metaphor.

    5:12 {Them that labor among you} (tous kopiwntas en humin). Old word for toil even if weary. {And are over you in the Lord} (kai proistamenous humwn en kuriwi). Same article with this participle. Literally, those who stand in front of you, your leaders in the Lord, the presbyters or bishops and deacons. Get acquainted with them and follow them. {And admonish you} (kai nouqetountas humas). Old verb from nouqetes and this from nous (mind) and tiqemi, to put. Putting sense into the heads of people. A thankless, but a necessary, task. The same article connects all three participles, different functions of the same leaders in the church.

    5:13 {And to esteem them} (kai hegeisqai). Get acquainted with them and esteem the leaders. The idlers in Thessalonica had evidently refused to follow their leaders in church activities. We need wise leadership today, but still more wise following. An army of captains and colonels never won a battle.

    5:14 {Admonish the disorderly} (nouqeteite tous ataktous). Put sense into the unruly mob who break ranks (a privative and taktos, verbal adjective of tassw, to keep military order). Recall the idlers from the market-place used against Paul (#Ac 17:5). this is a challenging task for any leader. {Encourage the fainthearted} (paramuqeisqe tous oligoyucous). Old verb to encourage or console as in #Joh 11:31, though not so common in N.T. as parakalew, the compound adjective (oligos, little or small, yuce, soul), small-souled, little-souled, late word in LXX. The verb oligoyucew occurs in the papyri. Local conditions often cause some to lose heart and wish to drop out, be quitters. These must be held in line. {Support the weak} (antecesqe twn asqenwn). Middle voice with genitive of antecw, old verb, in N.T. only in middle, to cling to, to hold on to (with genitive). The weak are those tempted to Sin (immorality, for instance). {Be long-suffering toward all} (makroqumeite pros pantas). These disorderly elements try the patience of the leaders. Hold out with them. What a wonderful ideal Paul here holds up for church leaders!

    5:15 {See to it that no one render unto any one evil for evil} (horate me tis kakon anti kakou apodwi). Note me with the aorist subjunctive (negative purpose) apodwi from apodidwmi, to give back. Retaliation, condemned by Jesus (#Mt 5:38-42) and by Paul in #Ro 12:17, usually takes the form of "evil for evil," rather than "good for good" (kalon anti kalou). Note idea of exchange in anti. {Follow after} (diwkete). Keep up the chase (diwkw) after the good.

    5:18 {In everything give thanks} (en panti eucaristeite). There is a silver lining to every cloud. God is with us whatever befalls us. It is God's will that we find joy in prayer in Christ Jesus in every condition of life.

    5:19 {Quench not the spirit} (to pneuma me sbennute). me with the present imperative means to stop doing it or not to have the habit of doing it. It is a bold figure. Some of them were trying to put out the fire of the Holy Spirit, probably the special gifts of the Holy Spirit as verse #20 means. But even so the exercise of these special gifts (#1Co 12-14; 2Co 12:2-4; Ro 12:6-9) was to be decently (euscemonws, #1Th 4:12) and in order (kata taxin, #1Co 14:40) and for edification (pros oikodomen, #1Co 14:26). Today, as qen, there are two extremes about spiritual gifts (cold indifference or wild excess). It is not hard to put out the fire of spiritual fervor and power.

    5:20 {Despise not prophesyings} (profeteias me exouqeneite). Same construction, stop counting as nothing (exouqenew, ouqen=ouden), late form in LXX. Plutarch has exoudenizw. Plural form profeteias (accusative). Word means {forth-telling} (pro-femi) rather than {fore-telling} and is the chief of the spiritual gifts (#1Co 14) and evidently depreciated in Thessalonica as in Corinth later.

    5:21 {Prove all things} (panta [de] dokimazete). Probably de (but) is genuine. Even the gift of prophecy has to be tested (#1Co 12:10; 14:29) to avoid error. Paul shows fine balance here. {Hold fast that which is good} (to kalon katecete). Keep on holding down the beautiful (noble, morally beautiful). Present imperative kat-ecw (perfective use of kata- here).

    5:22 {Abstain from every form of evil} (apo pantos eidous ponerou apecesqe). Present middle (direct) imperative of ap-ecw (contrast with kat-ecw) and preposition apo repeated with ablative as in #1Th 4:3. Note use of ponerou here for evil without the article, common enough idiom. eidos (from eidon) naturally means look or appearance as in #Lu 3:23; 9:29; Joh 5:37; 2Co 5:7. But, if so taken, it is not semblance as opposed to reality (Milligan). The papyri give several examples of eidos in the sense of class or kind and that idea suits best here. Evil had a way of showing itself even in the spiritual gifts including prophecy.

    5:23 {The God of peace} (ho qeos tes eirenes). The God characterized by peace in his nature, who gladly bestows it also. Common phrase (Milligan) at close of Paul's Epistles (#2Co 13:11; Ro 15:33; 16:20; Php 4:9) and {the Lord of peace} in #2Th 3:6. {Sanctify you} (hagiasai humas). First aorist active optative in a wish for the future. New verb in LXX and N.T. for the old hagizw, to render or to declare holy (hagios), to consecrate, to separate from things profane. {Wholly} (holoteleis). Predicate adjective in plural (holos, whole, telos, end), not adverb holotelws. Late word in Plutarch, Hexapla, and in inscription A.D. 67 (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). Here alone in N.T. Here it means the whole of each of you, every part of each of you, "through and through" (Luther), qualitatively rather than quantitatively. {Your spirit and soul and body} (humwn to pneuma kai he yuce kai to swma). Not necessarily trichotomy as opposed to dichotomy as elsewhere in Paul's Epistles. Both believers and unbelievers have an inner man (soul yuce, mind nous, heart kardia, the inward man ho es" anqrwpos) and the outer man (swma, ho exw anqrwpos). But the believer has the Holy Spirit of God, the renewed spirit of man (#1Co 2:11; Ro 8:9-11). {Be preserved entire} (holokleron tereqeie). First aorist passive optative in wish for the future. Note singular verb and singular adjective (neuter) showing that Paul conceives of the man as "an undivided whole" (Frame), prayer for the consecration of both body and soul (cf. #1Co 6). The adjective holokleron is in predicate and is an old form and means complete in all its parts (holos, whole, kleros, lot or part). There is to be no deficiency in any part. teleios (from telos, end) means final perfection. {Without blame} (amemptws). Old adverb (a privative, memptos, verbal of memfomai, to blame) only in I Thess. in N.T. (#2:10; 3:13; 5:23). Milligan notes it in certain sepulchral inscriptions discovered in Thessalonica. {At the coming} (en tei parousiai). The Second Coming which was a sustaining hope to Paul as it should be to us and mentioned often in this epistle (see on 2:19).

    5:24 {Faithful} (pistos). God, he means, who calls and will carry through (#Php 1:6).

    5:25 {Pray for us} (proseucesqe [kai] peri hemwn). He has made his prayer for them. He adds this "human touch" (Frame) and pleads for the prayers of his converts (#2Th 3:1; Col 4:2f.). Probably kai also is genuine (B D).

    5:26 {With a holy kiss} (en filemati hagiwi). With a kiss that is holy (Milligan) a token of friendship and brotherly love (#1Co 16:20; 2Co 13:12; Ro 16:16). In #1Pe 5:14 it is "with a kiss of love." this was the customary salutation for rabbis.

    5:27 {I adjure you by the Lord} (enorkizw humas ton kurion). Late compound for old horkizw (#Mr 5:7), to put one on oath, with two accusatives (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 483f.). Occurs in inscriptions. {That this epistle be read unto all the brethren} (anagnwsqenai ten epistolen pasin tois adelfois). First aorist passive infinitive of anaginwskw with accusative of general reference in an indirect command. Clearly Paul wrote for the church as a whole and wished the epistles read aloud at a public meeting. In this first epistle we see the importance that he attaches to his epistles.

    5:28 {The grace} (he caris). Paul prefers this noble word to the customary errwsqe (Farewell, Be strong). See #2Th 3:18 for identical close save added pantwn (all). A bit shorter form in #1Co 16:23; Ro 16:20 and still shorter in #Col 4:18; 1Ti 6:21; Tit 3:15; 2Ti 4:22. The full Trinitarian benediction we find in #2Co 13:13.

    GOTO NEXT BOOK - WORD STUDIES INDEX & SEARCH

    God Rules.NET