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1. Times - seasons (cronwn - kairwn). See on Acts i. 7. With special reference to the Lord's coming. The plural is used because Paul is thinking of a number of incidents attending the preparation and accomplishment of the second advent, and occurring at different times. The collocation times and seasons only here and Acts i. 7. Kairov is the suitable time, cronov the time measured by duration. Hence kairov a juncture, an occasion, as Matt. xvi. 3. The distinction is so well marked that have the phrases cronou kairov the right moment of the time, and eukairov cronov the opportune moment. See Soph. Elec. 1292.
2. Perfectly (akribwv). See on Luke i. 3.
The day of the Lord (hmera kuriou). The day of Christ's second coming. In Paul's Epistles this is expressed by hJ hJmera the day, absolutely, 1 Thess. v. 4; 1 Cor. iii. 13; Rom. xiii. 12: hJ hJmera ejkeinh that day, 2 Thess. i. 10: hJmera cristou the day of Christ, Philip. i. 10; ii. 16: hJmera kuriou or tou kuriou day of the Lord, 1 Cor. v. 5; 1 Thess. v. 2; 2 Thess. ii. 2: hJmera tou kuriou hJmwn Ihsou (Cristou), 1 Cor. i. 8; 2 Corinthians i. 14. These expressions refer to a definite time when the Lord is expected to appear, and Paul expects this appearance soon. Attempts to evade this by referring such expressions to the day of death, or to the advance toward perfection after death until the final judgment, are forced, and are shaped by dogmatic conceptions of the nature of Biblical inspiration. 30 In the O.T. the phrase day of the Lord denotes a time in which God will conspicously manifest his power and goodness or his penal justice. See Isa. ii. 12; Ezek. xiii. 5; Joel i. 15; ii. 11; and comp. Rom. ii. 5. The whole class of phrases is rare in N.T. outside of Paul's Epistles. As a thief (wv klepthv). Comp. Matt. xxiv. 43; Luke xii. 39; 2 Peter iii. 10; Apoc. xvi. 15, and see on Apoc. iii. 3.
In the night (en nukiti). The ancient church held that the advent was to be expected at night, on an Easter eve. This gave rise to the custom of vigils. Jerome, on Matt. xxv. 6, says: "It is a tradition of the Jews that Messiah will come at midnight, after the likeness of that season in Egypt when the Passover was celebrated, and the Destroyer came, and the Lord passed over the dwellings. I think that this idea was perpetuated in the apostolic custom, that, on the day of vigils, at the Pascha, it was not alloxved to dismiss the people before midnight, since they expected the advent of Christ."
3. When they shall say. The prediction is thrown into dramatic form. Cometh upon (epistatai). See Luke xxi. 34, 36. Often in N.T. of a person coming suddenly upon another; as Luke ii. 9; xxiv. 4; Acts iv. 1; xii. 7. Travail (wdin). Birth-throe. Only here in its literal sense. Elsewhere as a strong figure of sorrow or pain. See Matt. xxiv. 8; Mark xiii. 8; Acts ii. 24. For the figure in O.T. see Isa. xiii. 6-8; xxxvii. 3; Micah iv. 9; Hos. xiii. 3; Jer. xiii. 21.
Shall not escape (ou mh ekfugwsin). A.V. misses the force of the double negative. They shall in no wise escape.
4. Overtake (katalabh). See on comprehended, John i. 5.
A thief (klepthv). Tischendorf, Weiss, and Rev. T. retain this reading. Westcott and Hort read kleptav thieves, but with klepthv in margin. The weight of textual evidence is in favor of the singular.
Children of light (uioi fwtov). More correctly, sons of light. See on Mark iii. 17, and comp. Luke xvi. 8; John xii. 36; Eph. v. 8; Colossians i. 12. The Christian condition is habitually associated in N.T. with light: see Matt. v. 14, 16; John iii. 21; viii. 12; Acts xxvi. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 9; 1 John i. 7. The contrary condition with darkness: see John iii. 19, 20; Ephesians v. 8; 1 Pet. ii. 9; Matt. iv. 16; vi. 23, etc.
Of the night - of darkness (nuktov - skotouv). The genitive marks an advance of thought from ejn skotei in darkness, ver. 4. En indicates the element in which one is. The genitive, of darkness, points to nature and origin. To belong to darkness is more than to be in darkness.
6. Others (oi loipoi). The rest, as ch. iv. 13.
Be sober (nhfwmen). Primarily in a physical sense, as opposed to excess in drink, but passing into the ethical sense of calm, collected, circumspect. Alert wakefulness and calm assurance will prevent their being surprised and confused by the Lord's coming, as by a thief in the night.
7. Be drunken (mequskomenoi). Lit. who are made drunk or get drunk. See on John ii. 10. In N.T. always of intoxication. In LXX, the Hebrews shekar strong drink is several times rendered by mequsma; Judg. xiii. 4, 7; 1 Sam. i. 11, 15.
8. Putting on (endusamenoi). The son of day clothes himself for the day's work or battle. The same association of ideas as in vv. 6, 8, is found in Rom. xiii. 12-14; Apoc. xvi. 15; 1 Pet. i. 13. Comp. LXX, Bar. v. 2.
Breastplate - helmet. Comp. Eph. vi. 14. The figures are not original with Paul. See Isa. lix. 17; Wisd. v. 18, 19. Notice that only defensive armor is mentioned, in accordance with the darkness and uncertainty of the last time; and that the fundamental elements of Christian character, faith, hope, and love, are brought forward again as in ch. i. 3; 1 Cor. xiii. 13. For the figure of the armed soldier, comp. also Rom. xiii. 12; 2 Cor. x. 4.
To obtain (eiv peripoihsin). More literally, unto the obtaining. See on Eph. i. 14. In three out of five instances in N.T. the word clearly means acquiring or obtaining. In Eph. i. 14 and 1 Pet. ii. 9, it is sometimes rendered possession (so Rev.). But in Ephesians the meaning is redemption or acquisition, or redemption which will give possession; and in 1st Peter a people for acquisition. The meaning here is that we might obtain. Comp. LXX, Mal. iii. 17.
10. Who died. Frequently the resurrection is coupled with the death of Christ by Paul, as ch. iv. 14; Philip. iii. 10; Col. ii. 12; iii. 1-4. Not so here; but the thought of resurrection is supplied in live together with him.
Wake or sleep. Whether we are alive or dead at Christ's appearing. Comp. Rom. xiv. 9. Kaqeudein in N.T. always literally of sleep, except here, and possibly Eph. v. 14. In Mark v. 39; Luke viii. 52, it is contrasted with death. In LXX in the sense of death, Psalm lxxxvii. 5; Daniel xii. 2; 2 Sam. vii. 12.
11. Comfort (parakaleite). Rev. renders exhort; but comfort suits better the general drift of the passage, and corresponds with ch. iv. 18. There is some force in Bornemann's suggestion that the two meanings may be combined. Exhort each other to be of good heart.
Edify (oikodomeite). Lit. build up. See on Acts xx. 32. The metaphorical sense habitually in Paul. See 1 Cor. viii. 1, 10; x. 23; xiv. 4; Ephesians ii. 20. In O.T. mostly in the literal sense. See however LXX, Ruth iv. 11; Psalm xxvii. 5; lxxxviii. 2; Jer. xxxi. 4.
12. Know (eidenai). See on ch. iv. 4. Recognize them for what they are, and as entitled to respect because of their office. Comp. ejpiginwskete acknowledge, 1 Cor. xvi. 18; and ejgnwsqhv takest knowledge, LXX, Psalm cxliii. 3. Ignatius, Smyrn. ix. , has ejpiskopon eijdenai to know the bishop, to appreciate and honor him.
Are over (proistamenouv). Lit. who are placed before you. See on Rom. xii. 8. Used of superintendents of households, 1 Tim. iii. 4, 5, xii. of the ruling of elders of the church, 1 Tim. v. 17. It does not indicate a particular ecclesiastical office, but is used functionally. The ecclesiastical nomenclature of the Pauline Epistles is unsettled, corresponding with the fact that the primitive church was not a homogeneous body throughout christendom. The primitive Pauline church consisted of a number of separate fraternities which were self-governing. The recognition of those who ministered to the congregations depended on the free choice of their members. See for instance 1 Cor. xvi. 15, 16. The congregation exercised discipline and gave judgment: 1 Corinthians v. 3-5; 2 Cor. ii. 6, 7; vii. 11, 12; Gal. vi. 1.
13. Esteem (hgeisqai). Primarily to lead, which is the only sense in the Gospels and Acts, except Acts xxvi. 2, in a speech of Paul. To lead the mind through a reasoning process to a conclusion, and so to think, to estimate. Only in this sense by Paul, Peter, and James. See 2 Cor. ix. 5; Philip. ii. 3; Jas. i. 2; 2 Pet. iii. 9. In both senses in Hebrews. See x. 29; xiii. 7.
Very highly in love. Const. very highly with esteem. In love qualifies both words. 31 For their work's sake (dia to ergon autwn). Their esteem for their superintendents is not to rest only on personal attachment or respect for their position, but on intelligent and sympathetic appreciation of their work. It is a good and much-needed lesson for the modern congregation no less than for the Thessalonian church.
14. Them that are unruly (touv ataktouv). N.T.o The A.V. is more vigorous and less stilted than Rev. disorderly. From aj not and tassein draw up or arrange. Those who are out of line. Comp. the adverb ajgaqov disorderly, 2 Thess. iii. 6, 11. Probably referring to the idlers and busybodies described there.
Feeble-minded (oligoyucouv). N.T.o . Better fainthearted. Oligov little and yuch soul. Those of little heart. oClass. In LXX see Prov. xiv. 29; Isa. xxv. 5; liv. 6; lvii. 15. Oligoyucia faint-heartedness, o N.T. LXX, Exod. vi. 9; Psalm liv. 8. Comp. Ps. of Sol., xvi. 11.
15. That which is good (to agaqon). Not to be limited to profitable, beneficent (as Lightfoot, Lunemann), although ajgaqov commonly includes a corresponding beneficent relation of its subject to another subject, which is emphasized here by to all men. See on Rom. v. 7. It may also include what is absolutely, morally good, as Rom. ii. 10. So Heb. xiii. 21; 1 Peter iii. 11; Rom. vii. 18.
18. Will (qelhma). In the sense of requirement. Comp. ch. iv. 3.
19. Quench not the Spirit. Since he is the inspirer of prayer, and the bestower of all gifts of grace on the Church. Comp. Eph. iv. 30. The operation of the Spirit is set forth under the image of fire in Matt. iii. 11; Luke xii. 49; Acts ii. 3, 4. The reference here is to the work of the Spirit generally, and not specially to his inspiration of prayer or prophecy.
20. Prophesyings (profhteiav). The emphasis on prophesyings corresponds with that in 1 Cor. xiv. 1-5, 22 ff. Prophecy in the apostolic church was directly inspired instruction, exhortation, or warning. The prophet received the truth into his own spirit which was withdrawn from earthly things and concentrated upon the spiritual world. His higher, spiritual part (pneuma), and his moral intelligence (nouv), and his speech (logov) worked in harmony. His spirit received a spiritual truth in symbol: his understanding interpreted it in its application to actual events, and his speech uttered the interpretation. He was not ecstatically rapt out of the sphere of human intelligence, although his understanding was intensified and clarified by the phenomenal action of the Spirit upon it. This double action imparted a peculiarly elevated character to his speech. The prophetic influence was thus distinguished from the mystical ecstasy, the ecstasy of Paul when rapt into the third heaven, which affected the subject alone and was incommunicable (2 Cor. xii. 1-4). The gift of tongues carried the subject out of the prophetic condition in which spirit, understanding, and speech operated in concert, and into a condition in which the understanding was overpowered by the communication to the spirit, so that the spirit could not find its natural expression in rational speech, or speech begotten of the understanding, and found supernatural expression in a tongue created by the Spirit. Paul attached great value to prophecy. He places prophets next after apostles in the list of those whom God has set in the Church (1 Cor. xii. 28). He associates apostles and prophets as the foundation of the Church (Eph. ii. 20). He assigns to prophecy the precedence among spiritual gifts (1 Corinthians xiv. 1-5), and urges his readers to desire the gift (1 Corinthians xiv. 1, 39). Hence his exhortation here.
21. Prove all things (panta dokimazete). A general exhortation, not confined to prophesyings; but Paul elsewhere insists that a test be applied to phenomena which claim to be supernatural. See on discerning of spirits, 1 Cor. xii. 10; xiv. 29, and comp. 2 Thess. ii. 2, and 1 John iv. 1-3. For dokimazete prove, see on 1 Pet. i. 7. In LXX, Proverbs xxvii. 21; Psalm xi. 6, dokimion is a crucible or furnace.
Hold fast that which is good (to kalon katecet). These words are associated in early Christian writers with an apocryphal saying ascribed to Jesus, and very frequently quoted, ginesqe de dokimoi trapezitai show yourselves approved money-changers. By some ancient writers the two are cited together as Paul's; by others they are distinguished, as by Origen, who cites the saying as an injunction (entolhn) of Jesus, and adds, "and also (observing) the teaching of Paul, who says, 'prove all things, hold fast the good, abstain from every form of evil.'" The saying about the money-changers is probably a genuine logion of the Lord. Some have thought that the words added by Clement of Alexandria, "rejecting some things but holding fast the good, " formed part of the Lord's saying, and that, accordingly, Paul's words here depend on an original utterance of Jesus. If this could be proved, eidov form, ver. 22, might be explained as a figure of exchangers distinguishing between genuine and false coins. 32
22. Appearance (eidouv). As commonly explained, abstain from everything that even looks like evil. But the word signifies form or kind. Comp. Luke iii. 22; John v. 37, and see nearly the same phrase in Joseph. Ant. x. 3, 1. It never has the sense of semblance. Moreover, it is impossible to abstain from everything that looks like evil.
Of evil (ponhrou). To be taken as a noun; not as an adjective agreeing with eidouv form (from every evil form). The meaning of ponhrov in N.T. cannot be limited to active evil, mischief, though it often has that sense. The same is true in LXX, where it sometimes means grudying or niggardly. See Sir. xiv. 4, 5; xxxiv. 23.
23. The very God of peace (autov o Qeov thv eirhnhv). Better, the God of peace himself. God's work is contrasted with human efforts to carry out the preceding injunctions. The phrase God of peace only in Paul and Hebrews. See Rom. xv. 33; xvi. 20; Philip. iv. 9; Heb. xiii. 20. The meaning is, God who is the source and giver of peace. Peace, in the Pauline sense, is not mere calm or tranquillity. It is always conceived as based upon reconciliation with God. God is the God of peace only to those who have ceased to be at war with him, and are at one with him. God's peace is not sentimental but moral. Hence the God of peace is the sanctifier. "Peace" is habitually used, both in the Old and New Testaments, in connection with the messianic salvation. The Messiah himself will be Peace (Micah v. 5). Peace is associated with righteousness as a messianic blessing (Psalm lxxii. 7; lxxxv. 10). Peace, founded in reconciliation with God, is the theme of the gospel (Acts x. 36). The gospel is the gospel of peace (Eph. ii. 17; vi. 15; Rom. x. 15). Christ is the giver of peace (J. xiv. 27; xvi. 33).
1. to separate from things profane and to consecrate to God;
2. to cleanse or purify as one set apart to holy uses.
Spirit, soul, body (pneuma, yuch swma). It is useless to attempt to draw from these words a technical, psychological statement of a threefold division of the human personality. If Paul recognized any such technical division, it was more probably twofold; the body or material part, and the immaterial part with its higher and lower sides - pneuma and yuch. See on Rom. vi. 6; vii. 5, 23; viii. 4; xi. 3 and footnote.
Be preserved entire (oloklhron - thrhqeih). This is the rendering of Rev. and is correct. A.V. joins oJloklhron with pneuma, and renders your whole spirit. Oloklhron is predic ative, not attributive. It does not mean whole, but is derived from olov whole and klhrov allotment, and signifies having the entire allotment; complete in all parts. It occurs only here and Jas. i. 4, where it is associated with teleioi perfect. It appears in LXX, as Lev. xxiii. 15; Deut. xvi. 9; xxvii. 6. Joseph. Ant. iii. 12, 2, uses it of an unblemished victim for sacrifice. As distinguished from oJloteleiv wholly, ver. 23, it is qualitative, while oJloteleiv is quantitative. The kindred oJloklhria perfect soundness, only in Acts iii. 16. For preserved see on 1 Pet. i. 4.
27. I charge (enorkizw). N.T.o . Rev. stronger and more literal, I adjure. Class. This strong appeal may perhaps be explained by a suspicion on Paul's part that a wrong use might be made of his name and authority (see 2 Thess. ii. 2), so that it was important that his views should be made known to all. Lightfoot refers to 2 Thess. iii. 17, as showing a similar feeling in his anxiety to authenticate his letter.