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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 TIMOTHY 2

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    2:1 {Be strengthened} (endunamou). Present passive imperative of endunamow. See already #1Ti 1:12; Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10. "Keep on being empowered,"keep in touch with the power." {In the grace that is in Christ Jesus} (en ti cariti ti en Christ"i iesou). Where the power is located. Christ is the dynamo for power only when and while we keep in touch with him.

    2:2 {From me} (par' emou). As in #1:13. Paul was Timothy's chief teacher of Christ. {Among many witnesses} (dia pollwn marturwn). Plutarch has dia in this sense and Field (_Ot. Norv._) suggests that it is a legal phrase "supported by many witnesses." Not mere spectators, but testifiers. See Paul's use of dia #1Th 4:2; 2Co 2:4; Ro 2:27; 14:20. Paul in #1Co 15:1-8 gives many witnesses of the resurrection of Christ. {Commit thou} (paraqou). Second aorist middle imperative of paratiqemi (#1Ti 1:18) to deposit, same metaphor as paraqeke in #1:12,14. "Deposit thou." {Faithful} (pistois). "Trustworthy," "reliable," as in #1Ti 1:12 of Paul himself. {Able} (hikanoi). Capable, qualified, as in #1Co 15:9; 2Co 2:16; 3:5. {Others also} (kai heterous). Not necessarily "different," but "others in addition." this is the way to pass on the torch of the light of the knowledge of God in Christ. Paul taught Timothy who will teach others who will teach still others, an endless chain of teacher-training and gospel propaganda.

    2:3 {Suffer hardship with me} (sunkakopaqeson). See #1:8 for this verb. The old preacher challenges the young one to share hardship with him for Christ. {As a good soldier} (hos kalos stratiwtes). Paul does not hesitate to use this military metaphor ( this word only here for a servant of Christ) with which he is so familiar. He had already used the metaphor in #1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3f.; 1Ti 1:18. In #Php 2:25 he called Epaphroditus "my fellow-soldier" (sunstratiwten mou) as he did Archippus in #Phm 1:2.

    2:4 {No soldier on service} (oudeis strateuomenos). "No one serving as a soldier." See #1Co 9:7 for this old verb and #2Co 10:3; 1Ti 1:18 for the metaphorical use. {Entangleth himself} (empleketai). Old compound, to inweave (see #Mt 27:29 for plekw), in N.T. only here and #2Pe 2:20. Present middle (direct) indicative. {In the affairs} (tais pragmateiais). Old word (from pragmateuomai, #Lu 19:13), business, occupation, only here in N.T. {Of this life} (tou biou). No " this " in the Greek, "of life" (course of life as in #1Ti 2:2, not existence z"). {Him who enrolled him as a soldier} (twi stratologesanti). Dative case after aresei (first aorist active subjunctive of areskw, to please, #1Th 2:4, purpose clause with hina) of the articular first aorist active participle of stratologew, literary _Koin_ word (stratologos, from stratos and legw), only here in N.T.

    2:5 {If also a man contend in the games} (ean de kai aqlei tis). Condition of third class with present (linear) active subjunctive of aqlew, old and common verb (from aqlos, a contest), only this verse in N.T., but sunaqlew in #Php 1:27. Note sharp distinction between aqlei (present subjunctive, engage in a contest in general) and aqlesei (first aorist active subjunctive, engage in a particular contest). Not "except he have contended," but simply "unless he contend" (in any given case) "lawfully" (nomimws). Old adverb, agreeably to the law, in N.T. only here and #1Ti 1:8. {Is not crowned} (ou stefanoutai). Present passive indicative of stefanow, old verb (from stefanos, crown), in N.T. only here and #Heb 2:7,9. One apodosis for two protases. The victor in the athletic contests was crowned with a garland.

    2:6 {The husbandman that laboreth} (ton kopiwnta gewrgon). "The toiling tiller of the soil" (gewrgon, from g and ergw, worker of the earth). See gewrgion (field) in #1Co 3:9 and also #1Co 9:7. {First} (prwton). As is natural and right. {To partake} (metalambanein). Old word as in #Ac 2:46 to share in. Paul elsewhere uses metecw as in #1Co 9:12.

    2:7 {Consider} (noei). Present active imperative of noew, old verb, to put your mind (nous) on. See #Eph 3:4 and like command in #1Co 10:15. {Understanding} (sunesin). "Comprehension" (from suniemi, to send together, to grasp). See #Col 1:9; 2:2. this is a blessed promise that calls for application.

    2:8 {Risen from the dead} (egegermenon ek nekrwn). Perfect passive participle of egeirw, still risen as the perfect tense shows in #1Co 15:4,12-20. Predicate accusative. "Remember Jesus Christ as risen from the dead." this is the cardinal fact about Christ that proves his claim to be the Messiah, the Son of God. Christ is central for Paul here as in #Php 2:5-11. {Of the seed of David} (ek spermatos daueid). The humanity of Christ as in #Ro 1:3; Php 2:7f. {According to my gospel} (kata to euaggelion mou). Paul's very phrase in #Ro 2:16; 16:25. Not a written gospel, but my message. See also #1Co 15:1; 2Co 11:7; Ga 1:11; 2:2; 1Ti 1:11.

    2:9 {Wherein} (en hwi). In my gospel. {I suffer hardship} (kakopaqw). "I suffer evil." Old compound (kakon, pascw), elsewhere in N.T., #4:5; Jas 5:13. {Unto bonds} (mecri desmwn). "Up to bonds." A common experience with Paul (#2Co 11:23; Php 1:7,13,14; Col 4:18). {As a malefactor} (hws kakourgos), old compound (kakon, ergw, doer of evil), in N.T. only here and #Lu 23:32ff. (of the robbers). One of the charges made against Paul. {Is not bound} (ou dedetai). Perfect passive indicative of dew, to bind. Old verb. See #1Co 7:27,39; Ro 7:2. I am bound with a chain, but no fetters are on the word of God (Pauline phrase; #1Th 2:13; 1Co 14:36; 2Co 2:17; Php 1:14; Tit 2:5).

    2:10 {For the elect's sake} (dia tous eklektous). "Because of the elect." God's elect (#Ro 8:33; Col 3:12; Tit 1:1) for whom Paul suffered so much (#Col 1:6; 12:15; Php 2:17; Eph 3:1,13). {That they also may obtain} (hina kai autoi tucwsin). Purpose clause with second aorist (effective) active subjunctive of tugcanw with genitive. "They as well as I," Paul means. {The salvation} (tes swterias). The final salvation "with eternal glory" (meta doxes aiwniou). this phrase only here and #1Pe 5:10, but in #2Co 4:17 we have "eternal weight of glory."

    2:11 {Faithful is the saying} (pistos ho logos). The saying which follows here though it can refer to the preceding as in #1Ti 4:9. See #1Ti 1:15. It is possible that from here to the end of #13 we have the fragment of an early hymn. There are four conditions in these verses (#11-13), all of the first class, assumed to be true. Parallels to the ideas here expressed are found in #2Th 1:5; 1Co 4:8; 2Co 7:3; Ro 6:3-8; Col 3:1-4. Note the compounds with sun (sunapeqanomen, {we died with}, from sunapoqnesko as in #2Co 7:3; sunzesomen, {we shall live with}, from sunzaw as in #2Co 7:3; sumbasileusomen, {we shall reign with}, from sumbasileuw as in #1Co 4:8). For hupomenomen (we endure) see #1Co 13:7 and for apistoumen (we are faithless) see #Ro 3:3. The verb arneomai, to deny (arnesomeqa, we shall deny, arnesetai, he will deny, arnesasqai, deny, first aorist middle infinitive) is an old word, common in the Gospels in the sayings of Jesus (#Mt 10:33; Lu 12:9), used of Peter (#Mr 14:70), and is common in the Pastorals (#1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 3:5). Here in verse #13 it has the notion of proving false to oneself, a thing that Christ "cannot" (ou dunatai) do.

    2:14 {That they strive not about words} (me logomacein). Word apparently coined by Paul from logomacia (#1Ti 6:4 which see), a back formation in that case. A mere war of words displeases Paul. (#Tit 3:9). {Useful} (cresimon). Late and rare word from craomai, here only in N.T. {To the subverting} (epi katastrofei). Old word (from katastrefw, to turn down or over), here only in N.T. (except #2Pe 2:6 in some MSS., not in Westcott and Hort)." Because of the overthrow" (result epi, not aim), useless for this reason. Such war of words merely upsets the hearers.

    2:15 {Give diligence} (spoudason). First aorist active imperative of spoudazw, old word, as in #1Th 2:17; Ga 2:10. {To present} (parastesai). First aorist active infinitive of paristemi as in #Col 1:22,28. {Approved unto God} (dokimon twi qewi). Dative case qewi with dokimon, predicate accusative, old adjective (from decomai), for which see #1Co 11:19; 2Co 10:18. {A workman} (ergaten). See #2Co 11:3; Php 3:2. {That needeth not to be ashamed} (anepaiscunton). Late double compound verbal adjective (a privative, epaischun"), in Josephus and here alone. {Handling aright} (orqotomounta). Present active participle of orqotomew, late and rare compound (orqotomos), cutting straight, orqos and temnw), here only in N.T. It occurs in #Pr 3:6; 11:5 for making straight paths (hodous) with which compare #Heb 12:13 and "the Way" in #Ac 9:2. Theodoret explains it to mean ploughing a straight furrow. Parry argues that the metaphor is the stone mason cutting the stones straight since temnw and orqos are so used. Since Paul was a tent-maker and knew how to cut straight the rough camel-hair cloth, why not let that be the metaphor? Certainly plenty of exegesis is crooked enough (crazy-quilt patterns) to call for careful cutting to set it straight.

    2:16 {Shun} (periistaso). See #Tit 3:9. {Babblings} (kenofwnias). See #1Ti 6:20. {Will proceed} (prokoyousin). Future active of prokoptw, "will cut forward." See #Ga 1:14; Ro 13:12. {Further in ungodliness} (epi pleion asebeias). "To more of ungodliness." See #Ro 1:18; 1Ti 2:2.

    2:17 {Will eat} (nomen hexei). "Will have (future active of ecw) pasturage or increase" (nome, old word from nemw, to pasture, in N.T. only here and #Joh 10:9). {As doth gangrene} (hws gaggraina). Late word (medical writers and Plutarch), only here in N.T. From graw or grain", to gnaw, to eat, an eating, spreading disease. Hymenaeus is probably the one mentioned in #1Ti 1:20. Nothing is known of Philetus.

    2:18 {Men who} (hoitines). "The very ones who." {Have erred} (estocesan). "Missed the mark." First aorist active indicative of astocew, for which see #1Ti 1:6; 6:21. {That the resurrection is past already} (anastasin ede gegonenai). Second perfect active infinitive of ginomai in indirect assertion after legontes (saying) with the accusative of general reference (anastasin). {Overthrow} (anatrepousin). See #Tit 1:11.

    2:19 {However} (mentoi). Strong adversative, "however." {Firm} (stereos). Old adjective, solid, compact, in N.T. only here, #1Pe 5:9; Heb 5:12,14. See sterewma in #Col 2:5. For qemelios see #1Co 3:11; Rom 15:20; 1Ti 6:19. Cf. hedraiwma in #1Ti 3:15. {Seal} (sfragis). See #1Co 9:2; Ro 4:11. {Knoweth} (egnw). Timeless aorist active indicative of ginwskw. Quotation from #Nu 16:5. {Let every one depart} (apostetw pas). Paraphrase of #Nu 16:27; Isa 26:13; 52:11; Jer 20:9. Second aorist active imperative of afistemi (intransitive use), "Let every one stand off from." Probably another echo of the rebellion of Korah.

    2:20 {In a great house} (en megalei oikiai). Metaphor of a palace. He doubtless has the Kingdom of God in mind, but he works out the metaphor of a great house of the rich and mighty. {Vessels} (skeue). Old word skeuos. See #Ro 9:21 for the same double use as here. {Of gold} (crusa). Old contracted adjective cruseos, only here by Paul. {Of silver} (argura). Old contracted adjective argureos, in N.T. here, #Ac 19:24; Re 9:20. {Of wood} (xulina). Old adjective, in N.T. only here and #Re 9:20. {Of earth} (ostrakina). Late adjective, from ostrakon, baked clay, in LXX, in N.T. only here and #2Co 4:7.

    2:21 {If a man purge himself} (ean tis ekkaqarei). Paul drops the metaphor of the house and takes up the individual as one of the "vessels." Condition of third class with first aorist active subjunctive of ekkaqairw, old verb, to cleanse out, in LXX, in N.T. only here and #1Co 5:7. {From these} (apo toutwn). From the vessels for dishonor of verse #20. {Sanctified} (hegiasmenon). Perfect passive participle of hagiazw, for which verb see #1Co 6:11. {Meet for the master's use} (eucreston twi despotwi). Dative case despotei (for which word see #1Ti 6:1) with eucreston, neuter singular like hegiasmenon agreeing with skeuos. Old verbal adjective (eu and craomai, to use well), useful or usable for the master. In N.T. only here and #4:11. See acreston in #Phm 11. {Prepared} (hetoimasmenon). Perfect passive participle of hetoimazw, in a state of readiness, old and common word, elsewhere by Paul only #1Co 2:9 (LXX).

    2:22 {Youthful} (newterikas). Literary _Koin_ word (Polybius, Josephus), only here in N.T. There are lusts peculiar to flaming youth. {Flee} (feuge). Present active imperative of feugw, old and common verb. In this sense see #1Co 6:18. {Follow after} (diwke). Present active imperative of diwkw as if in a chase for which sense see #1Th 5:15. Steady pursuit of these virtues like those in #Ga 5:22. {Call on the Lord} (epikaloumenon ton kurion). See #1Co 1:2; Ro 10:12-14.

    2:23 {Ignorant} (apaideutous). Old verbal, here only in N.T. (a privative and paideuw). Untrained, uneducated, "speculations of a half-educated mind" (Parry). {Refuse} (paraitou). See #1Ti 4:7. {They gender strifes} (gennwsin macas). Present active indicative of old and common verb gennaw (#Ro 9:11). "They beget battles." See #2:14.

    2:24 {Must not strive} (ou dei macesqai). Rather, "it is not necessary for him to fight" (in such verbal quibbles). The negative ou goes with dei, not with the infinitive macesqai. {Gentle} (epion). Old word (from epos, speech), affable, mild, in N.T. only here (and #1Th 2:7 in some MSS.; W. H. have nepios). {Teachable} (didaktikon). See #1Ti 3:2. {Forbearing} (anexikakon). Late compound (from future of anecw, anexw, and kakon, putting up with evil). Here only in N.T.

    2:25 {Correcting} (paideuonta). See #Tit 2:12. "Schooling" (Parry). {Oppose themselves} (antidiatiqemenous). Present middle (direct) participle of antidiatiqemi, late double compound (Diodorus, Philo) to place oneself in opposition, here only in N.T. {If peradventure God may give} (me pote dwie ho qeos). Here Westcott and Hort read the late form of the second aorist active optative of didwmi for the usual doie as they do in #1:18. But there it is a wish for the future and so regular, while here the optative with me pote in a sort of indirect question is used with a primary tense dei (present) and parallel with an undoubted subjunctive ananeywsin, while in #Lu 3:15 me pote eie is with a secondary tense. Examples of such an optative do occur in the papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 989) so that we cannot go as far as Moulton does and say that we "must" read the subjunctive dwei here (_Prolegomena_, pp. 55, 193). {Repentance} (metanoian). "Change of mind" (#2Co 7:10; Ro 2:4). {Unto the knowledge of the truth} (eis epignwsin aleqeias). Paul's word "full knowledge" (#Co 1:9).

    2:26 {They may recover themselves} (ananeywsin). First aorist active subjunctive of ananefw, late and rare word, to be sober again, only here in N.T., though nefw is in #1Th 5:6. {Out of the snare of the devil} (ek tes tou diabolou pagidos). They have been caught while mentally intoxicated in the devil's snare (#1Ti 3:7). See #Ro 11:9 for pagis. {Taken captive} (ezwgremenoi). Perfect passive participle of zwgrew, old verb, to take alive (zwos, agrew), in N.T. only here and #Lu 5:10 (of Peter). "Taken captive alive." {By him unto his will} (hup' autou eis to ekeinou qelema). this difficult phrase is understood variously. One way is to take both autou and ekeinou, to refer to the devil. Another way is to take both of them to refer to God. Another way is to take autou of the devil and ekeinou, of God. this is probably best, "taken captive by the devil"that they may come back to soberness to do the will of God." There are difficulties in either view.

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