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    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 TIMOTHY 1

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    1:1 {According to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus} (kat' epaggelian zwes tłs en Christ"i iesou). "With a view to the fulfilment of the promise." See #Tit 1:1 for this same use of kata. For kat' epaggelian see #Ga 3:29. See #1Ti 4:8 for the phrase "promise of life." Here or there "life that in Christ Jesus" includes the present as well as the future.

    1:2 {Beloved} (agapetoi). Instead of gnesiwi (genuine) in #1Ti 1:2. He had already called Timothy agapeton (verbal adjective of agapaw) in #1Co 4:17, an incidental and strong proof that it is Paul who is writing here. this argument applies to each of the Pastorals for Paul is known by other sources (Acts and previous Pauline Epistles) to sustain precisely the affectionate relation toward Timothy and Titus shown in the Pastorals.

    1:3 {I thank} (carin ecw). "I have gratitude." As in #1Ti 1:12. Robinson cites examples of this phrase from the papyri. It occurs also in #Lu 17:9; Ac 2:47. caris in doxologies Paul uses (#1Co 15:57; 2:14; 8:16; 9:15; Ro 6:17; 7:25). His usual idiom is eucaristw (#1Co 1:4; Ro 1:8; Phm 1:4; Php 1:3) or eucaristoumen (#1Th 1:2; Col 1:3) or ou pauomai eucaristwn (#Eph 1:16) or eucaristein ofeilomen (#2Th 1:3). {Whom I serve from my forefathers} (hwi latreuw apo progonwn). The relative hwi is the dative case with latreuw (see #Ro 1:9 for this verb), progressive present (I have been serving). For progonwn (forefathers) see #1Ti 5:4. Paul claims a pious ancestry as in #Ac 24:14; Ac 26:5; Ga 2:14; Php 3:4-7. {In a pure conscience} (en kaqarai suneidesei). See #1Ti 1:5; Ac 23:1. {Unceasing} (adialeipton). Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and #Ro 9:2 which see. The adverb adialeiptws is more frequent (in the papyri, literary _Koiné_, #1Th 1:2; Ro 1:9). The adjective here is the predicate accusative, "how I hold the memory concerning thee unceasing." The use of adialeiptws (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri, #1Th 1:2; 2:13; 5:17; Ro 1:9). {Remembrance} (mneian). Old word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, #1Th 1:2; Ro 1:9; Php 1:3).

    1:4 {Night and day} (nuktos kai hemeras). Genitive of time, "by night and by day." As in #1Th 2:9; 3:10. {Longing} (epipoqwn). Present active participle of epipoqew, old word, eight times in Paul (#1Th 3:6; Php 1:8, etc.). {Remembering thy tears} (memnemenos sou twn dakruwn). Perfect middle participle of mimneskw, old and common verb with the genitive, only here in the Pastorals and elsewhere by Paul only in #1Co 11:2. Probably an allusion to the scene at Miletus (#Ac 20:37). Cf. #Ac 20:19. {That I may be filled with joy} (hina caras plerwqw). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of plerow (with genitive case caras), a verb common with Paul (#Ro 8:4; 13:8).

    1:5 {Having been reminded} (hupomnesin labwn). "Having received (second aorist active participle of lambanw) a reminder" (old word from hupomimneskw, to remind, in N.T. only here and #1Pe 1:13). For the idiom see #Ro 7:8,11. A reminder by another while anamnesis remembrance (#1Co 11:24f.) is rather a recalling by oneself (Vincent). {Of the unfeigned faith} (tes anupokritou pistews). Late compound for which see #2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9. {Dwelt} (enwikesen). First aorist active indicative of enoikew, old verb, in N.T. only in Paul (#Ro 8:11; Col 3:16). {First} (prwton). Adverb, not adjective (prwte). {In thy grandmother Lois} (en tei mammei lwidi). Old word, originally the infantile word for meter (mother), qen extended by writers to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri. Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy's mother, since Timothy's father was a Greek (#Ac 16:1). Probably both grandmother and mother became Christians. {I am persuaded} (pepeismai). Perfect passive indicative of peiqw, "I stand persuaded." In the Pastorals only here and verse #12, common in Paul's other writings (#Ro 8:38, etc.).

    1:6 {For the which cause} (di' hen aitian). "For which cause," stronger than dio. So in verse #12; Tit 1:13. Only example of aitia by Paul save in #Ac 28:20. {I put thee in remembrance} (anamimneskw). Old compound to remind (#1Co 4:17; 2Co 7:15). {That thou stir up} (se anazwpurein). Present active infinitive of anazwpurew, old double compound (ana and zwpuron, live coal, zwos and pur, qen the bellows for kindling), to rekindle, to stir into flame, to keep blazing (continuous action, present time), only here in N.T. See #1Th 5:19 for the figure of fire concerning the Holy Spirit. See anaptw in #Lu 12:49. {The gift of God} (to carisma tou qeou). See #1Ti 4:14. Here Paul says mou (my), there he mentions the presbytery. Paul felt a deep personal interest in Timothy. See #1Co 7:7; Ro 6:23; 11:29 for the gift of God.

    1:7 {A spirit of fearfulness} (pneuma deilias). Here pneuma is the carisma of verse #6, the human spirit as endowed by the Holy Spirit (#Ro 8:15). deilia is an old word (deilos, deidw) and always in a bad sense of cowardice, only here in N.T. {Of power} (dunamews). One of Paul's characteristic words (#Ro 1:16). {Of love} (agapes). One of the gifts of the Spirit (#Ga 5:22). "Which drives out fear" (Lock) as in #1Jo 4:18. {Of discipline} (swfronismou). Late _Koiné_ word (from swfronizw, to control), self-control, here only in N.T. See #1Ti 2:9 for swfrosune.

    1:8 {Be not ashamed of} (me epaiscunqeis). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive (in prohibition) of epaiscunomai, old word, to be ashamed. Again in verse #16 without augment (epaiscunqen), transitive use of the passive voice as often in the _Koiné_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 818). See #Ro 1:16; 6:21. "Do not become ashamed" (as he had not). {The testimony of our Lord} (to marturion tou kuriou). For the old word marturion see #1Co 1:6; 2:1. Paul probably has in mind the saying of Jesus preserved in #Mr 8:38 (#Lu 9:26). See also #2:12. {His prisoner} (ton desmion autou). As in #Php 1:12; Phm 1:1,9; Eph 3:1; 4:1 (the first Roman captivity). Paul is in his last captivity and refers to it again in verse #16; 2:9. {Suffer hardship with} (sunkakopaqeson). First aorist active imperative of the double compound sunkakopaqew, first known use and in N.T. only here and #2:3 (in eccles. writers). But kakopaqew, to suffer evil, is old verb (#2:9; 4:5). Paul is fond of compounds of sun. Paul challenges Timothy by this verb which he apparently coins for the purpose to a joint (sun) suffering with the Lord Jesus and Paul "for the gospel" (twi euaggeliwi, dative case rather than associative instrumental "with"). {According to the power of God} (kata dunamin qeou). Given by God (#2Co 6:7).

    1:9 {Called us with a holy calling} (kalesantos klesei hagiai). Probably dative, "to a holy calling." klesis here apparently not the invitation, but the consecrated service, "the upward calling" (#Php 3:14). See #1Co 7:20; Eph 4:1,4 for the use of kalew with klesis. Paul often uses kalew of God's calling men (#1Th 2:12; 1Co 1:9; Ga 1:6; Ro 8:20; 9:11). {Purpose} (proqesin). See #Ro 9:11; Eph 1:11 for proqesin. {Which was given} (ten doqeisan). First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with caris (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (#1Co 3:10; Ro 12:3,6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles. {Before times eternal} (pro cronwn aiwniwn). See #Tit 1:2.

    1:10 {But hath now been manifested} (fanerwqeisan de nun). First aorist passive participle of fanerow agreeing with carin. See #Tit 1:3; Col 1:26; 3:4 for fanerow and the contrast made. {By the appearing} (dia tes epifaneias). Only here of the Incarnation (except the verb, #Tit 2:11; 3:4), but for the second coming see #Tit 2:13. {Who abolished death} (katargesantos men ton qanaton). First aorist active participle of katargew, the very phrase in #1Co 15:26; Heb 2:14. {Brought to light} (fwtisantos de). First aorist active participle of fwtizw, literary _Koiné_ word for which see #1Co 4:5; Eph 1:18, to turn the light on. {Life and incorruption} (zwen kai afqarsian). The opposite of qanatos, "life and immortality" (unchangeable life).

    1:11 {For which} (eis ho). For the gospel. See #1Ti 2:7 for this verse.

    1:12 {These things} (tauta). His imprisonment in Rome. {Yet I am not ashamed} (all' ouk epaiscunomai). Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in verse #8. {Him whom I have believed} (hwi pepisteuka). Dative case of the relative (hwi) with the perfect active of pisteuw, the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted. {I am persuaded} (pepeismai). See verse #5. {To guard} (fulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of fulassw, the very word used in #1Ti 6:20 with paraqeken as here, to guard against robbery or any loss. {That which I have committed unto him} (ten paraqeken mou). Literally, "my deposit," as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (#Mt 6:19f.). See this word also in verse #14. Some MSS. have the more common parakataqeke (a sort of double deposit, para, beside, down, kata). {Against that day} (eis ekeinen ten hemeran). The day of Christ's second coming. See also #1:18; 4:8; 2Th 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (#1Th 5:2; 2Th 2:2; 1Co 1:8; 2Co 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (#Php 1:6,10; 2:16), the day (#1Th 5:4; 1Co 3:13; Ro 13:12), the day of redemption (#Eph 4:20), the day of judgment (#Ro 2:5,16).

    1:13 {The pattern of sound words} (hupotupwsin hugiainontwn logwn). See #1Ti 1:16 for hupotupwsin and #1Ti 1:10 for hugiainw. {Which} (hwn). Genitive plural with ekousas (didst hear) or attracted to case of logwn (akouw is used either with the accusative or the genitive).

    1:14 {That good thing which was committed unto thee} (ten kalen paraqeken). Simply, "the good deposit." {Guard} (fulaxon). As in #1Ti 6:20. God has also made an investment in Timothy (cf. verse #12). Timothy must not let that fail. {Which dwelleth in us} (tou enoikountos en hemin). It is only through the Holy Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God's deposit with us.

    1:15 {Are turned away from me} (apestrafesan me). Second aorist passive (still transitive here with me) of apostrefw, for which verb see #Tit 1:14. For the accusative with these passive deponents see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 484. It is not known to what incident Paul refers, whether the refusal of the Christians in the Roman province of Asia to help Paul on his arrest (or in response to an appeal from Rome) or whether the Asian Christians in Rome deserted Paul in the first stage of the trial (#4:16). Two of these Asian deserters are mentioned by name, perhaps for reasons known to Timothy. Nothing else is known of Phygelus and Hermogenes except this shameful item.

    1:16 {Grant mercy} (dwie eleos). The phrase nowhere else in the N.T. Second aorist active optative of didwmi, the usual form being doie. this is the usual construction in a wish about the future. {Unto the house of Onesiphorus} (twi onesiforou oikwi). The same phrase in #4:19. Apparently Onesiphorus is now dead as is implied by the wish in #1:18. {For he oft refreshed me} (hoti pollakis me aneyuxen). First aorist active indicative of anayucw, old verb, to cool again, in LXX and _Koiné_ often, here only in N.T., but anayuxis in #Ac 3:20. In the first imprisonment or the second. If he lost his life for coming to see Paul, it was probably recently during this imprisonment. {Was not ashamed of my chain} (halusin mou ouk epaiscunqe). Passive deponent again (first aorist indicative) with accusative as in #1:8. For halusin (chain) see #Eph 6:20. Note absence of augment in epaiscunqe.

    1:17 {When he was in Rome} (genomenos en romei). Second aorist middle participle of ginomai (coming to Rome, happening in Rome). {He sought me diligently and found me} (spoudaiws ezetesen me kai heuren). Effective aorists both of them (first of zetew, second of heuriskw). He did it at the risk of his own life apparently.

    1:18 {Grant to him to and mercy} (dwie autwi heurein eleos). Second aorist active optative in wish for the future again as in verse #16. Find mercy from the Lord (Jesus) as he found me. {Thou knowest very well} (beltion su ginwskeis). Literally, "thou knowest better (than I)," for he did those things in Ephesus where thou art. Only N.T. example of beltion, in D text of #Ac 10:28.

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