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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 6

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    6:1 {Under the yoke} (hupo zugon). As slaves (douloi, bondsmen). Perhaps under heathen masters (#1Pe 2:18). For the slave problem, see also #Phm 1; Col 3:22; Eph 6:5; Tit 2:9. See #Mt 11:29 for Christ's "yoke" (zugon, from zeugnumi, to join). {Their own masters} (tous idious despotas). That is always where the shoe pinches. Our "despot" is this very Greek word, the strict correlative of slave (doulos), while kurios has a wider outlook. Old word only here, #Tit 2:9; 2Ti 2:21; 1Pe 2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in #Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29 and to Christ in #2Pe 2:1. {The name of God} (to onoma tou qeou). See #Ro 2:24. If the heathen could say that Christian slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative purpose with hina me and present passive subjunctive (blasfemetai).

    6:2 {Let not despise them} (me katafroneitwsan). Negative imperative active third plural of katafronew, to think down on. See #4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian brotherhood not allowed by the state's laws. Some of these Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master's position, see #1Co 7:22; Phm 1:16. {But rather} (alla mallon). Render the Christian Master better service. {They that partake of the benefit} (hoi tes energesias antilambanomenoi). For euergesias (genitive case after participle) see #Ac 4:9, only other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of antilambanw, old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in N.T. only here, #Lu 1:54; Ac 20:35.

    6:3 {Teacheth a different doctrine} (heterodidaskalei). See #1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition of first class. {Consenteth not} (me prosercetai). Also condition of first class with me instead of ou. prosercomai (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative) is common enough in N.T. (#Heb 4:16; 7:25, etc.), but in the metaphorical sense of coming to one's ideas, assenting to, here only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott). {Sound words} (hugiainousin logois). See #1:10 for hugiainw. {The words of our Lord Jesus Christ} (tois tou kuriou hemwn iesou cristou). Either subjective genitive (the words from the Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock's opinion like #5:18; Ac 20:35, at least in the Spirit of Jesus as #Ac 16:7; 1Co 11:23) or objective genitive about Jesus like #2Ti 1:8; 1Co 1:18. {According to godliness} (kata eusebeian). Promoting (designed for) godliness as in #Tit 1:1.

    6:4 {He is puffed up} (tetufwtai). Perfect passive indicative of tufow, for which see #3:6. {Knowing nothing} (meden epistamenos). Present middle participle of epistamai. Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit. {Doting} (noswn). Present active participle of nosew, to be sick, to be morbid over, old word, only here in N.T. {Disputes of words} (logomacias). Our "logomachy." From logomacew (#2Ti 2:14), and that from logos and macomai, to fight over words, late and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (_Tim_. 1085 F) for "wars in words" (macas en logois). {Whereof} (ex hwn). "From which things." {Surmisings} (huponoiai). Old word from huponoew, to surmise, to suspect (#Ac 25:18), only here in N.T. All these words are akin (envy, fqonos, strife, eris, railings or slanders, blasphˆmiai), all products of an ignorant and conceited mind.

    6:5 {Wranglings} (diaparatribai). Late and rare (Clem. of Alex.) double compound (dia, mutual or thorough, paratribai, irritations or rubbings alongside). "Mutual irritations" (Field). {Corrupted in mind} (diefqarmenwn ton noun). Perfect passive participle of diafqeirw, to corrupt, genitive case agreeing with anqrwpwn (of men) and retaining the accusative ton noun. {Bereft of the truth} (apesteremenwn tes aleqeias). Perfect passive participle of aposterew, old verb (#1Co 6:8) with the ablative case after it (aleqeias). {A way of gain} (porismon). Late word from porizw, to provide, to gain. Only here in N.T. "Rich Christians." Predicate accusative with einai (indirect assertion) in apposition with eusebeian, the accusative of general reference.

    6:6 {With contentment} (meta autarkeias). Old word from autarkes (autos, arkew) as in #Php 4:11. In N.T. only here and #2Co 9:8. this attitude of mind is Paul's conception of "great gain."

    6:7 {Brought into} (eisenegkamen, second aorist active stem with first aorist ending, common in the _Koin‚_), {carry out} (exenegkein, second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the prepositions eis- and ex-.

    6:8 {Food} (diatrofas). Plural, supports or nourishments (from diatrefw, to support). Old word, here only in N.T. {Covering} (skepasmata). Plural, "coverings." Late word from skepazw, to cover. Here only in N.T. {We shall be content} (arkesqesomeqa). First future passive of arkew, to be content. Old word. See #2Co 12:9. this is the autarkeia of verse #6. {There with} (toutois). Associative instrumental case, "with these."

    6:9 {Desire to be rich} (boulomenoi ploutein). The will (boulomai) to be rich at any cost and in haste (#Pr 28:20). Some MSS. have "trust in riches" in #Mr 10:24. Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind. {Fall into} (empiptousin eis). See on ¯3:6 for en -- eis and ¯3:7 for pagida (snare). {Foolish} (anoetous). See #Ga 3:1,3. {Hurtful} (blaberas). Old adjective from blaptw, to injure, here alone in N.T. {Drown} (buqizousin). Late word (literary _Koin‚_) from buqos (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and #Lu 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue "in destruction and perdition" (eis oleqron kai apwleian). Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for oleqros, see #1Th 5:3; 2Th 1:9; 1Co 5:5 and for apwleia, see #2Th 2:3; Php 3:19.

    6:10 {The love of money} (he filarguria). Vulgate, _avaritia_. Common word (from filarguros, #2Ti 3:12, and that from filos, arguros), only here in N.T. Refers to verse #9 (boulomenoi ploutein). {A root of all kinds of evil} (riza pantwn twn kakwn). A root (riza). Old word, common in literal (#Mt 3:10) and metaphorical sense (#Ro 11:11-18). Field (_Ot. Norv_.) argues for "the root" as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus (ten filargurian einai metropolin pantwn twn kakwn), where "metropolis" takes the place of "root." Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money. {Reaching after} (oregomenoi). Present middle participle of oregw (see #3:1) with genitive hˆs (which). {Have been led astray} (apeplaneqesan). First aorist passive indicative of apoplanaw, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and #Mr 13:22. {Have pierced themselves through} (heautous periepeiran). First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound peripeirw, only here in N.T. Perfective use of peri (around, completely to pierce). {With many sorrows} (odunais pollais). Instrumental case of odune (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and #Ro 9:2.

    6:11 {O man of God} (w anqrwpe qeou). In N.T. only here and #2Ti 3:17, there general and here personal appeal to Timothy. Cf. #De 33:1; 1Sa 2:27. {Flee} (feuge), {follow after} (diwke). Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher can not afford to parley with such temptations. {Meekness} (praupaqian). Late compound from praupaqes, in Philo about Abraham, here only in N.T.

    6:12 {Fight the good fight} (agwnizou ton kalon agwna). Cognate accusative with present middle imperative of agwnizw, Pauline word (#1Co 9:25; Col 1:29). {Lay hold on} (epilabou). Second (ingressive) aorist middle imperative of epilambanw, "get a grip on." See same verb with genitive also in verse #19. {Thou wast called} (ekleqes). First aorist passive of kalew as in #1Co 1:9; Col 3:15. {The good confession} (ten kalen homologian). Cognate accusative with hwmologesas (first aorist active indicative of homologew, the public confession in baptism which many witnessed. See it also in verse #13 of Jesus.

    6:13 {Who quickeneth all things} (tou zwogonountos ta panta). Present active participle of zwogonew (zwogonos, from zwos, genw), late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T. only here and #Ac 7:19. See #1Sa 2:6. {Before Pontius Pilate} (epi pontiou peilatou). Not "in the time of," but "in the presence of." {Witnessed} (marturesantos). Note marturew, not homologew as in verse #12. Christ gave his evidence as a witness to the Kingdom of God. Evidently Paul knew some of the facts that appear in #Joh 18.

    6:14 {That thou keep} (teresai se). First aorist active infinitive of terew, with accusative of general reference (se) in indirect command after paraggellw. {Without spot} (aspilon). Late adjective (a privative, spilos, spot, #Eph 5:27). In inscription and papyri. {Without reproach} (anepilempton). See #3:2; 5:7. {Until the appearing} (mecri tes epifaneias). "Until the epiphany" (the second epiphany or coming of Christ). Late word in inscriptions for important event like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term. In #2Th 2:18 we have both epifaneia and parousia. See #Tit 2:13; 2Ti 1:10; 4:1,8.

    6:15 {In its own times} (kairois idiois). Locative case. May be "in his own times." See #2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out. {Who is the blessed and only Potentate} (ho makarios kai monos dunastes). "The happy and alone Potentate." dunastes, old word, in N.T. only here, #Lu 1:52; Ac 8:27 (the Eunuch). See #1:11 for makarios. {The King of kings} (ho basileus twn basileuontwn). "The King of those who rule as kings." Oriental title. So with "Lord of lords." See #Re 10:16.

    6:16 {Who only hath immortality} (ho monos ecwn aqanasian). "The one who alone has immortality." aqanasia (aqanatos, a privative and qanatos), old word, in N.T. only here and #1Co 15:53f. Domitian demanded that he be addressed as "_Dominus et Deus noster_." Emperor worship may be behind the use of monos (alone) here. {Unapproachable} (aprositon). See #Ps 104:2. Late compound verbal adjective (a privative, pros, ienai, to go). Here only in N.T. Literary _Koin‚_ word. {Nor can see} (oude idein dunatai). See aoraton in #Col 1:15 and also #Joh 1:18; Mt 11:27. The "amen" marks the close of the doxology as in #1:17.

    6:17 {In this present world} (en twi nun aiwni). "In the now age," in contrast with the future. {That they be not high-minded} (me huyelofronein). Present active infinitive with negative in indirect command after paraggelle, "not to be high-minded." Only instance of the word save some MSS. of #Ro 11:20 (for mˆ hupsˆlaphronei) and a scholion on Pindar. {Have their hope set} (elpikenai). Perfect active infinitive of elpizw. {On the uncertainty of riches} (epi ploutou adeloteti). Literary _Koin‚_ word (adelotes), only here in N.T. A "vigorous oxymoron" (White). Cf. #Ro 6:4. Riches have wings. {But on God} (all' epi qewi). He alone is stable, not wealth. {Richly all things to enjoy} (panta plousiws eis apolausin). "A lavish emphasis to the generosity of God" (Parry). apolausis is old word from apolauw, to enjoy, in N.T. only here and #Heb 11:25.

    6:18 {That they do good} (agaqoergein). Late word (agaqos, ergw), in N.T. only here and #Ac 14:17. {Rich in good works} (ploutein en ergois kalois). See #Lu 12:21 "rich toward God" and #Mt 6:19f. for "treasures in heaven." {Ready to distribute} (eumetadotous). Late and rare verbal (eu, meta, didwmi). Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T. {Willing to communicate} (koinwnikous). Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal again. Only here in N.T. See #Ga 6:6; Php 4:15.

    6:19 {Laying up in store} (apoqesaurizontas). Late literary word (apo and qesaurizw), only here in N.T. Same paradox as in #Mt 6:19f., "laying up in store" by giving it away. {Which is life indeed} (tes ontws zwes). See #5:3 for ontws. this life is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.

    6:20 {Guard that which is committed unto thee} (ten paraqeken fulaxon). "Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit." paraqeken (from paratiqemi, to place beside as a deposit, #2Ti 2:2), a banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic parakataqeke (Textus Receptus here, #2Ti 1:12,14). See substantive also in #2Ti 1:12,14. {Turning away from} (ektrepomenos). Present middle participle of ektrepw, for which see #1:6; 5:15. {Babblings} (kenofwnias). From kenofwnos, uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and #2Ti 2:16. {Oppositions} (antiqeseis). Old word (anti, qesis), antithesis, only here in N.T. {Of the knowledge which is falsely so called} (tes yeudwnumou gnwsews). "Of the falsely named knowledge." Old word (yeudes, onoma). Our "pseudonymous." Only here in N.T.

    6:21 {Have erred} (estocesan). First aorist active indicative of astocew. See #1:6 for this word.

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