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    1. As many servants as are under the yoke (osoi eisin upo zugon douloi). Incorrect. Rather, as many as are under the yoke as bondservants. As bondservants is added in explanation of under the yoke, which implies a hard and disagreeable condition. Yoke is used only here of the state of slavery. In Gal. v. 1; Acts xv. 10, of the Mosaic law. See on Matthews xi. 29.

    Their own (touv idiouv). Lit. private, personal, peculiar, as 1 Corinthians iii. 8; vii. 7. Sometimes strange, eccentric. Constrasted with dhmosiov public or koinov common. See Acts iv. 32. Sometimes without emphasis, substantially = possessive pronoun, just as Lat. proprius passes into suus or ejus, or oijkeiov belonging to one's house into the simple one's own. See on Gal. vi. 10, and comp. Matthews xxii. 5; xxv. 14. In LXX commonly with the emphatic sense. Very often in the phrase kat' ijdian privately, as Mark iv. 34; Luke ix. 10; Gal. ii. 2, but nowhere in Pastorals.

    Masters (despotav). Comp. Tit. ii. 9, and see on 2 Pet. ii. 1. Not in Paul, who styles the master of slaves kuriov Lord. See Eph. vi. 9; Col. iv. 1.

    Count (hgeisqwsan). Implying a more conscious, a surer judgment, resting on more careful weighing of the facts. See Philip. ii. 3, 6. Be not blasphemed (mh - blasfhmhtai). Or be evil spoken of. See on blasphemy, Mark vii. 22, and be evil spoken of, Rom. xiv. 16; 1 Corinthians x. 30. Paul uses the word, but not in the active voice as in the Pastorals.

    2. Partakers of the benefit (oi thv euergesiav antilambanomenoi). The verb means to take hold of; hence, to take hold for the purpose of helping; to take up for, as Luke i. 54; Acts xx. 35. o P. Euergesia, benefit only here and Acts iv. 9. Better, kindly service. Rend. they that busy themselves in the kindly service. 126 The reference is to the kindly acts which the masters do to their slaves; not to the benefits received by the slaves. Comp. Gal. v. 13.

    3. Teach otherwise (eterodidaskalei). See on ch. i. 3.

    Consent (prosercetai). Lit. draw nigh. To approach as one who confidingly accepts another's proffer. Hence, to assent to. Comp. Acts x. 28; 1 Pet. ii. 4; Heb. iv. 16; x. 22. Often in LXX, and habitually in the literal sense. The figurative sense, sir. i. 27, 30; iv. 15; vi. 26. o P. The phrase only here.

    Of our Lord, etc. Either concerning our Lord, or spoken by him. Probably the latter, according to N.T. usage, in which word of the Lord or word of God commonly means the word that proceeds from God. The phrase words of our Lord Jesus Christ only here.

    Doctrine which is according to godliness (th kat eusebeian didaskalia). The phrase only here. See on 1 Tim. i. 10. For eujsebeia, on 1 Tim. ii. 2.

    4. He is proud (tetufwtai). See on ch. iii. 6.

    Knowing nothing (mhden epistamenov). Although he knows nothing. o P. Very frequent in Acts. Comp. ch. i. 7.

    Doting (noswn). N.T.o . Lit. sick. Comp. uJgiainousi healthful, ver. 3. Questions (zhthseiv). o P. o LXX. Quite often in Class. Lit. processes of inquiry; hence, debates. Comp. ch. i. 4.

    Strifes of words (logomaciav). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. One of the unique compounds peculiar to these Epistles. The verb logomacein 2 Timothy ii. 14.

    Surmisings (uponoiai). N.T.o . See Sir. iii. 24. Upo under and nouv mind, thought. A hidden thought. The verb uJponoein to suppose, only in Acts. See xiii. 25; xxv. 18; xxvii. 27.

    5. Perverse disputings (diaparatribai). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Paratribh, is a rubbing against. Dia signifies constinuance. The meaning therefore is continued friction. Hence wearing discussion; protracted wrangling. 127 Of corrupt minds (diefqarmenwn ton noun). More correctly, corrupted in mind. The verb not common in N.T. In Paul only 2 Corinthians iv. 16. Only here in Pastorals. Diafqora corruption only in Acts. Comp. katefqarmenoi ton noun corrupted in mind, 2 Timothy iii. 8.

    Destitute of the truth (apesterhmenwn thv alhqeiav). Rev. bereft of the truth. In N.T. commonly of defrauding, Mark x. 19; 1 Corinthians vi. 7, 8; vii. 5. The implication is that they once possessed the truth. They put it away from themselves (ch. i. 19; Tit. i. 14). Here it is represented as taken away from them. Comp. Rom. i. 8.

    Gain is godliness (porismon einai thn eusebeian). Wrong. Rend. that godliness is a way (or source) of gain. Porismov, only here and ver. 6, is a gain-making business. See Wisd. xiii. 19; xiv. 2. They make religion a means of livelihood. Comp. Tit. i. 11.

    6. Contentment (autarkeiav). Only here and 2 Cor. ix. 8. The adjective aujtarkhv self-sufficient, Philip. iv. 11. Comp. sir. xl. 18. Aujtarkeia is an inward self-sufficiency, as opposed to the lack or the desire of outward things. It was a favorite Stoic word, expressing the doctrine of that sect that a man should be sufficient unto himself for all things, and able, by the power of his own will, to resist the force of circumstances. In Ps. of Solomon v. 18, we read: "Blessed is the man whom God remembereth with a sufficiency convenient for him" (en summetria autarkesiav); that is, with a sufficiency proportioned to his needs.

    7. And it is certain we can carry, etc. Omit and and certain. Rend. oti because. The statement is: We brought nothing into the world because we can carry nothing out. The fact that we brought nothing into the world is shown by the impossibility of our taking with us anything out of it; since if anything belonging to us in our premundane state had been brought by us into the world, it would not be separated from us at our departure from the world. Comp. Job i. 21; Eccl. v. 15; Psalm xlix. 17.

    8. Food (diatrofav). N.T.o .

    Raiment (skepasmata). N.T.o . o LXX. It means covering generally, though the reference is probably to clothing. von Soden aptly remarks that a dwelling is not a question of life with an Oriental.

    Let us be content (arkesqhsomeqa). More correctly, we shall be content. Once in Pauls 2 Cor. xii. 9. A few times in LXX. Comp. Ps. of Solomon xvi. 12: "But with good will and cheerfulness uphold thou my soul; when thou strengthenest my soul I shall be satisfied (arkesei moi) with what thou givest me."

    9. They that will be rich (oi boulomenoi ploutein). Better, they that desire to be rich. lt is not the possession of richess but the love of them that leads men into temptation.

    Fall (empiptousin). o P. Lit. fall into; but invariably in N.T. with eijv into. Temptation (peirasmon). See on Matthews vi. 13.

    Foolish (anohtouv). Foolish answers to several words in N.T., ajnohtov, ajsunetov, afrwn, mwrov. Anohtov not understanding; a want of proper application of the moral judgment or perception, as Luke xxiv. 95; Gal. iii. 1. See notes on both. Afrwn is senseless, stupid, of images, beasts. Comp. Luke xii. 20, note. Asunetov approaches the meaning of ajnohtov unintelligent. See Sir. xxii. 13, 15; xxvii. 12. It also implies a moral sense, wicked, Wisd. i. 5; xi. 15; Sir. xv. 7. On the etymological sense, see on Matthews xi. 25; Mark xii. 33; Luke ii. 47. Mwrov is without forethought, as Matthews vii. 26; xxv. 3; without learning, as 1 Corinthians i. 27; iii. 18; with a moral sense, empty, useless, 2 Tim. ii. 23; Tit. iii. 9; and impious, godless, Matthews v. 22; Psalm xliii. 8; Jer. v. 21. Hurtful (blaberav). N.T.o . LXX once, Prov. x. 26.

    Drown (buqizousi). Only here and Luke v. 7, note. A strong expression of the results of avarice.

    Destruction (oleqron). See on 1 Thess. i. 9, and additional note. Perdition (apwleian). It is unsafe to distinguish between oleqrov destruction in general, and ajpwleia as pointing mainly to destruction of the soul. Apwleia sometimes of spiritual destruction, as Philippians i. 28; but also of destruction and waste in general, as Mark xiv. 4; Acts viii. 20. One is reminded of Virgil, Aen. iii. 56: "Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, Auri sacra fames?"

    10. Love of money (filarguria). N.T.o . See 4 Macc. i. 26. Rare in Class.

    The root (riza). Better, a root. It is not the only root. In Paul only metaphorically. See Rom. xi. 16, 17, 18.

    Coveted after (oregomenoi). See on ch. iii. 1. The figure is faulty, since filarguria is itself a desire.

    Have erred (apeplanhqhsan). More correctly, have been led astray. o P. Pierced through (periepeiran). N.T.o o LXX.

    Sorrows (odunaiv). See on Rom. ix. 2.

    11. Man of God (anqrwpe qeou). The phrase only in Pastorals. Comp 2 Timothy iii. 17. Not an official designation.

    Righteousness (dikaiosunhn). See on Rom. i. 17. Not in the Pauline dogmatic sense, but as Eph. v. 9, moral rectitude according to God's law.

    Meekness (praupaqian). N.T.o . o LXX. Meekness of feeling (paqov). The usual word is prauthv, often in Paul. See on meek, Matthews v. 5. With the whole verse comp. Tit. iii. 12.

    12. Fight the good fight (agwnizou ton kalon agwna). A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Comp. 2 Tim. iv. 7. Not necessarily a metaphor from the gymnasium or arena, although ajgwn contest was applied originally to athletic struggles. But it is also used of any struggle, outward or inward. See Col. ii. 1; iv. 12.

    Lay hold (epilabou). o P. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Occasionally in this strong sense, as Luke xx. 20; xxiii. 26; Acts xviii. 17, but not usually. See Mark viii. 23; Luke ix. 47; Acts ix. 27.

    Professed a good profession (wmologhsav thn kalhn omologian). Both the verb and the noun in Paul, but this combination only here. For the use of kalov good see ch. i. 18, and ver. 12. Rend. confessed the good confession, and see on your professed subjection, 2 Cor. ix. 13. It is important to preserve the force of the article, a point in which the A.V. is often at fault.

    13. Quickeneth (zwogonountov). o P. Rend. who preserveth alive. Quickeneth is according to the reading zwopoiountov maketh alive. Comp. LXX, Exod. i. 17; Judg. viii. 19. This association of God as the preserver with confession is noteworthy in Matt. x. 28-33.

    Witnessed a good confession (marturhsantov thn kalhn omologian). Letter, the or his good confession. The phrase is unique. The good confession is the historical confession of Jesus before Pilate, which is the warrant for the truthfulness of Timothy's confession. Christ is called is the faithful and true witeness" (martuv), Apoc. i. 5; iii. 14. It is true that martuv was used very early of those who laid down their lives for the truth (see Acts xxii. 20; Apoc. ii. 13), and Polycarp speaks of to marturion tou staurou the witness of the cross (Philippians 7.); but this did not become general until after the end of the second century. 128 Before Pontius Pilate. The mention of Pontius Pilate in connection with the crucifixion is of constant occurrence in early Christian writings. See Ignatius, Magn. xi; Tral. ix; Smyrn. i. It has been supposed that these words were taken from a liturgical confession in which the Christian faith was professed.

    14. Commandment (entolhn). Usually of a single commandment or injunction, but sometimes for the whole body of the moral precepts of Christianity, as 2 Pet. ii. 21; iii. 2. The reference may be explained by hJ paraggelia the commandment, ch. i. 5, meaning the gospel as the divine standard of conduct and faith. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 14. The phrase threin thn ejntolhn to keep the commandment is Johannine. See John xiv. 15, 21; xv. 10; 1 John ii. 3, 4; iii. 22, 24; v. 3.

    Without spot (aspilon). Unsullied. Comp. Jas. i. 27; 1 Pet. i. 19; 2 Peter iii. 14.

    Appearing (epifaneiav). See on 2 Thess. ii. 8. In the Books of Macc. it is used to describe appearances and interventions Or God for the aid of his people. See 2 Macc. ii. 21; iii. 24; xiv. 15; xv. 27; 3 Macc. v. :8,

    51. In 2 Tim. iv. 18, and Tit. ii. 13, it denotes, as here, the second coming of Christ. In 2 Tim. i. 10, his historical manifestation, for which also the verb ejpifainein is used, Tit. ii. 11; iii. 4. for the Lord is second advent Paul commonly uses parousia presence; once the verb faneroun to make manifest (Col. iii. 4), and once ajpokaluyiv revelation (2 Thess. i. 7). It is quite possible that the word ejpifaneia, so characteristic of these Epistles, grew out of the Gnostic vocabulary, in which it was used of the sudden appearing of the hitherto concealed heavenly aeon, Christ. This they compared to a sudden light from heaven; and Christ, who thus appeared, though only docetically, without an actual fleshly body, was styled swthr savior, although his oneness with the God of creation was denied. The Creator and the Redeemer were not the same, but were rather opposed. Christ was only a factor of a great cosmological process of development. As Neander observes: "The distinctive aim of the Gnostics was to apprehend the appearance of Christ and the new creation proceeding from him in their connection with the evolution of the whole universe."

    15. In his times (kairoiv idioiv). Better, his own seasons, or its own seasons. wither the seasons proper to the appearing, or the seasons which God shall see fit to select. See on ch. ii. 6 Potentate (dunasthv). Only here of God. Very often in LXX. See sir. xlvi. 5; q 2 Macc. xii. 15, etc. In Class. applied to Zeus (Soph. Antig. 608). In Aesch. Agam. 6, the stars are called lamproi dunastai bright rulers, as the regulators of the seasons.

    Of kings (twn basileuontwn). Lit. of those who rule as kings. Only here for the noun, basilewn. Basileuv bsilewn king of kings, Apoc. xvii. 14; xix. 16.

    Of lords (kurieuontwn). Lit. of those who Lord it. Only here for the noun kuriwn. See kuriov kuriwn Lord of lords, Apoc. xix. 16; comp. LXX, Deut. x. 17; Psalm cxxxv. 3. Probably liturgical.

    16. Who only hath immortality (o monov ecwn aqanasian). Comp. ajfqartw incorruptible, ch. i. 17. It has been suggested that there is here a possible allusion to the practice of deifying the woman emperors, with an implied protest against paying them divine honors. In the Asian provinces generally, this imperial cultus was organised as the highest and most authoritative religion. Domitian (8196 A.D.) assumed the titles of "Lord" and "God," and insisted on being addressed as Dominus et Deus noster in all communications to himself. Trajan (98-117 A.D.) forbade his subjects to address him as "Lord" and "God," but Pliny (112 A.D.) required the citizens of Bithynia to pay divine honors to Trajan's statue. Hadrian (117-138 A.D.) allowed the worship of his statues. 129 In light. Comp. Psalm ciii. 2; 1 John i. 5, 7; Jas. i. 17.

    Which no man can approach unto (aprositon). More simply, unapproachable. N.T.o . o LXX.

    17. Them that are rich in this world (toiv plousioiv en tw nun aiwni). forming one conception. Chrysostom says:; "Rich in this world, for others are rich in the world to come." Comp. Luke xvi. 25. Plousiov rich, by Paul only metaphorically. See 2 Cor. viii. 9; Eph. ii. 4. The phrase oJ nun aijwn the now age, only here and Tit. ii. 19, the usual expression being oJ aijwn ou=tov this age or world, which is not found in Pastorals.

    Be not highminded (mh uyhlofronein). The verb N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Comp. Rom. xi. 20; xii. 16.

    Uncertain riches (ploutou adhlothti). A rendering which weakens the sense by withdrawing the emphasis from the thought of uncertainty. Rend. the uncertainty of riches. For a similar construction see Rom. vi. 4. Adhlothv uncertainty, N.T.o . o LXX. Originally obscurity. Ploutov wealth, frequent in Paul, but never in the material sense. The play upon the word rich in this and the next verse will be noticed.

    To enjoy (eiv apolausin). Lit. for enjoyment. Only here and Hebrews xi. 25. See 3 Macc. vii. 16. In class. occasionally, but the verb ajpolauein to have enjoyment or benefit is common. A contrast is implied between being highminded on account of wealth - cherishing and worshipping it - and rightly enjoying it. The true character of such enjoyment is shown in the next verse.

    18. Do good (agaqoergein). In this uncontracted form, N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Comp. Acts xiv. 17. The usual word is ajgaqopoiein, see Mark iii. 4; Luke vi. 9, 33, 35; 1 Pet. ii. 15. o P. who has ejrgazesqai to ajgaqon to work that which is good, Rom. ii. 10; Gal. vi. 10; Eph. iv. 28. Good works (ergoiv kaloiv). For kalov see on ch. iii. 7, and John x. 11: for ajgaqov on Rom. v. 7.

    Ready to distribute (eumetadotouv). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. For the verb metadidonai to impart to the poor, see Luke iii. 11; Eph. iv. 28. Willing to communicate (koinwnikouv). N.T.o . o LXX. See on fellowship, Acts ii. 48, and comp. koinwnein to partake, 1 Tim. v. 22, and koinov common, Tit. i. 14. Stronger than the preceding word, as implying a personal share in the pleasure imparted by the gift.

    19. Laying up in store (apoqhsaurizontav). N.T.o Laying away (apo). Eternal life (thv ontwv zwhv). More correctly, the life which is life indeed, or that which is truly life. See on ch. v. 3.

    20. That which is committed to thy trust (thn paraqhkhn). Only in Pastorals. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 12, 14. From para beside or with, and tiqenai to Place. It may mean either something put beside another as an addition or appendix (so Mark. vi. 41; Acts xvi. 34), or something put with or in the keeping of another as a trust or deposit. In the latter sense always in LXX. See Lev. vi. 2, 4; Tob. x. 13; II Macc. iii. 10, 15. Hdt. vi. 73, of giving hostages; ix. 45, of confidential words intrusted to the hearer's honor. The verb is a favorite with Luke. The meaning here is that teaching which Timothy had received from Paul; the "sound words" which he was to guard as a sacred trust, and communicate to others.

    Vain babblings (kenofwniav). Only in Pastorals. o LXX, o Class. From kenov empty and fwnh voice.

    Oppositions of science falsely so called (aniqeseiv thv yeudwnumou gnwsewv) Better, oppositions of the falsely-named knowledge. Antiqesiv, N.T.o . o LXX. Used here, in its simple sense, of the arguments and teachings of those who opposed the true Christian doctrine as intrusted to Timothy. Gnwsiv knowledge was the characteristic word of the Gnostic school, the most formidable enemy of the church of the second century. The Gnostics claimed a superior knowledge peculiar to an intellectual caste. According to them, it was by this philosopllic insight, as opposed to faith, that humanity was to be regenerated. faith was suited only to the rude masses, the animal-men. The intellectual questions which occupied these teachers were two: to explain the work of creation, and to account for the existence of evil. Theil ethical problem was how to develop the higher nature in the environment of matter which was essentially evil. In morals they ran to two opposite extremes - asceticism and licentiousness. The principal representatives of the school were Basilides, Valentinus, and Marcion. Although Gnosticism as a distinct system did not reach its full development until about the middle of the second century, foreshadowings of it appear in the heresy at which Paul's Colossian letter was aimed. It is not strange if we find in the Pastoral Epistles allusions pointing to Cxnostic errors; but, as already remarked, it is impossible to refer these allusions to any one definite system of error. The word gnwsiv cannot therefore be interpreted to mean the Gnostic system; while it may properly be understood as referring to that conceit of knowledge which opposed itself to the Christian faith. Yeudwnumov falsely-named, N.T.o . o LXX. It characterises the gnwsiv as claiming that name without warrant, and as being mere vain babbling. Comp. Colossians ii. 8.

    21. Professing. See on ch. ii. 10.

    Erred (hstochsan). See on ch. i. 6, and comp. 2 Tim. ii. 18.

    Grace be with thee. The correct reading is meq' uJmwn with you. Although addressed to an individual, he is included in the church. This brief benediction occurs in Paul only in Colossians.


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