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1. Rebuke not an elder (presbuterw mh epiplhxhv). The verb N.T.o . o LXX. originally to lay on blows; hence to castigate with words. Presbuterov elder, o P., but frequent in Gospels, Acts, and Revelation. Modern critical opinion has largely abandoned the view that the original Christian polity was an imitation of that of the Synagogue. The secular and religious authorities of the Jewish communities, at least in purely Jewish localities, were the same; a fact which is against the probability that the polity was directly transferred to the Christian church. The prerogatives of the Jewish elders have nothing corresponding with them in extent in the Christian community. Functions which emerge later in the Jewish-Christian communities of Palestine do not exist in the first Palestinian-Christian society. At the most, as Weizsacker observes, it could only be a question of borrowing a current name. 115 Modern criticism compels us, I think, to abandon the view of the identity of Bishop and Presbyter which has obtained such wide acceptance, especially among English scholars, through the discussions of Lightfoot and Hatch. 116 The testimony of Clement of Rome (Ep. ad Corinth.) goes to show that the Bishops (hgoumenoi or prohgoumenoi) are distinguished from the Presbyters, and that if the Bishops are apparently designated as Presbyters, it is, because they have been chosen from the body of Presbyters, and have retained the name even when they have ceased to hold office. for this reason deceased Bishops are called Presbyters. In Clement, Presbyters signify a class or estate - members of long standing and approved character, and not office-bearers regularly appointed. Among these the Bishops are to be sought. Bishops are reckoned as Presbyters, not because the Presbyter as such is a Bishop, but because the Bishop as such is a Presbyter. In the Pastorals, Bishops and Deacons are associated without mention of Presbyters (1 Timothy iii. 1-13). Presbyters are referred to in 1 Tim. v. 17-19, but in an entirely different connection. The qualifications of Bishops and Deacons are detailed in the former passage, and the list of qualifications concludes with the statement that this is the ordering of the church as the house of God (vv. 14, 15). The offices are exhausted in the description of Bishops and Deacons. Nothing is said of Presbyters until ch. 5, where Timothy's relations to individual church-members are prescribed; and in Tit. ii. 2 ff. these members are classified as old men (presbutav) old women, young men, and servants. In 1 Tim. v. 17 are mentioned elders who rule well (oi kalwv proestwtev presbuteroi). Assuming that Presbyters and Bishops were identical, a distinction would thus be implied between two classes of Bishops - those who rule well and those who do not: where as the distinction is obviously between old and honored church-members, collectively considered, forming the presbyterial body, and certain of their number who show their qualifications for appointment as overseers.
Presbyters as such are not invested with office. There is no formal act constituting a Presbyter. The Bishops are reckoned among the Elders, but the elders as such are not officers.
Thus are to be explained the allusions to appointed Elders, Tit. i. 5; Acts xiv. 23. Elders are to be appointed as overseers or Bishops, for the overseers must have the qualitications of approved Presbyters. The ordination of Presbyters is the setting apart of Elders to the position of Superintendents. The Presbyterate denotes an honorable and influential estate in the church on the ground of age, duration of church membership, and approved character. Only Bishops are appointed There is no appointment to the Presbyterate. At the close of Clement's letter to the Corinthians, the qualifications of a Presbyter are indicated in the description of the three commissioners from the Roman church who are the bearers of the letter, and to whom no officiel title is given. They are old, members of the Roman church from youth, blameless in life, believing, and sober. 117
2. The elder women (presbuterav). N.T.o . Comp. presbutidav aged women, Tit. ii. 3. The word indicates distinction in age merelly, although some think that it points to an official position which is further referred to in the following directions concerning widows. 118
3. Honor (tima). Not only by respectful treatment but by financial support. Comp. timhsei, Matt. xv. 5, and pollaiv timaiv ejtimhsan, Acts xxviii. 10; and diplhv timhv 1 Tim. v. 17. Comp. Sir. xxxviii. 1. 'The verb only once in Paul (Eph. vi. 2, citation), and only here in Pastorals.
Widows (chrav). Paul alludes to widows in 1 Cor. vii. 8 only, where he advises them against remarrying. They are mentioned as a class in Acts vi. 1, in connection With the appointment of the seven. Also Acts ix. 39, 41. In the Pastorals they receive special notice, indicating their advance from the position of mere beneficiaries to a quasi-official position in the church. from the very first, the church recognised its obligation to care for their support. A widow, in the East, was peculiarly desolate and helpless. 119 In return for their maintenance certain duties were required of them, such as the care of orphans, sick and prisoners, and they were enrolled in an order, which, however, did not include all of their number who received alms of the church. In Polyearp's Epistle to the Philippians, they are styled "the altar of God." To such an order the references in the Pastorals point. The Fathers, from the end of the second century to the fourth, recognised a class known as presbutidev aged women (Tit. ii. 3), who had oversight of the female church-members and a separate seat in the congregation. The council of Laoclicaea abolished this institution, or so modified it that widows no longer held an official relation to the church. Who are widows indeed (tav ontwv chrav). Comp. vv. 5, 16. Ontwv verily, truly, twice in Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 25; Gal. iii. 21. See on 2 Peter ii. 18. Wherever ontwv is used by Paul or by any other N.T. writer, it is used purely as an adverb (see Luke xxiii. 47; xxiv. 34): but in all the four instances in the Pastorals, it is preceded by the article and converted into an adjective. The meaning is, who are absolutely bereaved, without children or relations (comp. ver. 4), and have been but once married. There is probably also an implied contrast with those described in vv. 6, 11-13.
4. Nephews (ekgona). N.T.o . Often in LXX. Nephews, in the now obsolete sense of grandsons or other lineal deseendants. Derived from Lat. nepos. Trench (Select Glossary) remarks that nephew was undergone exactly the same change of meaning that nepos underwent, which, in the Augustan age, meaning grandson, in the post-Augustan age acquired the signification of nephew in our present acceptation of that word. Chaucer:
"How that my nephew shall my bane be." Legend of Good Women, 2659.
'His (Jove's) blind nevew Cupido." House of Fame, 67.
"Nephews are very often liken to their grandfathers than to their fathers." Let them learn. The subject is the children and grandchildren. Holtzmann thinks the subject is any widow, used collectively. But the writer is treating of what should be done to the widow, not of what she is to do. The admonition is connected with widows indeed. They, as being utterly bereft, and without natural supporters, are to be cared for by the church; but if they have children or grandchildren, these should assume their maintenance.
First (prwton). In the first place: as their first and natural obligation. To show piety at home (ton idion oikon eusebein). More correctly, to show piety toward their own family. Piety in the sense of filial respect, though not to the exclusion of the religious sense. The Lat. pietas includes alike love and duty to the gods and to parents. Thus Virgil's familiar designation of Aeneas, "pius Aeneas," as describing at once his reverence for the gods and his filial devotion. The verb eujsebein (only here and Acts xvii. 23) represents filial respect as an element of godliness (eusebeia). For ton idion their own, see on Acts i. 7. It emphasises their private, personal belonging, and contrasts the assistance given by them with that furnished by the church. It has been suggested that oikon household or family may mark the duty as an act of family feeling and honor.
To requite (amoibav apodidonai). An entirely unique expression. Amoibh requital, recompense is a familiar classical word, used with didonai to give, ajpotiqenai to lay down, tinein to pay, poieisqai to make. N.T.o . Paul uses instead ajntimisqia (Rom. i. 27; 2 Corinthians vi. 13), or ajntapodoma, (Rom. xi. 9), or ajntapodosiv (Colossians iii. 24). The last two are LXX words.
Their parents (toiv progonoiv). N.T.o . Parents is too limited. The word comprehends mothers and grandmothers and living ancestors generally. The word for parents is goneiv, see 2 Tim. iii. 2; Rom. i. 30; 2 Corinthians xii. 14; Eph. vi. 1; Col. iii. 20. Progonoi for living ancestors is contrary to usage. One instance is cited from Plato, Laws, xi. 932. The word is probably selected to correspond in form with ekgona children.
Good and acceptable (kalon kai apodekton). Omit kalon kai good and. Apodektov acceptable only here and 1 Tim. ii. 3. See note. Before (enwpion). Frequent in N.T., especially Luke and Revelation. It occurs 31 times in the phrases ejnwpion tou Qeou in the sight of God, and ejnwpion kuriou in the sight of the Lord. o LXX. Comp. emprosqen tou Qeou before God. Acts x. 4; 1 Thess. i. 3; ii. 19; iii. 9, 13. Not in Pastorals, and by Paul only 1 Thessalonians the difference is trifling. Comp. 1 John iii. 19 and 22.
5. And desolate (kai memonwmenh). N.T.o . From monov alone.
Explanatory of a widow indeed. One entirely bereaved.
6. Liveth in pleasure (spatalwsa). Only here and Jas. v. 5. See note. Twice in LXX, Sir. xxi. 15; Ezekiel.xvi. 49.
8. Provide (pronoei). See on Rom. xii. 17.
He hath denied the faith (thn pistin hrnhtai). The verb not in Paul, but Quite often in Pastorals. The phrase only here and Apoc. ii. 13. Faith demands works and fruits. By refusing the natural duties which Christian faith implies, one practically denies his possession of faith. Faith does not abolish natural duties, but perfects and strengthens them" (Bengel). Comp. Jas. ii. 14-17.
9. Be taken into the number (katalegesqw). Better, enrolled (as a widow). N.T.o . Very, rare in LXX. Common in Class. Originally, to pick out, as soldiers. Hence, to enroll, enlist. Here, to be enrolled in the body of widows who are to receive church support. See on ver. 3.
For good works (en ergoiv kaloiv). Lit. in good works; in the matter of. Comp. 1 Tim. vi. 18; Tit. ii. 7; iii. 8, 14. In the Gospels, ergon work appears with kalov and never with ajgaqov. In Paul, always with ajgaqov and never with kalov Kings In the Pastorals, with both. The phrase includes good deeds of all kinds, and not merely special works of beneficence. Comp. Acts ix. 36.
If (ei). Introducing the details of the general expression good works. Have brought up children (eteknotrofhsen). N.T.o . o LXX; very rare in Class. The children may have been her own or others'.
Of the saints (agiwn). %Agiov is rare in Class. In LXX, the standard word for holy. Its fundamental idea is setting apart, as in Class., devoted to the gods. In O T., set apart to God, as priests; as the Israelites consecrated to God. In N.T., applied to Christians. Ideally, it implies personal holiness. It is used of God, Christ, John the Baptist, God's law, the Spirit of God. Paul often uses oiJ agioi as a common designation of Christians belonging to a certain region or community, as Philip. i. 1; 2 Corinthians i. t; Col. i. 2. In such cases it does not imply actual holiness, but holiness obligatory upon those addressed, as consecrated persons, and appropriate to them. What ought to be is assumed as being. In this sense not in the Gospels (unless, possibly, Matthews xxvii. 52) or in the Epistles of Peter and John. Rare in Acts.
Relieved (ephrkesen). Only here and ver. 16. Comp. 1 Macc. viii. 26; xi.
35. Common in Class. Originally, to suffice for, to be strong enough for, as in Homer, where it is always used in connection with danger or injury. See Il. ii. 873; Od. xvii. 568. Hence, to ward off, help, assist.
The afflicted (qlibomenoiv) See on tribulation, Matthews xiii. 21, and comp. 2 Cor. i. 6; iv. 8; 2 Thess. i. 6, 7; Heb. xi. 37. Diligently followed (epako ouqhsen). Comp. ver. 24. Epi after or close upon. o P. Once in the disputed verses at the end of Mark (xvi. 20), and 1 Pet. ii. 21. Comp. the use of diwkein pursue, Rom. ix. 30; xii. 13; 1 Cor. xiv. 1; 1 Thess. v. 15.
11. Younger (newterav). Almost in a positive sense,,young. Not, under sixty years of age.
Have begun to wax wanton (katastrhniaswsin). Not, have begun, but rather, whenever they shall come to wax wanton. Comp. 2 Thessalonians i. 10. The compound verb, signifying to feel the sexual impulse, only here, and not in LXX or Class. The simple verb, strhnian to run riot, Apoc. xviii. 7, 9 and the kindred strhnov luxury, Apoc. xviii. 3. See note.
Against Christ (tou Cristou). Their unruly desire withdraws them from serving Christ in his church, and is, therefore, against him. 121 This is the only instance in the Pastorals in which the Christ is used without Jews either before or after. In Paul this is common, both with and without the article.
They will marry (gamein qelousin). Better, they are bent on marrying, or determined to marry. The strong expression wax wanton makes it probable that qelein expresses more than a desire, as Rev. See on Matthews i. 19. Gamein to marry, in the active voice, of the wife, as everywhere in N.T. except 1 Cor. vii. 39. 122
12. Having damnation (ecousai krima). The phrase only here. See on 1 Tim. iii. 6. Damnation is an unfortunate rendering in the light of the present common understanding of the word, as it is also in 1 Corinthians xi. 29. Better, judgment or condemnation, as Rom. iii. 8; xiii. 2. The meaning is that they carry about with them in their new, married life a condemnation, a continuous reproach. Comp. ch. iv. 2; Gal. v. 10. It should be said for the translators of 1611 that they used damnation in this sense of, judgment or condemnation, as is shown by the present participle having. In its earlier usage the word implied no allusion to a future punishment. Thus Chaucer
"For wel thou woost (knowest) thyselven verraily That thou and I be dampned to prisoun." Knight's T. 1175.
Wielif: "Nethir thou dredist God, that thou art in the same dampnacioun?" Luke xxiii. 40. Laud.: "Pope Alexander III. condemned Peter Lombard of heresy, and he lay under that damnation for thirty and six years." "A legacy by damnation" was one in which the testator imposed on his heir an obligation to give the legatee the thing bequeatheds and which afforded the legatee a personal claim against the heir.
They have cast off their first faith (thn prwthn pistin hqethsan). Aqetein is to set aside, do away with, reject or slight. See Mark vi. 26; Luke x. 16; Heb. x. 28. Often in LXX. Pistin is pledge: so frequently in Class. with give and receive. See, for instance, Plato, Phaedr. 256 D. In LXX, 3 Macc. iii. 10. The phrase pistin ajqetein N.T.o . o LXX. There are, however, a number of expressions closely akin to it, as Gal. iii. 15, diaqhkhn ajqetein to render a covenant void. In LXX with oath, 9 Chronicles xxxvi. 13. Psalm xiv. 4: He that sweareth to his neighbor kai oujk ajqetwn. Psalm lxxxviii. 34; cxxxi. 11; 1 Macc. vi. 62. The meaning here is, having broken their first pledge; and this may refer to a pledge to devote themselves, after they became widows, to the service of Christ and the church. The whole matter is obscure.
13. They learn (manqanousin). To be taken absolutely, as 1 Corinthians xiv. 31; 2 Tim. iii. 7. They go about under the influence of an insatiable curiosity, and meet those who "creep into houses and take captive silly women" (2 Tim. iii. 7), and learn all manner of nonsense and error.
Going about (periercomenai). o P. Comp. Acts xix. 13.
Tattlers (fluaroi). N.T.o . Comp. 4 Macc. v. 10. The verb fluarein to prate, 3 John 10.
Busybodies (periergoi). In this sense only here. Comp. ta perierga curious arts, Acts xix. 19. The participle periergazomenoi busybodies, 2 Thessalonians iii. 11. See note. Rend. the whole passage: "And withal, being also idle, they learn, gadding about from house to house; and not only (are they) idle, but tattlers also, and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not." 123
14. That the younger women marry (newterav gamein). Better, the younger widows. This seems to be required by oun therefore, connecting the subject of the verb with the class just described. They are enjoined to marry, rather than to assume a position in the church which they might disgrace by the conduct described in vv. 11-13. Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 8, 9.
Guide the house (oikodespotein). Better, rule the house. N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Oikodespothv master of the house is quite common in the Synoptic Gospels.
Occasion (aformhn). See on Rom. vii. 8.
To the adversary (tw antikeimenw). The one who is set over against. Not Satan, but the human enemy of Christianity. Comp. Philip. i. 28, and oJ ejx ejnantiav he that is of the contrary part, Tit. ii. 8.
To speak reproachfully (loidoriav carin). Lit. in the interest of reviling. Const. with give on occasion. Loidoria reviling only here and 1 Pet. iii. 9. For the verb loidorein to revile see John ix. 28; Acts xxiii. 4; 1 Corinthians iv. 12; and note on Jas. ix. 28.
16. Man or woman that believeth (pistov h pisth). Lit. believing man or woman. But pistov h should be omitted. Read, if any woman that believeth.
Have widows (ecei chrav). If any Christian woman have relatives or persons attached to her household who are widows The church be charged. Holtzmann quotes an inscription in the chaple of the Villa Albani at Rome: "To the good Regina her daughter has erected this memorial: to the good Regina her widowed mother, who was a widow for sixty years and never burdened the church after she was the wife of one husband. She lived 80 years, 5 months, and 26 days."
17. The elders that rule well (oi kalwv proestwtev presbuteroi). For that rule well, see on kalwv proistamenon ruling well, 1 Timothy iii. 4. The phrase is peculiar to the Pastorals. See on ver. 1.
Double honor (diplhv timhv). This at least includes pecuniary remuneration for services, if it is not limited to that. The use of timh as pay or price appears Matthews xxvii. 6, 9; Acts iv. 34; vii. 16; 1 Corinthians vi. 20. Double, not in a strictly literal sense, but as pleiona timhn more honor, Heb. iii. 3. The comparison is with those Elders who do not exhibit equal capacity or efficiency in ruling. The passage lends no support to the Reformed theory of two classes of Elders - ruling and teaching. The special honor or emolument is assigned to those who combine qualifications for both.
Those who labor (oi kopiwntev). See on ch. iv. 10. No special emphesis attaches to the word - hard toiling in comeparison with those who do not toil. The meaning is, those who faithfully discharge the arduous duty of teaching. Comp. Heb. xiii. 7.
In word and doctrine (en logw kai didaskalia). Better, word and teaching. Word is general, teaching special. In word signifies, in that class of functions where speech is concerned. The special emphasis (malista especially) shows the importance which was attached to teaching as an antidote of heresy.
18. The Scripture (h grafh). Comp. 2 Tim. iii. 16. To the Jews hJ grafh signified the O.T. canon of Scripture; but in most cases hJ grafh is used of a particular passage of Scripture which is indicated in the context. See John vii. 38, 42; Acts i. 16; viii. 32, 35; Rom. iv. 3; ix. 17; x. 11; Galatians iii. 8. Where the reference is to the sacred writings as a whole, the plural grafai or aiJ grafai is used, as Matt. xxi. 42; Luke xxiv. 32; John v. 39; Rom. xv. 4. Once grafai agiai holy Scriptures, Rom. i. 2. Etera grafh another or a different Scripture, John xix. 37; hJ grafh auth this Scripture, Luke iv. 21; pasa grafh every Scripture, 2 Tim. iii. 16. See on writings, John ii. 22. The passage cited here is Deut. xxv. 4, also by Paul, 1 Cor. ix. 9.
Thou shalt not muzzle (ou fimwseiv). In N.T. mostly in the metaphorical sense of putting to silence. See on speechless, Matthews xxii. 12, and put to silence, Matthews xxii. 34. Also on Mark iv. 39. On the whole passage see note on 1 Cor. ix. 9.
That treadeth out (alownta). More correctly, while he is treading out. The verb only here and 1 Cor. ix. 9,10. Comp. alwn a threshing-floor, Matthews iii. 12; Luke iii. 17. An analogy to the O.T. injunction may be found in the laws giving to the Athenians by the mythical Triptolemus, one of which was, "Hurt not the laboring beast." Some one having violated this command by slaying a steer which was eating the sacred cake that lay upon the altar, - an expiation-feast, Bouphonia or Diipolta was instituted for the purpose of atoning for this offense, and continued to be celebrated in Athens. Aristophanes refers to it (Clouds, 985). A laboring ox was led to the altar of Zeus on the Acropolis, which was strewn with wheat and barley. As soon as the ox touched the grain, he was killed by a blow from an axe. The priest who struck the blow threw away the axe and fled. The flesh of the ox was then eaten, and the hide was stuffed and set before the plough. Then began the steer-trial before a judicial assembly in the Prytaneum, by which the axe was formally condemned to be thrown into the sea.
The laborer is worthy, etc. A second scriptural quotation would seem to be indicated, but there is no corresponding passage in the O.T. The words are found Luke x. 7, and, with a slight variation, Matthews x. 10. Some hold that the writer adds to the O.T. citation a popular proverb, and that Christ himself used the words in this way. But while different passages of Scripture are often connected in citation by kai, it is not according, to N.T. usage thus to connect Scripture and proverb. Moreover, in such series of citations it is customary to use kai palin and again, or palin simply. See Matthews iv. 7; v. 33; John xii. 39; Rom. xv. 9-12; 1 Corinthians iii. 20; Heb. i. 5; ii. 13. According to others, the writer here cites an utterance of Christ from oral tradition, coordinately with the O.T. citation, as Scripture. Paul, in 1 Thess. iv. 15; 1 Cor. vii. 10, appeals to a word of the Lord; and in Acts x. 35 he is represented as quoting "it is more blessed to give than to receive" as the words of Jesus. In 1 Corinthians 9, in the discussion of this passage from Deuteronomy, Paul adds (ver. 14) "even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel," which resembles the combination here. This last is the more probable explanation.
19. Receive not an accusation (kathgorian mh paradecou). Neither word in Paul. For accusation see on.John v. 45. It means a formal accusation before a tribunal. The compound verb para emphasises the giver or transmitter of the thing received: to receive from another. But (ektov ei mh). Except. A pleonastic formula, except in case. The formula in 1 Cor. xiv. 5; xv. 9.
Others (oi loipoi). More correctly, the rest. His fellow Elders. May fear (fobon ecwsin). May have fear, which is stronger than A.V.
Elect angels (eklektwn aggelwn). The phrase N.T.o . The triad, God, Christ, the angels, only Luke ix. 26. It is not necessary to suppose that a class of angels distinguished from the rest is meant. It may refer to all angels, as special objects of divine complacency. Comp. Tob. viii. 15; Acts x. 22; Apoc. xiv. 10.
Without preferring one before another (ceriv prokrimatov). A unique expression. Prokrima prejudgment. N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Rend. without prejudice.
By partiality (kata prosklisin). N.T.o . o LXX. According to its etymology, inclining toward. In later Greek of joining one party in preference to another. In Clement (ad Corinth. xli, xlvii, 1) in the sense of factious preferences.
22. Lay hands on. Probably with reference to that rite in the formal restoration of those who had been expelled from the church for gross sins. Suddenly (tacewv). Better, hastily.
Neither be partaker of other men's sins (mhde koinwnei amartiaiv allotriaiv). Letter, make common cause with. See on communicating, Rom. xii. 13. Comp. Rom. xv. 27; 1 Pet. iv. 13; Eph. v. 11. By a too hasty and inconsiderate restoration, he would condone the sins of the offenders, and would thus make common cause with them.
Keep thyself pure (seauton agnon threi). Comp. ch. vi. 14. Enjoining positively what was enjoined negatively in the preceding clause. For pure see on 1 John. iii. 3. For keep see on reserved, 1 Pet. i. 4. The phrase eJauton threin to keep one's self, in Jas. i. 27; 2 Cor. xi. 9.
23. Drink no longer water (mhketi udropotei). The verb N.T.o . o LXX. Rend. be no longer a drinker of water. Timothy is not enjoined to abstain from water, but is bidden not to be a water-drinker, entirely abstaining from wine. The kindred noun uJdropothv is used by Greek comic writers to denote a mean-spirited person. See Aristoph. Knights, 319.
But use a little wine (alla oinw oligw crw). The reverse antithesis appears in Hdt. i. 171, of the Persians: oujk oinw diacreontai ajll' uJdropoteousi they do not indulge in wine but are water-drinkers. Comp. Plato, Repub. 561 C, tote men mequwn - auqiv de uJdropotwn sometimes he is drunk - then he is for total-abstinence. With a little wine comp. much wine, ch. iii. 8; Tit. ii. 3.
For thy stomach's sake (dia stomacon). Stomacov N.T.o . o LXX. The appearance at this point of this dietetic prescription, if it is nothing more, is sufficiently startling; which has led to some question whether the verse may not have been misplaced. If it belongs here, it can be explained only as a continuation of the thought in ver. 22, to the effect that Timothy is to keep himself pure by not giving aid and comfort to the ascetics, and imperilling his own health by adopting their rules of abstinence. Observe that oinov here, as everywhere else, means wine, fermented and capable of intoxicating, and not a sweet syrup made by boiling down grape-juice, and styled by certain modern reformers "unfermented wine." Such a concoction would have tended rather to aggravate than to relieve Timothy's stomachic or other infirmities.
Thine often infirmities (tav puknav sou asqeneiav). This use of often as an adjective appears in earlier English. So Chaucer: "Ofte sythes" or "tymes ofte," many times. Shakespeare: "In which my often rumination wraps me in a most humorous sadness " (As you like it, IV. i. 19). And Ben Jonson:
"The jolly wassal walks the often round." The Forest, iii.
Puknov often, very common in Class. Originally, close, compact, comp. Lat. frequens. In this sense 3 Macc. iv. 10, tw puknw sanidwmati the close planking of a ship's deck. In N.T., except here, always adverbial, pukna or puknoteron often or oftener, Luke v. 33; Acts xxiv. 26. Asqeneia weakness, infirmity, only here in Pastorals. In the physical sense, as here, Luke v. 15; viii. 2; John v. 5; Gal. iv. 13. In the ethic sense, Rom. vi. 19; viii. 26.
24. Open beforehand (prodhloi). A.V. wrong in giving pro a temporal force, whereas it merely strengthens dhloi evident, manifest. The meaning is openly manifested to all eyes. In N.T. only here, ver. 25, and Hebrews vii. 14. In LXX, see Judith viii. 29; 2 Macc. iii. 17; xiv. 39.
Going before to judgment (proagousai eijv krisin). Proagein, o P. In N.T. habitually with a local meaning, either intransitive, as Matthews ii. 9; xiv. 22; Mark xi. 9; or transitive, as Acts xii. 6; xvii. 5. 125 The meaning here is that these open sins go before their perpetrator to the judgment-seat like heralds, proclaiming their sentence in advance. Krisin, not specifically of the judgment of men or of the final judgment of God, or of the sentence of an ecclesiastical court - but indefinitely. The writer would say: no judicial utterance is necessary to condemn them of these sins. The word in Paul, only 2 Thess. i. 5.
They follow after (ejpakolouqousin). The verb only here, ver. 24, 1 Peter ii. 21, and (the disputed) Mark xvi. 20. The sins follow up the offender to the bar of judgment, and are first made openly manifest there.
25. Otherwise (allwv). N.T.o . Not. otherwise than good, but otherwise than manifest.