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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 5

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    5:1 {Rebuke not an elder} (presbuterwi me epiplexeis). Dative case presbuterwi used in the usual sense of an older man, not a minister (bishop as in #3:2) as is shown by "as a father." First aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive with negative me (prohibition against committing the act) of epiplessw, to strike upon, old verb, but here only in N.T. and in figurative sense with words rather than with fists. Respect for age is what is here commanded, an item appropriate to the present time. {The younger men as brethren} (newterous hws adelfous). Comparative adjective newteros from neos (young). No article, "younger men." Wise words for the young minister to know how to conduct himself with old men (reverence) and young men (fellowship, but not stooping to folly with them).

    5:2 {The elder women as mothers} (presbuteras hws meteras). Anarthrous again, "older women as mothers." Respect and reverence once more. {The younger as sisters, in all purity} (newteras hws adelfas en pasei hagniai). Anarthrous also and comparative form as in verse #1. See #4:12 for hagnia. No sort of behavior will so easily make or mar the young preacher as his conduct with young women.

    5:3 {That are widows indeed} (tas ontws ceras). For ontws (actually, really), see #Lu 23:47; 1Co 14:25; and verse #5. For widows (cera) see #Mr 12:40,42; Ac 6:1; 1Co 7:8. Parry notes that in verses #3-8 Paul discusses widows who are in distress and #9-16 those who are in the employment of the local church for certain work. Evidently, as in Acts #6:1-6, so here in Ephesus there had arisen some trouble over the widows in the church. Both for individual cases of need and as a class Timothy is to show proper respect (tima, keep on honoring) the widows.

    5:4 {Grandchildren} (ekgona). Old word from ekginomai, here only in N.T. {Let them learn} (manqanetwsan). The children and grandchildren of a widow. Present active imperative third person plural of manqanw. "Let them keep on learning." {First} (prwton). Adverb, first before anything else. No "corban" business here. No acts of "piety" toward God will make up for impiety towards parents. {To shew piety} (eusebein). Present active infinitive with manqanetwsan and old verb, in N.T. only here and #Ac 17:23. From eusebes (eu, sebomai), pious, dutiful. {Their own family} (ton idion oikon). "Their own household." Filial piety is primary unless parents interfere with duty to Christ (#Lu 14:26). {To repay} (amoibas apodidonai). Present active infinitive of apodidwmi, to give back, old and common verb (#Ro 2:6), to keep on giving back. amoibas (from ameibomai, to repay like for like) is old and common word, but here only in N.T. {Their parents} (tois progonois). Dative case of old and common word progonos (from proginomai, to come before), "ancestor." In N.T. only here and #2Ti 1:3. See #2:3 for "acceptable" (apodekton).

    5:5 {Desolate} (memonwmene). Perfect passive participle of monow (from monos), "left alone," old verb, here alone in N.T. Without husband, children, or other close kin. {Hath her hope set on God} (elpiken epi qeon). Perfect active indicative of elpizw, "hath placed her hope (and keeps it) on God." Text doubtful whether God (qeon) or Lord (kurion). {Continues} (prosmenei). See on ¯1:3. With dative case here. {Night and day} (nuktos kai hemeras). "By night and by day" (genitive, not accusative). Paul does not say that she should pray "all night and day."

    5:6 {She that giveth herself to pleasure} (he spatalwsa). Present active participle of splatalaw, late verb (Polybius) from spatale (riotous, luxurious living). In N.T. only here and #Jas 5:5.

    5:7 {That they may be without reproach} (hina anepilˆmptoi "sin). See #3:2 for anepilemptos. Final clause with hina and present subjunctive.

    5:8 {Provideth not for his own} (twn idiwn ou pronoei). Condition of first class with ei and present active (or middle pronoeitai) indicative of pronoew, old verb, to think beforehand. Pauline word in N.T. only here, #2Co 8:21; Ro 12:7. With genitive case. {He hath denied the faith} (ten pistin ernetai). Perfect middle indicative of old verb arneomai. His act of impiety belies (#Tit 1:16) his claim to the faith (#Re 2:13). {Worse than an unbeliever} (apistou ceirwn). Ablative case of apistou after the comparative ceir"n. Who makes no profession of piety.

    5:9 {Let none be enrolled as a widow} (cera katalegesqw). Present passive imperative of katalegw, old verb, to set down in an official list, only here in N.T. "Let a widow be enrolled," the negative coming later, "having become of no less than sixty years" (me elatton etwn hexekonta gegonuia). Second perfect active participle of ginomai. For the case of etwn, see #Lu 2:42. this list of genuine widows (verses #3,5) apparently had some kind of church work to do (care for the sick, the orphans, etc.). {The wife of one man} (henos andros gune). Widows on this list must not be married a second time. this interpretation is not so clear for #3:2,12; Tit 1:6.

    5:10 {If she hath brought up children} (ei eteknotrofesen). Condition of first class. Late and rare word (Aristotle, Epictetus), first aorist active indicative of teknotrofew (teknotrofos, from teknon, trefw), here only in N.T. Qualification for her work as leader. {If she hath used hospitality to strangers} (ei exenodocesen). First aorist again and same condition. Late form (Dio Cassius) of old verb xenodokew (Herodotus), to welcome strangers (xenous decomai). Only here in N.T. Hospitality another qualification for such leadership (#3:2). {If she hath washed the saints' feet} (ei hagiwn podas eniyen). Same condition and tense of niptw (old form nizw), common in N.T. (#Joh 13:5). Proof of her hospitality, not of its being a church ordinance. {If she hath relieved the afflicted} (ei qlibomenois eperkesen). Same condition and tense of eparkew, to give sufficient aid, old word, in N.T. only here and verse #16. Experience that qualified her for eleemosynary work. {If she hath diligently followed} (ei epekolouqesen). Same condition and tense of epakolouqew, old verb, to follow close upon (epi). So here, verse #24; 1Pe 2:21. In a word such a widow must show her qualifications for leadership as with bishops and deacons.

    5:11 {But younger widows refuse} (newteras de ceras paraitou). Present middle imperative as in #4:7. "Beg off from." They lack experience as above and they have other ambitions. {When they have waxed wanton} (hotan katastrˆnias"sin). First aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of katastreniaw, late compound (only here and Ignatius), to feel the impulse of sexual desire, but simplex streniaw (#Re 18:7,9). Souter renders it here "exercise youthful vigor against Christ" (tou cristou, genitive case after kata in composition).

    5:12 {Condemnation} (krima). See #3:6. {They have rejected} (eqetesan). First aorist passive of aqetew, late verb (first in LXX and Polybius), to reject, set aside (from athetos). See #1Th 4:8; Ga 2:21. {Their first faith} (ten prwten pistin). "Their first pledge" (promise, contract) to Christ. It is like breaking the marriage contract. Evidently one of the pledges on joining the order of widows was not to marry. Parry suggests a kind of ordination as with deacons and bishops (technical use of krima and pistis).

    5:13 {And with} (hama de kai). See #Phm 1:22 for this very phrase, "and at the same time also." Such young enrolled widows have other perils also. {They learn to be idle} (argai manqanousin). There is no einai (to be) in the Greek. this very idiom without einai after manqanw occurs in Plato and Dio Chrysostom, though unusual. argai (idle) is old adjective (a privative and ergon, without work). See #Mt 20:3; Tit 1:12. {Going about} (periercomenai). Present middle participle of periercomai, old compound verb. See #Ac 19:13 of strollers. {From house to house} (tas oikias). Literally "the houses,"wandering around the houses." Vivid picture of idle tattlers and gossipers. {But tattlers also} (alla kai fluaroi). Old word from fluw (to boil up, to throw up bubbles, like blowing soap bubbles). Only here in N.T. fluarew in #3Jo 1:10 only in N.T. {And busybodies} (kai periergoi). Old word (from peri, ergon), busy about trifles to the neglect of important matters. In N.T. only here and #Ac 19:19. See #2Th 3:11 for periergazomai. {Things which they ought not} (ta me deonta). "The not necessary things," and, as a result, often harmful. See #Tit 1:11 ha me dei (which things are not necessary).

    5:14 {I desire} (boulomai). See #2:8. {The younger widows} (newteras). No article and no word for widows, though that is clearly the idea. newteras is accusative of general reference with gamein (to marry) the object (present infinitive active) of boulomai. {Bear children} (teknogonein). A compound verb here only in N.T. and nowhere else save in Anthol. See teknogonia in #2:15. {Rule the household} (oikodespotein). Late verb from oikodespotes (#Mr 14:14), twice in the papyri, only here in N.T. Note that the wife is here put as ruler of the household, proper recognition of her influence, "new and improved position" (Liddon) . {Occasion} (aformen). Old word (apo, horme), a base to rush from, Pauline use in #2Co 5:12; 11:12; Ga 5:13. {To the adversary} (twi antikeimenwi). Dative case of the articular participle of antikeimai, a Pauline idiom (#Php 1:28). {Reviling} (loidorias). Old word (from loidorew), in N.T. only here and #1Pe 3:9. Genitive case with carin.

    5:15 {Are turned aside} (exetrapesan). Second aorist (effective) passive indicative of ektrepw. See #1:6. {After Satan} (opisw tou satana). "Behind Satan." Late use of opisw (behind) as a preposition. Used by Jesus of disciples coming behind (after) him (#Mt 16:24).

    5:16 {That believeth} (piste). "Believing woman." {Hath widows} (ecei ceras). The "any believing woman" is one of the household-rulers of verse #14. The "widows" here are the widows dependent on her and who are considered as candidates to be enrolled in the list. {Let her relieve them} (eparkeitw autais). For this verb (imperative present active) see verse #10. {Let not be burdened} (me bareisqw). Present passive imperative (in prohibition mˆ) of bare", old verb (baros, burden), Pauline word (#2Co 1:8). {That are widows indeed} (tais ontws cerais). Dative case with eparkesei (first aorist active subjunctive with hina, final clause). See verse #3 for this use of ontws with cerais "the qualified and enrolled widows." Cf. verse #9.

    5:17 {The elders that rule well} (hoi kalws proestwtes presbuteroi). See verse #1 for ordinary sense of presbuteros for "older man." But here of position in same sense as episkopos (#3:2) as in #Tit 1:5 = episkopos in verse #7. Cf. Luke's use of presbuteros (#Ac 20:17) = Paul's episkopous (#Ac 20:28). proestwtes is second perfect active participle of proistemi (intransitive use) for which see #3:4. {Let be counted worthy} (axiousqwsan). Present passive imperative of axiow, to deem worthy (#2Th 1:11). With genitive case here. {Of double honor} (diples times). Old and common contract adjective (diploos, two-fold, in opposition to haploos, single fold). But why "of double honor"? See #6:1 for "of all honor." White suggests "remuneration" rather than "honor" for times (a common use for price or pay). Liddon proposes "honorarium" (both honor and pay and so "double"). Wetstein gives numerous examples of soldiers receiving double pay for unusual services. Some suggest twice the pay given the enrolled widows. {Especially those who labor in word and teaching} (malista hoi kopiwntes en logwi kai didaskaliai). Either those who work hard or toil (usual meaning of kopiaw, #2Ti 2:6) in preaching and teaching (most probable meaning. See verse #18) or those who teach and preach and not merely preside (a doubtful distinction in "elders" at this time). See #Tit 1:8f. See both kopiaw and proistamai used for same men (elders) in #1Th 5:12 and the use of kopiaw in #1Co 15:10; 16:16.

    5:18 {Thou shalt not muzzle} (ou fimwseis). Prohibition by ou and future (volitive) indicative of fimow (from fimos, muzzle), old word, quoted also in #1Co 9:9 as here from #De 25:4, and for the same purpose, to show the preacher's right to pay for his work. See #1Co 9:9 for alownta ({when he treadeth out the corn}). {The laborer is worthy of his hire} (axios ho ergates tou misqou autou). These words occur in precisely this form in #Lu 10:7. It appears also in #Mt 10:10 with tes trofes (food) instead of tou misqou. In #1Co 9:14 Paul has the sense of it and says: "so also the Lord ordained," clearly meaning that Jesus had so said. It only remains to tell whether Paul here is quoting an unwritten saying of Jesus as he did in #Ac 20:35 or even the Gospel of Luke or Q (the logia of Jesus). There is no way to decide this question. If Luke wrote his Gospel before A.D. 62 as is quite possible and Acts by A.D. 63, he could refer to the Gospel. It is not clear whether Scripture is here meant to apply to this quotation from the Lord Jesus. For ergates (laborer) see #Php 3:2.

    5:19 {Against an elder} (kata presbuterou). In the official sense of verses #17f. {Receive not} (me paradecou). Present middle imperative with me (prohibition) of paradecomai, to receive, to entertain. Old verb. See #Ac 22:18. {Accusation} (kategorian). Old word (from kategoros). In N.T. only here, #Tit 1:6; Joh 18:29 in critical text. {Except} (ektos ei me). For this double construction see #1Co 14:5; 15:2. {At the mouth of} (epi). Idiomatic use of epi (upon the basis of) as in #2Co 13:1.

    5:20 {Them that sin} (tous hamartanontas). The elders who continue to sin (present active participle). {In the sight of all} (enwpion pantwn). "In the eye of (ho en opi wn, the one who is in the eye of, qen combined = enwpion) all" the elders (or even of the church). See next verse #21 and #Ga 1:20. Public rebuke when a clear case, not promiscuous gossip. {May be in fear} (fobon ecwsin). Present active subjunctive with hina (final clause), "may keep on having fear" (of exposure). Possibly, "the rest of the elders."

    5:21 {The elect angels} (twn eklektwn aggelwn). For this triad of God, Christ, angels, see #Lu 9:26. "Elect" in the sense of the "holy" angels who kept their own principality (#Jude 1:6) and who did not sin (#2Pe 2:4). Paul shows his interest in angels in #1Co 4:9; 11:10. {Observe} (fulaxeis). First aorist active subjunctive of fulassw, to guard, to keep (#Ro 2:26). Subfinal use of hina. {Without prejudice} (cwris prokrimatos). Late and rare word (from prokinw, to judge beforehand), three times in the papyri, here only in N.T. "Without prejudgment." {By partiality} (kata prosklisin). Late word from prosklinw, to incline towards one (#Ac 5:36), only here in N.T.

    5:22 {Lay hands hastily} (ceiras tacews epitiqei). Present active imperative of epitiqemi in the sense of approval (ordination) as in #Ac 6:6; 13:3. But it is not clear whether it is the case of ministers just ordained as in #4:14 (epiqesis), or of warning against hasty ordination of untried men, or the recognition and restoration of deposed ministers (verse #20) as suits the context. The prohibition suits either situation, or both. {Be partakers of other men's sins} (koinwnei hamartiais allotriais). Present active imperative of koinwnew (from koinwnos, partner) with me in prohibition with associative instrumental case as in #2Jo 1:11; Ro 12:13. On allotrios (belonging to another) see #Ro 14:4. {Keep thyself pure} (seauton hagnon terei). "Keep on keeping thyself pure." Present active imperative of terew.

    5:23 {Be no longer a drinker of water} (meketi hudropotei). Present active imperative (prohibition) of hudropotew, old verb (from hudropotes, water drinker, hudwr, pinw), here only in N.T. Not complete asceticism, but only the need of some wine urged in Timothy's peculiar physical condition (a sort of medical prescription for this case). {But use a little wine} (alla ainwi oligwi crw). Present middle imperative of craomai with instrumental case. The emphasis is on oligwi (a little). {For thy stomach's sake} (dia ton stomacon). Old word from stoma (mouth). In Homer throat, opening of the stomach (Aristotle), stomach in Plutarch. Here only in N.T. Our word "stomach." {Thine often infirmities} (tas puknas sou asqeneias). puknos is old word, dense, frequent. In N.T. only here, #Lu 5:33; Ac 24:26. asqeneias = weaknesses, lack of strength (#Ro 8:26). Timothy was clearly a semi-invalid.

    5:24 {Evident} (prodeloi). "Openly plain,"plain before all." Old word, in N.T. only here and #Heb 7:24. {Going before unto judgment} (proagousai eis krisin). See #1:18 for proagw. The sins are so plain that they receive instant condemnation. {And some men also they follow after} (tisin de kai epakolouqousin). Associative instrumental case tisin with epakolouqousin for which verb see verse #10, "dog their steps" (Parry) like #1Pe 2:21, not clearly manifest at first, but come out plainly at last. How true that is of secret sins.

    5:25 {Such as are otherwise} (ta allws econta). "Those (deeds, erga) which have it otherwise." That is good deeds not clearly manifest. {Cannot be hid} (krubenai ou dunantai). Second aorist passive infinitive of kruptw. There is comfort here for modest preachers and other believers whose good deeds are not known and not blazoned forth. They will come out in the end. See #Mt 5:14-16.

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