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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 4

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    4:1 {Expressly} (retws). Late adverb, here alone in N.T., from verbal adjective retos (from root re"). The reference is to the Holy Spirit, but whether to O.T. prophecy (#Ac 1:16) or to some Christian utterance (#2Th 2:2; 1Co 14:1ff.) we do not know. Parry recalls the words of Jesus in #Mt 24:10,24. {In later times} (en husterois kairois). Old adjective (#Mt 21:31) usually as adverb, husteron (#Mt 4:2). Relative time from the prediction, now coming true (a present danger). {Some shall fall away} (apostesontai tines). Future middle of afistemi, intransitive use, shall stand off from, to fall away, apostatize (#2Co 12:8). {From the faith} (tes pistews). Ablative case (separation). Not creed, but faith in God through Christ. {Giving heed} (prosecontes). Supply ton noun (the mind) as in #3:8. {Seducing spirits} (pneumasin planois). Old adjective (plane, wandering), here active sense (deceiving). As substantive in #2Co 6:8. Probably some heathen or the worst of the Gnostics. {Doctrines of devils} (didaskaliais daimoniwn). "Teachings of daimons." Definite explanation of the preceding. Cf. #1Co 10:20f.

    4:2 {Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies} (en hupokrisei yeudologwn). For hupokrisis, see #Ga 2:13. yeudologos (yeudes, legw) _Koin‚_ word from Aristophanes on. Here only in N.T. "A good classical word for liars on a large scale" (Parry). {Branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron} (kekausteriasmenwn ten idian suneidesin). Accusative case suneidesin retained with the perfect passive participle of kausteriazw, a rare verb only here and once in Strabo. Branded with the mark of Satan (#2Ti 2:26) as Paul was with the marks of Christ (#Ga 6:17). Agreeing in case with yeudologwn.

    4:3 {Forbidding to marry} (kwluontwn gamein). Present active participle of common verb kwluw, to hinder, genitive case agreeing with yeudologwn. See #Col 2:16,21f., where Paul condemns the ascetic practices of the Gnostics. The Essenes, Therapeutae and other oriental sects forbade marriage. In #1Co 7 Paul does not condemn marriage. {To abstain from meats} (apecesqai brwmatwn). Infinitive dependent, not on kwluontwn, but on the positive idea keleuontwn (implied, not expressed). Ablative case of brwmatwn after apecesqai (present direct middle, to hold oneself away from). See #1Co 8-10; Ro 14; 15 for disputes about "meats offered to idols" and #Co 1:22f. for the Gnostic asceticism. {Which God created} (ha ho qeos ektisen). First active indicative of ktizw (#Co 1:16). Cf. #1Co 10:25. {To be received} (eis metalemyin). "For reception." Old word, only here in N.T. {By them that believe and know} (tois pistois kai epegnwkosi). Dative case, "for the believers and those who (one article unites closely) have known fully" (perfect active participle of epiginwskw), a Pauline use of the word (#Col 1:6).

    4:4 {Creature} (ktisma). Late word from ktizw, result of creating. See #Ge 1:31; Mr 7:15; Ro 14:14 for the idea stated. {To be rejected} (apobleton). Old verbal adjective in passive sense from apoballw, to throw away, here only in N.T. {If it be received} (lambanomenon). "Being received." Present passive participle of lambanw, in conditional sense, "with thanksgiving."

    4:5 {It is sanctified} (hagiazetai). Present passive indicative of hagiazw, here "rendered holy" rather than "declared holy." Cf. verse #4. {Through the word of God and prayers} (dia logou qeou kai enteuxews). See #2:1 for enteuxis. Paul seems to refer to genesis 1. It is almost a hendiadys "by the use of Scripture in prayer."

    4:6 {If thou put the brethren in mind of these things} (tauta hupotiqemenos tois adelfois). Present middle participle of hupotiqemi, to place under, to suggest, old and common verb, here only in N.T., "suggesting these things to the brethren." {Thou shalt be a good minister of Christ Jesus} (kalos esei diakonos cristou iesou). this beautiful phrase covers one's whole service for Christ (#3:1-7). {Nourished in} (entrefomenos). Present passive participle of entrefw, old verb, to nourish in, used by Plato of "nourished in the laws," here only in the N.T. {The words of the faith} (tois logois tes pistews). Locative case. The right diet for babes in Christ. The Bolshevists in Russia are feeding the children on atheism to get rid of God. {Which thou hast followed} (hei parekolouqekas). Perfect active indicative of parakolouqew, old verb, to follow beside, of persons (often in old Greek) or of ideas and things (#Lu 1:3; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 3:10). With associative instrumental case hˆi (which).

    4:7 {Refuse} (paraitou). Present middle imperative second person singular of paraitew, old verb, to ask of one and qen to beg off from one as in #Lu 14:18f.; Ac 25:11; 1Ti 4:7; 5:11; Tit 3:10; 2Ti 2:23. {Profane} (bebelous). See #1:9. {Old wives' fables} (grawdeis muqous). On muqos, see #1:4. grawdeis, late word (Strabo, Galen) from graus, old woman, and eidos (look, appearance). Such as old women tell to children like the Gnostic aeons. {Exercise thyself} (gumnaze seauton). Present active imperative of gumnazw, originally to exercise naked (gumnos). Old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and #Heb 5:14; 12:11.

    4:8 {Bodily exercise} (he swmatike gumnasia). gumnasia (from gumnazw), also a common old word, here only in N.T. So also swmatike (from swma, body) in N.T. only here and #Lu 3:22. {Profitable} (wfelimos). Another old word (from wfelew, to help, to profit), in N.T. only here, #Tit 3:8; 2Ti 3:16. {For a little} (pros oligon). "For little." Probably extent in contrast to pros panta (for all things), though in #Jas 4:14 it is time "for a little while." {Which now is} (tes nun). "The now life." {Of that which is to come} (tes mellouses). "Of the coming (future) life."

    4:9 See #1:15 for these very words, but here the phrase points to the preceding words, not to the following as there.

    4:10 {To this end} (eis touto). The godliness (eusebeia) of verse #8. See #2Co 6:10 as Paul's own commentary. {We labor} (kopiwmen, #Col 1:29) {and strive} (kai agwnizomeqa, #Col 1:29). Both Pauline words. {Because we have set our hope} (hoti elpikamen). Perfect active indicative of elpizw (#Ro 15:12). {Savior of all men} (swter pantwn anqrwpwn). See #1:1 for swter applied to God as here. Not that all men "are saved" in the full sense, but God gives life (#6:13) to all (#Ac 17:28). {Specially of them that believe} (malista pistwn). Making a distinction in the kinds of salvation meant. "While God is potentially Savior of all, He is actually Savior of the pistoi" (White). So Jesus is termed "Savior of the World" (#Joh 4:42). Cf. #Ga 6:10.

    4:12 {Despise} (katafroneitw). Imperative active third singular of katafronew, old verb, to think down on, to despise (#Ro 2:4). {Thy youth} (sou tes neotetos). Genitive case of old word (from neos) as in #Mr 10:20. {Be thou} (ginou). Present middle imperative of ginomai. "Keep on becoming thou." {An ensample} (tupos). Old word from tuptw, a type. Pauline use of the word (#1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17; Tit 2:7). {To them that believe} (twn pistwn). Objective genitive. {In word} (en logwi). In conversation as well as in public speech. {In manner of life} (en anastrofei). "In bearing" (#Ga 1:13; Eph 4:22). {In purity} (en hagneiai). Old word from hagneuw (hagnos). Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (#Nu 6:2,21). Only here and #5:2 in N.T.

    4:13 {Till I come} (hews ercomai). "While I am coming" (present indicative with hews), not "till I come" (hews elqw). {Give heed} (prosece). Present active imperative, supply ton noun, "keep on putting thy mind on." {The reading} (tei anagnwsei). Old word from anaginwskw. See #2Co 3:14. Probably in particular the public reading of the Scriptures (#Ac 13:15), though surely private reading is not to be excluded. {To exhortation} (tei paraklesei), {to teaching} (tei didaskaliai). Two other public functions of the minister. Probably Paul does not mean for the exhortation to precede the instruction, but the reverse in actual public work. Exhortation needs teaching to rest it upon, a hint for preachers today.

    4:14 {Neglect not} (me amelei). Present active imperative in prohibition of amelew, old verb, rare in N.T. (#Mt 22:5; 1Ti 4:14; Heb 2:3; 8:9). From ameles (a privative and melei, not to care). Use with genitive. {The gift that is in thee} (tou en soi carismatos). Late word of result from carizomai, in papyri (Preisigke), a regular Pauline word in N.T. (#1Co 1:7; 2Co 1:11; Ro 1:11; etc.). Here it is God's gift to Timothy as in #2Ti 1:6. {By prophecy} (dia profeteias). Accompanied by prophecy (#1:18), not bestowed by prophecy. {With the laying on of the hands of the presbytery} (meta epiqesews twn ceirwn tou presbuteriou). In #Ac 13:2f., when Barnabas and Saul were formally set apart to the mission campaign (not qen ordained as ministers, for they were already that), there was the call of the Spirit and the laying on of hands with prayer. Here again meta does not express instrument or means, but merely accompaniment. In #2Ti 1:6 Paul speaks only of his own laying on of hands, but the rest of the presbytery no doubt did so at the same time and the reference is to this incident. There is no way to tell when and where it was done, whether at Lystra when Timothy joined Paul's party or at Ephesus just before Paul left Timothy there (#1:3). epiqesis (from epitiqemi, to lay upon) is an old word, in LXX, etc. In the N.T. we find it only here, #2Ti 1:16; Ac 8:18; Heb 6:2, but the verb epitiqemi with tas ceiras more frequently (#Ac 6:6 of the deacons; #8:19; 13:3; 1Ti 5:22, etc.). presbuterion is a late word (ecclesiastical use also), first for the Jewish Sanhedrin (#Lu 22:66; Ac 22:5), qen (here only in N.T.) of Christian elders (common in Ignatius), though presbuteros (elder) for preachers (bishops) is common (#Ac 11:30; 15:2; 20:17, etc.).

    4:15 {Be diligent in these things} (tauta meleta). Old verb from melete (care, practice), present active imperative, "keep on practising these things." In N.T. only here and #Ac 4:25. {Give thyself wholly to them} (en toutois isqi). Present imperative second person singular of eimi, "keep on in these things." Note five uses of en in verse #12 and three datives in verse #14. Plutarch (Pomp. 656 B) says Caesar was en toutois ("in these things"). It is like our "up to his ears" in work (in medias res) and sticking to his task. {Thy progress} (sou he prokope). _Koin‚_ word from prokoptw, to cut forward, to blaze the way, in N.T. only here and #Php 1:12,25. Paul's concern (purpose, hina and present subjunctive ˆi of eimi) is that Timothy's "progress" may be "manifest to all." It is inspiring to see a young preacher grow for qen the church will grow with him.

    4:16 {Take heed to thyself} (epece seautwi). Present active imperative of old verb epecw, to hold upon (#Php 2:1,16), but here ton noun (the mind) must be supplied as in #Ac 3:5 and as is common with prosecw. With dative case seautwi. "Keep on paying attention to thyself." Some young preachers are careless about their health and habits. Some are too finical. {And to the teaching} (kai tei didaskaliai). this is important also. {Continue in these things} (epimene autois). Present active imperative of epimenw, old and common verb to stay by the side of a person or thing. See #Ro 6:1; Col 1:23. "Stay by them," "stick to them,"see them through."Stick to the business of framing your own life and your teaching on right lines" (Parry). {Thou shalt save} (swseis). Future active of swzw, effective future, finally save. Cf. #1Co 9:27; Joh 10:9.

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