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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 3

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    3:1 {Faithful is the saying} (pistos ho logos). Here the phrase points to the preceding words (not like #1:15) and should close the preceding paragraph. {If a man seeketh} (ei tis oregetai). Condition of first class, assumed as true. Present middle indicative of oregw, old verb to reach out after something, governing the genitive. In N.T. only here, #6:10; Heb 11:16. {The office of a bishop} (episkopes). Genitive case after oregetai. Late and rare word outside of LXX and N.T. (in a Lycaonian inscription). From episkopew and means "over-seership" as in #Ac 1:20.

    3:2 {The bishop} (ton episkopon). The overseer. Old word, in LXX, and inscriptions and papyri. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 230f.) has shown it is applied to communal officials in Rhodes. See #Ac 20:28 for its use for the elders (presbyters) in verse #17. So also in #Tit 1:5,7. See #Php 1:1. The word does not in the N.T. have the monarchical sense found in Ignatius of a bishop over elders. {Without reproach} (anepilempton). Accusative case of general reference with dei and einai. Old and common verbal (a privative and epilambanw, not to be taken hold of), irreproachable. In N.T. only here, #5:7; 6:14. {Of one wife} (mias gunaikos). One at a time, clearly. {Temperate} (nefalion). Old adjective. In N.T. only here, verse #11; Tit 2:2. But see nefw, to be sober in #1Th 5:6,8. {Soberminded} (swfrona). Another old adjective (from saos or s"s, sound, fren, mind) in N.T. only here, #Tit 1:8; 2:2,5. {Orderly} (kosmion). See on ¯2:9. Seemly, decent conduct. {Given to hospitality} (filoxenon). Old word (see filoxenia in #Ro 12:13), from filos and xenos, in N.T. only here, #Tit 1:8; 1Pe 4:9. {Apt to teach} (didaktikon). Late form for old didaskalikos, one qualified to teach. In Philo and N.T. only (#1Ti 3:2; 2Ti 2:24).

    3:3 {No brawler} (me paroinon). Later word for the earlier paroinios, one who sits long at (beside, para) his wine. In N.T. only here and #Tit 1:3. {No striker} (me plekten). Late word from plessw, to strike. In N.T. only here and #Tit 1:3. {Gentle} (epieike). See on ¯Php 4:5 for this interesting word. {Not contentious} (amacon). Old word (from a privative and mace), not a fighter. In N.T. only here and #Tit 3:2. {No lover of money} (afilarguron). Late word (a privative and compound phil-arguros) in inscriptions and papyri (Nageli; also Deissmann, _Light_, etc., pp. 85f.). In N.T. only here and #Heb 13:5.

    3:4 {Ruling} (proistamenon). Present middle participle of proistemi, old word to place before and (intransitive as here) to stand before. See #1Th 5:12; Ro 12:8. {In subjection} (en hupotagei). See verse #11.

    3:5 {If a man knoweth not} (ei tis ouk oiden). Condition of first class, assumed as true. {How to rule} (prostenai). Second aorist active infinitive of same verb proistemi and with oiden means "know how to rule," not "know that he rules." {How} (pws). Rhetorical question expecting negative answer. {Shall he take care of} (epimelesetai). Future middle of epimeleomai, old compound (epi, direction of care towards) verb, in LXX, in N.T. only here and #Lu 10:34f. {The church of God} (ekklesias qeou). Anarthrous as in verse #15, elsewhere with article (#1Co 10:32; 15:9; 2Co 1:1; Ga 1:13). The local church described as belonging to God. No one in N.T. but Paul (#Ac 20:28) so describes the church. this verse is a parenthesis in the characteristics of the bishop.

    3:6 {Not a novice} (me neofuton). Our "neophyte." Vernacular word from Aristophanes on, in LXX, and in papyri in the original sense of "newly-planted" (neos, fuw). Only here in N.T. {Lest} (hina me). "That not." {Being puffed up} (tufwqeis). First aorist passive participle of tufow, old word (from tufos, smoke, pride), to raise a smoke or mist (a smoke-screen of pride). In N.T. only here; #6:4; 2Ti 3:4. {He fall into} (empesei eis). Second aorist active subjunctive with hina me, negative purpose, of empiptw, old verb, to fall into. Note both en and eis as in #Mt 12:11; Lu 10:36. {The condemnation of the devil} (krima tou diabolou). See #Ro 3:8 for krima. Best to take tou diabolou as objective genitive, though subjective in verse #7, "the condemnation passed on or received by the devil" (not just "the slanderer," any slanderer).

    3:7 {From them that are without} (apo twn exwqen). "From the outside (of the church) ones." Paul's care for the witness of outsiders is seen in #1Th 4:12; 1Co 10:32; Col 4:5. There are, of course, two sides to this matter. {Reproach} (oneidismon). Late word from oneidizw. See #Ro 15:3. {The snare of the devil} (pagida tou diabolou). Here subjective genitive, snare set by the devil. pagis, old word from pegnumi, to make fast. So a snare for birds (#Lu 21:35), any sudden trap (#Ro 11:9), of sin (#1Ti 6:9), of the devil (#1Ti 3:7; 2Ti 2:26). Ancients used it of the snares of love. The devil sets special snares for preachers (conceit verse #6, money #6:9, women, ambition).

    3:8 {Deacons} (diakonous). Accusative case of general reference like the preceding with dei einai understood. Technical sense of the word here as in #Php 1:1 which see (two classes of church officers, bishops or elders, deacons). {Grave} (semnous). See #Php 4:8. Repeated in verse #11; Tit 2:2. {Not double-tongued} (me dilogous). Rare word (dis, legw) saying same thing twice. Xenophon has dilogew and dilogia. In Pollux, but LXX has diglwssos (double-tongued, Latin _bilinguis_). Only here in N.T. One placed between two persons and saying one thing to one, another to the other. Like Bunyan's Parson "Mr. Two-Tongues." {Not given to much wine} (me oinwi pollwi prosecontas). "Not holding the mind (ton noun understood as usual with prosecw, #1Ti 1:4) on much wine" (oinwi, dative case). That attitude leads to over-indulgence. {Not greedy of filthy lucre} (me aiscrokerdeis). Old word from aiscros (#Eph 5:12) and kerdos (#Php 1:21). "Making small gains in mean ways" (Parry). Not genuine in verse #3. In N.T. only here and #Tit 1:7 (of bishops).

    3:9 {The mystery of the faith} (to musterion tes pistews). "The inner secret of the faith," the revelation given in Christ. See for musterion in Paul (#2Th 2:7; 1Co 2:7; Ro 16:25; Col 1:26; Eph 3:9). {In a pure conscience} (en kaqarai suneidesei). See #1:19. "The casket in which the jewel is to be kept" (Lock).

    3:10 {First be proved} (dokimazesqwsan prwton). Present passive imperative third plural of dokimazw, old and common verb, to test as metals, etc. (#1Th 2:4, and often in Paul). How the proposed deacons are to be "first" tested before approved Paul does not say. See #Php 1:10 for the two senses (test, approve) of the word. {Let them serve as deacons} (diakoneitwsan). Present active imperative of diakonew (same root as diakonos), common verb, to minister, here "to serve as deacons." Cf. diakonein in #Ac 6:2. See also verse #13. {If they be blameless} (anegkletoi ontes). "Being blameless" (conditional participle, ontes). See #1Co 1:8; Col 1:22 for anegkletos.

    3:11 {Women} (gunaikas). Accusative with dei einai understood (hosautws, likewise) as in verse #8. Apparently "women as deacons" (#Ro 16:1 about Phoebe) and not women in general or just "wives of deacons." See Pliny (_Ep_. X. 97) _ministrae_. {Not slanderers} (me diabolous). Original meaning of diabolos (from diaballw, #Lu 16:1), the devil being the chief slanderer (#Eph 6:11). "She-devils" in reality (#Tit 2:3). "While men are more prone to be dilogous, double-tongued, women are more prone than men to be slanderers" (White). {Faithful in all things} (pistas en pasin). Perhaps as almoners (Ellicott) the deaconesses had special temptations.

    3:12 {Of one wife} (mias gunaikos). At a time as in verse #2. {Ruling well} (proistamenoi kalws). As in #4.

    3:13 {Gain to themselves} (heautois peripoiountai). Present middle indicative of peripoiew, old verb, to make besides (peri, around, over), to lay by. Reflexive (indirect) middle with reflexive pronoun (heautois) repeated as often happens in the _Koin‚_. In N.T. only here, #Lu 17:33; Ac 20:28 (Paul also, quoting #Isa 43:21). {A good standing} (baqmon kalon). Late word from bainw, in LXX for steps at a door (#1Sa 5:5). In plural the steps of a stair. In the inscriptions it means a good foothold or standing. The ecclesiastical writers (Theodoret) take it to be a higher grade or rank, but it is doubtful if Paul means that here. {Much boldness} (pollen parresian). A Pauline phrase (#2Co 3:12; 7:4; Php 1:20). {In the faith which is in Christ Jesus} (en pistei tˆi en Christ"i iesou). Pauline phrase again (#Ac 26:18; Ga 3:26; Col 1:4; Eph 1:15; 2Ti 1:13; 3:15).

    3:14 {Shortly} (en tacei). Old idiom (locative case of tacos, quickness, speed). See #Ro 16:20. A pseudonymous writer would hardly have put in this phrase. Paul's hopes were not to be realized, but he did not know that.

    3:15 {But if I tarry long} (ean de bradunw). Condition of third class with ean and the present active subjunctive of bradunw, old verb, to be slow (usually intransitive), from bradus (slow, dull, #Lu 24:25), in N.T. only here and #2Pe 3:9. {That thou mayest know} (hina eideis). Final clause with hina and second perfect active subjunctive of oida, to know. {How men ought} (pws dei). "How it is necessary for thee" (supply se more naturally than tina, any one). Indirect question. {To behave themselves} (anastrefesqai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of anastrefw, old verb, to turn up and down. See #2Co 1:12; Eph 2:3. {In the house of God} (en oikwi qeou). Probably here "household of God," that is "the family of God" rather than "the house (or temple) of God." Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and oikos commonly means "household." Christians are the naos (sanctuary) of God (#1Co 3:16f.; 2Co 6:16), and Paul calls them oikeioi tou qeou (#Eph 2:19) "members of God's family." It is conduct as members of God's family (oikos) that Paul has in mind. {Which} (hetis). "Which very house of God," agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word ekklesia (church). {The church of the living God} (ekklesia qeou zwntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in verse #5. {The pillar and ground of the truth} (stulos kai hedraiwma tes aleqeias). Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to ekklesia and oikos. On stulos, old word for pillar, see #Ga 2:9; Re 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). hedraiwma, late and rare word (from hedraiow, to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See #Co 1:23; 2Ti 2:19 for similar idea. See also #Mt 16:18f.

    3:16 {Without controversy} (homologoumenws). Old adverb from the participle homologoumenos from homologew. Here only in N.T. "Confessedly." {Great} (mega). See #Eph 5:32. "A great mystery." {The mystery of godliness} (to tes eusebeias musterion). See verse #9 "the mystery of the faith," and #2:2 for eusebeia. Here the phrase explains "a pillar and stay of the truth" (verse #15). See in particular #Co 1:27. "The revealed secret of true religion, the mystery of Christianity, the Person of Christ" (Lock). {He who} (hos). The correct text, not qeos (God) the reading of the Textus Receptus (Syrian text) nor ho (neuter relative, agreeing with musterion) the reading of the Western documents. Westcott and Hort print this relative clause as a fragment of a Christian hymn (like #Eph 5:14) in six strophes. That is probably correct. At any rate hos (who) is correct and there is asyndeton (no connective) in the verbs. Christ, to whom hos refers, is the mystery (#Col 1:27; 2:2). {Was manifested} (efanerwqe). First aorist passive indicative of fanerow, to manifest. Here used to describe the incarnation (en sarki) of Christ (an answer also to the Docetic Gnostics). The verb is used by Paul elsewhere of the incarnation (#Ro 16:26; Col 1:26) as well as of the second coming (#Col 3:4). {Justified in the spirit} (edikaiwqe en pneumati). First aorist passive indicative of dikaiow, to declare righteous, to vindicate. Christ was vindicated in his own spirit (#Heb 9:14) before men by overcoming death and rising from the dead (#Ro 1:3f.). {Seen of angels} (wfqe aggelois). First aorist passive indicative of horaw, to see, with either the instrumental or the dative case of angels (aggelois). The words were probably suggested by the appearance of Jesus (wfqe, the usual form for the resurrection appearances of Christ) of the angels at the tomb and at the ascension of Christ. See #Php 2:10; 1Pe 3:22 for the appearance of Jesus to the angels in heaven at the ascension. Some would take "angels" here to be "messengers" (the women). {Preached among the nations} (ekerucqe en eqnesin). First aorist passive indicative of kerussw, to proclaim. The word eqnos may mean "all creation" (#Col 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than any one else. It was his glory (#Eph 3:1,8). Cf. #2:7. {Believed on in the world} (episteuqe en kosmwi). First aorist indicative passive again of pisteuw, to believe (#2Th 1:10). Cf. #1:15; 2Co 5:19. {Received up in glory} (anelemfqe en doxei). First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. #Ro 8:29f. this time the verb is analambanw, the verb used of the ascension (#Ac 1:11,22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ.

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