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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 2

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    2:1 {First of all} (prwton pantwn). Take with parakalw. My first request (first in importance). {Intercessions} (enteuxeis). Late word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.), only here in N.T. and #4:5, though the verb entugcanw in #Ro 8:27,34; 11:2,25. The other three words for prayer are common (#Php 4:6). {For all men} (huper pantwn anqrwpwn). The scope of prayer is universal including all kinds of sinners (and saints).

    2:2 {For kings} (huper basilewn). And this included Nero who had already set fire to Rome and laid it on the Christians whom he was also persecuting. {And all them that are in high place} (kai pantwn twn en huperocei ontwn). huperoce is old word (from huperocos and this from huper and ecw), but in N.T. only here and #1Co 2:1. {That we may lead} (hina diagwmen). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of diagw, an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and #Tit 3:3. {Tranquil} (eremon). Late adjective from the old adverb erema (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T. {Quiet} (hˆsuchion). Old adjective, once in LXX (#Isa 66:2), in N.T. only here and #1Pe 3:4. {Life} (bion). Old word for course of life (not z"ˆ). So #Lu 8:14. {Gravity} (semnoteti). Old word from semnos (#Php 4:8), in N.T. only here, #3:4; Tit 2:7.

    2:3 {Acceptable} (apodekton). Late verbal adjective from apodecomai. In inscriptions and papyri. In N.T. only here and #5:4.

    2:4 {Willeth} (qelei). God's wish and will in so far as he can influence men. {That all men should be saved} (pantas anqrwpous swqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of swzw with accusative of general reference. See #1Co 10:33; 2Co 5:18f. {To the knowledge} (eis epign"sin). "The full knowledge" as in #Col 1:6; Eph 4:13 (ten times in Paul). See #2Ti 3:7 for the whole phrase "full knowledge of the truth" (aleqeia 14 times in the Pastorals). Paul is anxious as in Colossians and Ephesians that the Gnostics may not lead the people astray. They need the full intellectual apprehension of Christianity.

    2:5 {One God} (heis qeos). Regular Pauline argument for a universal gospel (#Ga 3:20; Ro 3:30; Eph 4:6). {One mediator} (heis mesites). Late word (Polybius, Philo) from mesos (middle), a middle man. In N.T. only here, #Ga 3:20; Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24. {Between God and men} (qeou kai anqrwpwn). Ablative case (though objective genitive may explain it) after mesites (notion of separation) as in #Ro 10:12; Heb 5:14. {Himself man} (anqrwpos). No "himself" (autos) in the Greek.

    2:6 {A ransom for all} (antilutron huper pantwn). "A reminiscence of the Lord's own saying" (Lock) in #Mt 20:28 (#Mr 10:45) where we have lutron anti pollwn. In the papyri huper is the ordinary preposition for the notion of substitution where benefit is involved as in this passage. anti has more the idea of exchange and antilutron huper combines both ideas. lutron is the common word for ransom for a slave or a prisoner. Paul may have coined antilutron with the saying of Christ in mind (only one MS. of #Ps 48:9 and Orph. _Litt_. 588). See #Ga 1:4 "who gave himself for our sins." {The testimony} (to marturion). Either the nominative absolute or the accusative absolute in apposition to the preceding clause like to adunaton in #Ro 8:3. {In its own times} (kairois idiois). Locative case as in #6:15; Tit 1:3. See #Ga 6:9 for "due season." There is no predicate or participle here, "the testimony in its due seasons" (plural).

    2:7 {For which} (eis ho). The testimony of Jesus in his self-surrender (verse #6). See eis ho in #2Ti 1:11. {I was appointed} (eteqen egw). First aorist passive indicative of tiqemi. {Preacher and apostle} (kerux kai apostolos). In #2Ti 1:10 Paul adds didaskalos (herald, apostle, teacher) as he does here with emphasis. In #Col 1:23f. he has diakonos (minister). He frequently uses kerussw of himself (#1Co 1:23; 9:27; Ga 2:2; Ro 10:8f.). {I speak the truth, I lie not} (aleqeian legw, ou yeudomai). A Pauline touch (#Ro 9:1). Cf. #Ga 1:20; 2Co 11:31. Here alone he calls himself "a teacher of the Gentiles," elsewhere apostle (#Ro 11:13), minister (#Ro 15:16), prisoner (#Eph 3:1).

    2:8 {I desire} (boulomai). So #Php 1:12. {The men} (tous andras). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive proseucesqai. The men in contrast to "women" (gunaikas) in #9. It is public worship, of course, and "in every place" (en panti topwi) for public worship. Many modern Christians feel that there were special conditions in Ephesus as in Corinth which called for strict regulations on the women that do not always apply now. {Lifting up holy hands} (epairontas hosious ceiras). Standing to pray. Note also hosious used as feminine (so in Plato) with ceiras instead of hosias. The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up "clean hands" (morally and spiritually clean). See #Lu 24:50. Adverb hosiws in #1Th 2:10 and hosiotes in #Eph 4:24. {Without wrath and disputing} (cwris orges kai dialogismou). See #Php 2:14.

    2:9 {In like manner that women} (hosautws gunaikas). boulomai must be repeated from verse #8, involved in hosautws (old adverb, as in #Ro 8:26). Parry insists that proseucomenas (when they pray) must be supplied also. Grammatically that is possible (Lock), but it is hardly consonant with verses #11-15 (White). {Adorn themselves} (kosmein heautas). Present active infinitive after boulomai understood. Old word from kosmos (arrangement, ornament, order, world). See #Lu 21:5; Tit 2:10. See #1Co 11:5ff. for Paul's discussion of women's dress in public worship. {In modest apparel} (en katastolei kosmiwi). katastole is a late word (a letting down, katastellw, of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. kosmios is old adjective from kosmos and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin (kosmiws). {With shamefastness} (meta aidous). Old word for shame, reverence, in N.T. only here and #Heb 12:28. {Sobriety} (swfrosunes). Old word, in N.T. only here, verse #15, and #Ac 26:15 (Paul also). {Not with braided hair} (me en plegmasin). Old word from plekw, to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. #1Pe 3:1 (emplokes). {And gold} (en crusiwi). Locative case with en repeated. Some MSS. read cruswi. Both used for gold ornaments. {Or pearls} (e margaritais). See #Mt 7:6 for this word. {Or costly raiment} (e himatismwi polutelei). himatismos a common _Koin‚_ word from himatizw, to clothe. poluteles, old word from polus and telos (great price). See #Mr 14:3.

    2:10 {Becometh} (prepei). Old word for seemly. Paul wishes women to wear "becoming" clothes, but qeosebeian (godliness, from qeosebes, #Joh 9:31, qeos, sebomai, worship) is part of the "style" desired. Only here in N.T. Good dress and good works combined.

    2:11 {In quietness} (en hesuciai). Old word from hesucios. In N.T. only here, #Ac 22:2; 2Th 3:12. {In all subjection} (en pasei hupotagei). Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, #2Co 9:13; Ga 2:5. See #1Co 14:33-35.

    2:12 {I permit not} (ouk epitrepw). Old word epitrepw, to permit, to allow (#1Co 16:7). Paul speaks authoritatively. {To teach} (didaskein). In the public meeting clearly. And yet all modern Christians allow women to teach Sunday school classes. One feels somehow that something is not expressed here to make it all clear. {Nor to have dominion over a man} (oude auqentein andros). The word auqentew is now cleared up by Kretschmer (_Glotta_, 1912, pp. 289ff.) and by Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_. See also Nageli, _Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus_ and Deissmann, _Light, etc._, pp. 88f. autodikew was the literary word for playing the master while auqentew was the vernacular term. It comes from aut-hentes, a self-doer, a master, autocrat. It occurs in the papyri (substantive auqentes, master, verb auqentew, to domineer, adjective auqentikos, authoritative, "authentic"). Modern Greek has afentes = Effendi = "Mr."

    2:13 {Was first formed} (prwtos eplasqe). Note prwtos, not prwton, first before Eve. First aorist passive indicative of plassw, old verb, in N.T. only here and #Ro 9:20 (cf. #Ge 2:7f.).

    2:14 {Being beguiled} (exapateqeisa). First aorist passive participle of exapatew, old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (#2Th 2:3; 1Co 3:18; 2Co 11:3; Ro 7:11; 16:18; 1Ti 2:14). Not certain that ex- here means "completely deceived" in contrast to simplex (ouk epateqe) used of Adam, though possible. {Hath fallen} (gegonen). Second perfect indicative active, permanent state. See #1Co 11:7.

    2:15 {Through the child-bearing} (dia tes teknogonias). Late and rare word (in Aristotle). Here alone in N.T. From teknogonos and this from teknon and root genw. this translation makes it refer to the birth of the Savior as glorifying womanhood. That is true, but it is not clear that Paul does not have mostly in mind that child-bearing, not public teaching, is the peculiar function of woman with a glory and dignity all its own. "She will be saved" (swqesetai) in this function, not by means of it. {If they continue} (ean mein"sin). Condition of third class, ean with first aorist active subjunctive of menw, to continue. Note change to plural from the singular (swqesetai).

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