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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 TIMOTHY 1

    2 Thessalonians 3 - 1 Timothy 2 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    1:1 {According to the commandment} (kat' epitagen). A late _Koin‚_ word (Polybius, Diodorus), but a Pauline word also in N.T. this very idiom ("by way of command") in #1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8; Ro 16:26; 1Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. Paul means to say that he is an apostle under orders. {Of God our Savior} (qeou swteros hemwn). Genitive case with epitagen. In the LXX swter (old word from swzw for agent in saving, applied to deities, princes, kings, etc.) occurs 20 times, all but two to God. The Romans called the emperor "Savior God." In the N.T. the designation of God as Savior is peculiar to #Lu 1:47; Jude 1:25; 1Ti 1:3; 2:3; 4:10; Tit 1:3; 2:10; 3:4. In the other Epistles Paul uses it of Christ (#Php 3:20; Eph 5:23) as in #2Ti 1:10. In #2Pe 1:1 we have "our God and Savior Jesus Christ" as in #Tit 2:13. {Our hope} (tes elpidos hemwn). Like #Col 1:27. More than the author and object of hope, "its very substance and foundation" (Ellicott).

    1:2 {True} (gnesiwi). Legitimate, not spurious. Old word from ginomai, but Pauline only in N.T. (#Php 4:3; 2Co 8:8; Tit 1:4). In #Php 2:20 the adverb gnesiws occurs and of Timothy again. {Christ Jesus} (cristou iesou). So twice already in verse #1 and as usual in the later Epistles (#Col 1:1; Eph 1:1).

    1:3 {As I exhorted} (kaqws parekalesa). There is an ellipse of the principal clause in verse #4 ({so do I now} not being in the Greek). {To tarry} (prosmeinai). First aorist active infinitive of prosmenw, old verb, attributed by Luke to Paul in #Ac 13:43. {That thou mightest charge} (hina paraggeileis). Subfinal clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of paraggellw, old verb, to transmit a message along (para) from one to another. See #2Th 3:4,6,10. Lock considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like #Eph 4:29; 5:33. {Certain men} (tisin). Dative case. Expressly vague (no names as in #1:20), though Paul doubtless has certain persons in Ephesus in mind. {Not to teach a different doctrine} (me heterodidaskalein). Earliest known use of this compound like kakodidaskalein of Clement of Rome. Only other N.T. example in #6:3. Eusebius has heterodidaskalos. Same idea in #Ga 1:6; 2Co 11:4; Ro 16:17. Perhaps coined by Paul.

    1:4 {To give heed} (prosecein). With noun understood. Old and common idiom in N.T. especially in Luke and Acts (#Ac 8:10ff.). Not in Paul's earlier Epistles. #1Ti 3:8; 4:1,13; Tit 1:14. {To fables} (muqois). Dative case of old word for speech, narrative, story, fiction, falsehood. In N.T. only #2Pe 1:16; 1Ti 1:4; 4:7; Tit 1:14; 2Ti 4:4. {Genealogies} (genealogiais). Dative of old word, in LXX, in N.T. only here and #Tit 3:9. {Endless} (aperantois). Old verbal compound (from a privative and perainw, to go through), in LXX, only here in N.T. Excellent examples there for old words used only in the Pastorals because of the subject matter, describing the Gnostic emphasis on aeons. {Questionings} (ekzeteseis). "Seekings out." Late and rare compound from ekzetew (itself _Koin‚_ word, #Ro 3:11 from LXX and in papyri). Here only in N.T. Simplex zetesis in #Ac 15:2; 1Ti 6:4; Tit 3:9; 2Ti 2:23. {A dispensation} (oikonomian). Pauline word (#1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 1:9; 3:9; 1Ti 1:4), #Lu 16:2-4 only other N.T. examples. {In faith} (en pistei). Pauline use of pistis.

    1:5 {The end} (to telos). See #Ro 6:21; 10:4 for telos (the good aimed at, reached, result, end). {Love} (agape). Not "questionings." #Ro 13:9. "Three conditions for the growth of love" (Parry): "Out of a pure heart" (ek kaqaras kardias, O.T. conception), "and a good conscience" (kai suneidesews agaqes, for which see #Ro 2:25), "and faith unfeigned" (kai pistews anupokritou, late compound verbal in #2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9).

    1:6 {Having swerved} (astocesantes). First aorist active participle of astocew, compound _Koin‚_ verb (Polybius, Plutarch) from astocos (a privative and stocos, a mark), "having missed the mark." In N.T. only here, #6:21; 2Ti 2:18. With the ablative case h"n (which). {Have turned aside} (exetrapesan). Second aorist passive indicative of ektrepw, old and common verb, to turn or twist out or aside. In medical sense in #Heb 12:13. As metaphor in #1Ti 1:6; 6:20; 2Ti 4:4. {Vain talking} (mataiologian). Late word from mataiologos, only here in N.T., in the literary _Koin‚_.

    1:7 {Teachers of the law} (nomodidaskaloi). Compound only in N.T. (here, #Lu 5:17; Ac 5:34) and ecclesiastical writers. {Though they understand} (noountes). Concessive participle of noew, old verb (#Eph 3:4,20). {Neither what} (mete ha). Relative ha (which things). {Nor whereof} (mete peri tinwn). Here the interrogative tinwn used in sense of relative h"n. It may be regarded as the use of an indirect question for variety (Parry). {They confidently affirm} (diabebaiountai). Present middle indicative of the common _Koin‚_ compound, in N.T. only here and #Tit 3:8.

    1:8 {If a man use it lawfully} (ean tis autwi cretai). Condition of third class with ean and present middle subjunctive of craomai with instrumental case.

    1:9 {Is not made for} (ou keitai). The use of keitai for teqeitai (perfect passive of tiqemi) is a common enough idiom. See the same point about law in #Ga 18-23; Ro 13:13. For "knowing this " (eidws touto) see #Eph 5:5. {Unruly} (anupotaktois). Dative (like all these words) of the late verbal (a privative and hupotassw). In N.T. only here, #Tit 1:6,10; Heb 2:8. {Ungodly} (asebesi). See #Ro 4:5; 5:6. {Sinners} (hamartwlois). See #Ro 3:7. {Unholy} (anosiois). Common word (a privative and hosios. In N.T. only here and #2Ti 3:2. {Profane} (bebelois). Old word from bainw, to go, and belos, threshold. See #Heb 12:16. {Murderers of fathers} (patrolwiais). Late form for common Attic patralwiais (from pater, father, and aloiaw, to smite) only here in N.T. {Murderers of mothers} (metrolwiais). Late form Attic metralwiais. Only here in N.T. {Manslayers} (andrafonois). Old compound (aner, man, fonos, murder). Only here in N.T.

    1:10 {For abusers of themselves with men} (arsenokoitais). Late compound for sodomites. In N.T. only here and #1Co 6:9. {Men-stealers} (andrapodistais). Old word from andrapodizw (from aner, man, pous, foot, to catch by the foot), to enslave. So enslavers, whether kidnappers (men-stealers) of free men or stealers of the slaves of other men. So slave-dealers. By the use of this word Paul deals a blow at the slave-trade (cf. Philemon). {Liars} (yeustais). Old word, see #Ro 3:4. {False swearers} (epiorkois). Old word (epi, orkos, oath). Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see #1Co 5:11; 6:9f.; Ga 5:19f.; Ro 1:28f.; 13:13; Col 3:5; Eph 5:5; 2Ti 3:2f. {The sound doctrine} (tei hugiainousei didaskaliai). Dative case after antikeitai, for which verb see #Ga 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. "The healthful (hugiainw, old word for being well, as #Lu 5:31; 3Jo 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching." See #Tit 1:9; 2Ti 4:3.

    1:11 {Of the blessed God} (tou makariou qeou). Applied to God only here and #6:15, but in #Tit 2:13 makarios occurs with elpis (hope) of the "epiphany of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ." {Which was committed to my trust} (ho episteuqen egw). "with which (ho accusative retained with first aorist passive verb episteuthˆn) I was entrusted."

    1:12 {I thank} (carin ecw). "I have gratitude to." Common phrase (#Lu 17:9), not elsewhere in Paul. {That enabled me} (twi endunamwsanti me). First aorist active articular participle of endunamow. Late verb, but regular Pauline idiom (#Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10; 1Ti 1:12; 2Ti 4:17). {Appointing me to his service} (qemenos eis diakonian). Second aorist middle participle. Pauline phrase and atmosphere (#Ac 20:24; 1Co 3:5; 12:18,28; 2Co 3:6; 4:1; Col 1:23; Eph. 3:7; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 4:5,11).

    1:13 {Before} (to proteron). Accusative of general reference of the articular comparative, "as to the former-time," formerly, as in #Ga 4:13. {Though I was} (onta). Concessive participle agreeing with me. {Blasphemer} (blasfemon). Old word either from blax (stupid) and feme, speech, or from blaptw, to injure. Rare in N.T. but Paul uses blasfemew, to blaspheme in #Ro 2:24. {Persecutor} (diwktes). So far found only here. Probably made by Paul from diwkw, which he knew well enough (#Ac 22:4,7; 26:14f.; Ga 1:13,23; Php 3:6; 2Ti 3:12). {Injurious} (hubristen). Substantive, not adjective, "an insolent man." Old word from hubrizw, in N.T. only here and #Ro 1:30. {I obtained mercy} (eleeqen). First aorist passive indicative of eleew, old verb. See #2Co 4:1; Ro 11:30f. {Ignorantly} (agnown). Present active participle of agnoew, "not knowing." Old verb (#Ro 2:4). In a blindness of heart. {In unbelief} (en apistiai). See #Ro 11:20,25.

    1:14 {Abounded exceedingly} (huperepleonasen). Aorist active indicative of the late and rare (#So 5:19 and in Herond.) compound huperpleonazw (here alone in N.T.), in later ecclesiastical writers. The simplex pleonazw Paul used in #Ro 5:20; 6:1 and the kindred hupereperisseusen used also with hˆ caris. Paul is fond of compounds with huper. For "faith in Christ Jesus" see #Ga 3:26, for "faith and love in Christ Jesus" as here, see #2Ti 1:13.

    1:15 {Faithful is the saying} (pistos ho logos). Five times in the Pastorals (#1Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; Tit 3:8; 2Ti 2:11). It will pay to note carefully pistis, pisteuw, pistos. Same use of pistos (trustworthy) applied to logos in #Tit 1:9; Re 21:5; 22:6. Here and probably in #2Ti 2:11 a definite saying seems to be referred to, possibly a quotation (hoti) of a current saying quite like the Johannine type of teaching. this very phrase (Christ coming into the world) occurs in #Joh 9:37; 11:27; 16:28; 18:37. Paul, of course, had no access to the Johannine writings, but such "sayings" were current among the disciples. There is no formal quotation, but "the whole phrase implies a knowledge of Synoptic and Johannine language" (Lock) as in #Lu 5:32; Joh 12:47. {Acceptation} (apodoces). Genitive case with axios (worthy of). Late word (Polybius, Diod., Jos.) in N.T. only here and #4:9. {Chief} (prwtos). Not en (I was), but eimi (I am). "It is not easy to think of any one but St. Paul as penning these words" (White). In #1Co 15:9 he had called himself "the least of the apostles" (elacistos twn apostolwn). In #Eph 3:8 he refers to himself as "the less than the least of all saints" (twi elacistoterwi pantwn hagiwn). On occasion Paul would defend himself as on a par with the twelve apostles (#Ga 2:6-10) and superior to the Judaizers (#2Co 11:5f.; 12:11). It is not mock humility here, but sincere appreciation of the sins of his life (cf. #Ro 7:24) as a persecutor of the church of God (#Ga 1:13), of men and even women (#Ac 22:4f.; 26:11). He had sad memories of those days.

    1:16 {In me as chief} (en emoi prwtwi). Probably starts with the same sense of prwtos as in verse #15 (rank), but turns to order (first in line). Paul becomes the "specimen" sinner as an encouragement to all who come after him. {Might shew forth} (endeixetai). First aorist middle subjunctive (purpose with hina) of endeiknumi, to point out, for which see #Eph 2:7 (same form with hina). {Longsuffering} (makroqumian). Common Pauline word (#2Co 6:6). {For an ensample} (pros hupotup"sin). Late and rare word (in Galen, Sext. Emp., Diog. Laert., here only in N.T.) from late verb hupotupow (in papyri) to outline. So substantive here is a sketch, rough outline. Paul is a sample of the kind of sinners that Jesus came to save. See hupodeigma in #2Pe 2:6.

    1:17 this noble doxology is a burst of gratitude for God's grace to Paul. For other doxologies see #Ga 1:5; Ro 11:36; 16:27; Php 4:20; Eph 3:21; 1Ti 6:16. White suggests that Paul may have often used this doxology in his prayers. Lock suggests "a Jewish liturgical formula" (a needless suggestion in view of Paul's wealth of doxologies seen above). For God's creative activity (King of the ages) see #1Co 10:11; Eph 2:7; 3:9,11. {Incorruptible} (afqartwi). As an epithet of God also in #Ro 1:23. {Invisible} (aoratwi). Epithet of God in #Col 1:15. {The only God} (monwi qewi). So #Ro 16:27; Joh 5:44; 17:3. {For ever and ever} (eis tous aiwnas twn aiwnwn). "Unto the ages of ages." Cf. #Eph 3:21 "of the age of the ages."

    1:18 {I commit} (paratiqemai). Present middle indicative of old and common verb, to place beside (para) as food on table, in the middle to entrust (#Lu 12:48) and used by Jesus as he was dying (#Lu 23:46). Here it is a banking figure and repeated in #2Ti 2:2. {According to the prophecies which went before on thee} (kata tas proagousas epi se profeteias). Intransitive use of proagw, to go before. When Timothy first comes before us (#Ac 16:2) "he was testified to" (emartureito) by the brethren. He began his ministry rich in hopes, prayers, predictions. {That by them thou mayest war the good warfare} (hina strateuei en autais ten kalen strateian). Cognate accusative (strateian, old word from strateuw, in N.T. only here and #2Co 4:4) with strateuei (second person singular middle present subjunctive of strateuw, old verb chiefly in Paul in N.T., #1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3). As if in defensive armor.

    1:19 {Holding faith and a good conscience} (ecwn pistin kai agaqen suneidesin). Possibly as a shield (#Eph 6:16) or at any rate possessing (#Ro 2:20) faith as trust and a good conscience. A leader expects them of his followers and must show them himself. {Having thrust from them} (apwsamenoi). First aorist indirect middle participle of apwqew, to push away from one. Old verb (see #Ro 11:1f.). {Made shipwreck} (enauagesan). First aorist active indicative of nauagew, old verb from nauagos (shipwrecked, naus, ship, agnumi, to break), to break a ship to pieces. In N.T. only here and #2Co 11:25. {Concerning the faith} (peri ten pistin). Rather, "concerning their faith" (the article here used as a possessive pronoun, a common Greek idiom).

    1:20 {Hymenaeus} (humenaios). The same heretic reappears in #2Ti 2:17. He and Alexander are the chief "wreckers" of faith in Ephesus. {Alexander} (alexandros). Probably the same as the one in #2Ti 4:14, but not the Jew of that name in #Ac 19:33, unless he had become a Christian since qen. {I delivered unto Satan} (paredwka twi satanai). See this very idiom (paradounai twi satanai) in #1Co 5:5. It is a severe discipline of apostolic authority, apparently exclusion and more than mere abandonment (#1Th 2:18; 1Co 5:11; 2Co 2:11), though it is an obscure matter. {That they might be taught not to blaspheme} (hina paideuth"sin mˆ blasfemein). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of paideuw. For this use of this common late verb, see #1Co 11:32; 2Co 6:9.

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