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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - 1TIMOTHY 1

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    CHAPTER I

    1. An apostle of Jesus Christ. This title appears in the salutations of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians. In Philippians, Paul and Timothy the servants of Jesus Christ. Philemon a prisoner. This formal announcement of apostleship is strange in a private letter.

    By the commandment of God (kat epitaghn qeou). The phrase in Rom. xvi. 26. Kat' ejpitaghn absolutely, by commandment, 1 Corinthians vii. 6, 2 Cor. viii. 8. Paul uses dia qelhmatov qeou by the will of God. See 1 Corinthians, i. 1; 2 Cor. i. 1; Eph. i. 1; Col. i. 1. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 1.

    Our Savior (swthrov hmwn). Comp. Luke i. 47; Jude 25. o P. Six times in the Pastorals. Used of both God and Christ (see Tit. i. 3, 4; ii. 10, 13; iii. 4, 6). The saving of men appears as God's direct will and act, 1 Tim. ii. 4; Tit. iii. 5; 2 Tim. i. 9 as Christ's work, 1 Tim. i. 15, comp. 2 Timothy ii. 10. In LXX swthr hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Ephesians 21; Philad v. The salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul. Jesus Christ which is our hope. The phrase is unique in N.T. Comp. Col. i. 27, where, however, the construction is doubtful. Elpiv hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Ephesians 21; Philad. v. The Salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul.

    2. My own son in the faith (gnhsiw teknw en pistei). More correctly, "my true child in faith." Comp. Tit. i. 4. With these two exceptions, teknon or uiJov ejn pistei does not occur in N.T. En pistei or th pistei is not come on Paul; see 1 Cor. xvi. 13; 2 Cor. viii. 7; xiii. 5; Gal. ii. 20; 2 Thess. ii. 13. In the Pastorals, nine times. In Paul joined with zhn to live, einai to be, sthkein to stand, bebaiousqai to be established. For gnhsiov true, see 2 Cor. viii. 8; Philippians ii. 20; iv. 3. It means natural by birth-relation, therefore true or genuine. Mercy (eleov). This addition to the usual form of salutation is peculiar to the Pastorals.

    3. Even as (kaqwv). An awkward construction, there being nothing to answer to kaqwv.

    To abide (prosmeinai). To continue on. The compound does not occur in Paul, but is found in Acts xi. 23; xiii. 43; xviii. 18.

    When I went (poreuomenov). Better, was going, or was on my way. The participle cannot refer to Timothy.

    Might'st charge (paraggeilhv) See on Acts i. 4. Very common in Luke and Acts, but not in Paul. In 1st Timothy alone five times.

    Some (tisin) Note the indefinite designation of the errorists, and comp. verse 6; iv. 1; v. 15, 24; vi. 21. The expression is contemptuous. It is assumed that Timothy knows who they are. This is after the Pauline manner. See Gal. i. 7; ii. 12; 1 Cor. iv. 18; xv. 12; 2 Cor. iii. 1; Col. ii. 4, 8.

    That they teach no other doctrine (mh eterodidaskalein). Better, not to teach a different doctrine. For eterov different, see on Gal. i. 6. The verb Past o . o LXX. o Class. The charge is not to teach anything contrary to the sound teaching (verse 10) or irreconcilable with it. Comp. Gal. i. 6; 2 Cor. xi. 4; Rom. xvi. 17.

    4. Give heed (prosecein). o P. Frequent in LXX and Class. Lit. To hold to. Often with ton noun the mind, which must be supplied here. It means here not merely to give attention to, but to give assent to. So Acts viii. 6; xvi. 14; Heb. ii. 1; 2 Pet. i. 19.

    Fables (muqoiv). Muqov, in its widest sense, means word, speech, conversaton or its subject. Hence the talk of men, rumour, report, a saying, a story, true or false; later, a fiction as distinguished from logov a historic tale. In Attic prose, commonly a legend of prehistoric Greek times. Thus Plato, Repub. 330 D, oiJ legomenoi muqoi peri twn ejn %Aidou what are called myths concerning those in Hades. Only once in LXX, Sir. xx. 19, in the sense of a saying or story. In N.T. Only in Pastorals, and 2 Pet. i. 16. As to its exact reference here, it is impossible to speak with certainty. Expositors are hopelessly disagreed, some referring it to Jewish, others to Gnostic fancies. It is explained as meaning traditional supplements to the law, allegorical interpretations, Jewish stories of miracles, Rabbinical fabrications, whether in history or doctrine, false doctrines generally, etc. It is to be observed that muqoi are called Jewish in Tit. i. 14. In 1 Tim. iv. 7, they are described as profane and characteristic of old wives. In 2 Tim. iv. 4, the word is used absolutely, as here.

    Endless genealogies (genealogiaiv aperantoiv). Both words Past o For genealogia ( o LXX) comp. Tit. iii. 9. Genealogeisqai to trace ancestry, only Hebrew vii. 6; comp. 1 Chron. v. 1, the only instance in LXX. Aperantov endless, N.T.o . Twice in LXX. By some the genealogies are referred to the Gnostic aeons or series of emanations from the divine unity; by others to the O.T. Genealogies as interpreted allegorically by Philo, and made the basis of a psychological system, or O.T. Genealogies adorned with fables: by others again to genealogical registers proper, used to foster the religious and national pride of the Jews against Gentiles, or to ascertain the descent of the Messiah. Aperantov from aj not, and perav limit or Terminus. Perav may be taken in the sense of object or aim, so that the adjective here may mean without object, useless. (So Chrysostom, Holtzmann, and von Soden.) Others take it in a popular sense, as describing the tedious length of the genealogies (Alford); and others that these matters furnish an inexhaustible subject of study (Weiss). "Fables and endless genealogies" form a single conception, the kai and being explanatory, that is to say, and the "endless genealogies" indicating in what the peculiarity of the fables consists.

    Which (aitinev). Rather the which: inasmuch as they.

    Minister (parecousin). Afford, furnish, give occasion for. Only twice in Paul. Elsewhere mainly in Luke and Acts.

    Questions (ekzhthseiv) Better, questionings. N.T.o . o LXX. o Class. The simple zhthseiv in Pastorals, John and Acts. The preposition ejk gives the sense of subtle, laborious investigation: inquiring out.

    Godly edifying. According to the reading oijkodomian edification. So Vulg. Aedificationem. But the correct reading is oijkonomian ordering or dispensation: the scheme or order of salvation devised and administered by God: God's household economy. Oikonomia is a Pauline word. With the exception of this instance, only in Paul and Luke. See Eph. i. 10; iii. 2, 9; Col. i. 25.

    Which is in faith (thn en pistei). See on verse 2. Faith is the sphere or clement of its operation.

    5. The end of the commandment (telov thv paraggeliav). The article with "Commandment" points back to might'st charge, ver. 3. Rend. Therefore, of the charge. Telov end, aim, that which the charge contemplates.

    Love (agaph). See on Gal. ver. 22. The questionings, on the contrary, engendered strifes (2 Tim. ii. 23). Love to men is meant, as meant as N.T. When the word is used absolutely. See Roman xiii. 10.

    Out of a pure heart (ek kaqarav kardiav). Comp. Luke x. 27, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God out of they whole heart (ex olhv kardiav sou), and in or with (en) thy whole soul," etc. For a pure heart, comp. 2 Timothy ii. 22. Kaqarov pure in Paul only Rom. xiv. 20. The phrase a pure heart occurs, outside of the Pastorals only in 2 Pet. i. 22. For kardia heart see on Rom. i. 21.

    A good conscience(suneidhsewv agaqhv). Comp 2 Tim. i. 3. Suneidhsiv conscience is common in Paul. See on 1 Pet. iii. 16.

    Faith unfeigned (pistewv anupokritou). Anupokritov unfeigned twice in Paul, Rom. xii. 9; 2 Cor. vi. 6, both times as an attribute of love. In Jas. iii. 17, it is an attribute of wisdom, and in 1 Pet. i. 22, of brotherly love. Notice the triad, love, conscience, faith. There is nothing un-Pauline in the association of conscience and faith, although, as a fact, Paul does not formally associate them. In 1 Cor. viii. 7, 10, 12, conscience is associated with knowledge.

    6. Having swerved (astochsantev). Past o . In LXX, Sir. vii. 19; vii. 9. It means to miss the mark.

    Have turned aside (exetraphsan). o P. Comp. 1 Tim. v. 15; vi. 20; 2 Timothy iv. 4; Heb. xii. 13.

    Vain Jangling (mataiologian). N.T.o . o LXX. o Class. The word Illustrates the writer's fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early English word from the old French jangler, comp. Jongleur a teller of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter So Chaucer, "Them that jangle of love." Troil, and Cress ii. 800.

    And Piers Ploughman, " And al day to drynken At diverse tavernes And there to jangle and jape." Vision, Pasc. ii. 1069.

    Shakespeare, "This their jangling I esteem a sport." Mids. Night's D. iii. 2.

    Wiclif, Exod. xvii. 7 (earlier version), uses jangling for wrangling. "And he clepide the name of the place Temptynge for the jangling of the sons of Israel."

    7. Desiring (qelontev). The participle is explanatory and confirmatory of the preceding statement: since they desire.

    Teachers of the law (nomodidaskaloi). o P. It occurs in Luke v. 17 and Acts v. 34. Nomov is, apparently, the Mosaic law. These teachers may have been arbitrary interpreters of that law, but in what way, cannot be shown.

    Understanding (noountev). Better, though they understand.

    What they say - whereof they affirm (a legousin - peri tinwn diabebaiountai). The latter expression is an advance on the former, as appears not only from the verbs themselves, but from the different pronominal expressions. They know not what they say, nor what kind of things they are of which they speak so confidently. The compound diabebaiouswai to affirm, Past o . Comp. Tit. iii. 8. The false teachers announce their errors with assurance.

    8. Good (kalov). Comp. Roman vii. 16. Morally excellent and salutary. See on Jas. x. 11. This is the only instance of crasqai to use with nomov law.

    Lawfully (nomimwv). Past o . o LXX. The nature of the proper use of the law - is indicated by the next clause.

    9. Knowing (eidwv). The participle is connected with tiv one, a man, in the preceding clause.

    Is not made (ou keitai). Lit. Is not laid down, set, appointed. Comp. 1 Thessalonians iii. 3. This is the only instance of its use with nomov law. That usage is frequent in Class. See, for instance, Thucyd. ii. 37. Righteous (dikaiw). Morally upright. Not in the Pauline sense of justified by faith. Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 22; iii. 16. This appears from the way in which the opposite of righteous is described in the next clause. Lawless (anomoiv). Recognizing no law; a sense which accords better with the following context than not having a law, as 1 Cor. ix. 21. Disobedient (anupotaktoiv). Only in Pastorals and Hebrews. Better unruly. Disobedient is too specific. It means those who will not come into subjection. It is closely allied with lawless. In the one case no legal obligation is recognized; in the other, subjection to law is refused. Ungodly - sinners (asebesi - amartwloiv). The same collocation in 1 Pet. iv. 18; Jude 15. See on godliness, 2 Pet. i. 3.

    Unholy - profane (anosioiv - bebhloiv). Anosiov unholy, Past o See on holiness, Luke i. 75. Bebhlov profane, comp. Ch. iv. 7; vi. 20; 2 Timothy ii. 16; Heb. xii. 16. The verb bebhloun to profane, Matt. xii. 5; Acts xxiv. 6, and often in LXX. Derived from bhlov threshold (comp. bainein to go). Hence the primary sense is that may be trodden. Comp. Lat. Profanus before the temple, on the ground outside. What is permitted to be trodden by people at large is unhallowed, profane. Esau is called bebhlov in Hebrew xii. 16, as one who did not regard his birthright as sacred, but as something to be sold in order to supply a common need.

    Murderers of fathers - murders of mothers (patrolwaiv - mhtrolwaiv). Both words Past o and o LXX. Both in Class. More literally, smiters of fathers and mothers, though used in Class. Of parricides and matricides. Derived from ajloan to smite or thresh. The simple verb, 1 Corinthians ix. 9, 10.

    Manslayers (androfonoiv). N.T.o . Once in LXX, 2 Macc. ix. 28.

    10. Them that defile themselves with mankind (arsenokoitaiv). Only here and 1 Cor. vi. 9. o LXX, o Class.

    Menstealers (andrapodistaiv). N.T.o . Once in LXX. Ellicott remarks that this is a repulsive and exaggerated violation of the eighth commandment, as ajrsenokoitein is of the seventh. The penalty of death is attached to it, Exod. xxi. 16.

    Perjured persons (epiorkoiv). N.T.o . Once in LXX, Zech. v. 3. See Lev. xix. 12.

    Is contrary to (antikeitai). Lit. Lies opposite to. Used by Paul and Luke. See Luke xiii. 17; Gal. v. 17.

    The sound doctrine (th ugiainoush didaskalia). A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ugiainein to be in good health, Luke v. 31; vii. 10; 3 James

    2. o P. Quite frequent in LXX, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 2 Macc i.10; ix. 19; 2 Sam. xiv. 8; Exodus iv. 18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with didaskalia teaching, or logoi words, and twice with ejn th pistei or th pistei in the faith. The sound teaching (comp. didach teaching, 2 Tim. iv. 2; Tit. i. 9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (2 Tim. i. 13; ii. 2, 8). In all the three letters it is called ajlh.qeia or hJ ajlhqeia the truth, the knowledge (epignwsiv) of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy ii. 4; 2 Tim. ii. 25; iii. 7; Tit. i. 1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow (parakolouqein) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is eujsebeia or qeosebeia godliness or piety 1 Timothy ii. 2, 10; iii. 16; iv. 7, 8; vi. 6, 11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as kat' eujsebeian according to godliness 1 Timothy vi. 3; Tit. i. 1). Comp. eujsebein to show piety, 1 Tim. v. 4. eujsebwv zhn to live godly, 2 Tim. iii. 12; Tit. ii. 12; and bion diagein ejn pash eujsebeia to lead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy ii. 2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Tim. i. 14; ii. 15; iv. 12; vi. 11; 2 Tim. i. 13; iii. 10; Titus ii. 2. Alhqeia truth is used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Rom. iii. 7; ix. 1; 1 Corinthians v. 8; 2 Cor. iv. 2; xi. 10; Gal. ii. 5; Eph. iv. 21, 24; and 2 Tim. ii. 25,26; iii. 7 (comp. v. 1-xciv. 3, 4; Tit. i. 12 (comp. v. 11, 15); Tit. ii. 4 (comp. v. 1, 3); Tit. iii. 1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith 2 Tim. i. 13; ii. 18; iii. 8; Tit. i. 3 f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Tim. i. 19; iv. 1; v. 8, 12; vi. 10, 21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Tim. i. 19; iv. 1; vi. 10, 21; Tit. i. 4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness ver. 9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (ver. 9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (ver. 11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.

    11. According to. The connection is with the whole foregoing statement about the law and its application, ver. 9 ff. The writer substantiates what he has just said about the law, by a reference to the gospel. Comp. Rom. ii. 16.

    The glorious gospel of the blessed God (to eujaggelion thv doxhv tou makariou qeou). More correctly, the gospel of the glory, etc. The phrase as a whole has no parallel in N.T. The nearest approach to it is 2 Corinthians iv. 4. Gospel of God is a Pauline phrase; but makariov blessed is not used of God by Paul, is not used of God by paul, nor elsewhere outside of the pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and ch. vi. 15. For blessed is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the Pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and ch. vi. 15. For blessed see on Matt. v. 3. The appearing of the glory of God in Jesus Christ is the contents of the gospel. Comp. Tit. ii. 13.

    Which was committed to my trust (o episteuqhn egw). Or, with which I was intrusted. Comp Tit. i. 3; Roman iii. 2; 1 Cor. ix. 17; Galatians ii. 7; 1 Thess. ii. 4, The ejgw I emphatically asserts the authority of paul against the "teachers of the law) (ver.7).

    12. Hath enabled (endunamwsanti). An unclassical word, found in Paul and Acts. See Acts ix. 22; Philip. iv. 13. Three times in the Pastorals. Counted (hghsato). A common Pauline word.

    Putting (qemenov). Better appointing. The participle defines counted me faithful. He counted me faithful in that he appointed, etc.

    Into the ministry (eiv diakonian). Better, appointing me to his service. The conventional phrase "the ministry" gives a wrong impression. The term is general, covering every mode of service, either to God or to men. Diakonoi ministers is used of the secular ruler, Roman xiii. 4. See also 1 Corinthians xii. 5; xvi. 15; 2 Cor. iii. 7, 8; Eph. iv. 12, and on minister, Matthews xx. 26.

    13. Blasphemer - persecutor - injurious (blasfhmon - diwkthn - ubristhn). Neither blasfhmov nor diwkthv is used by Paul. Blasfhmov in Acts vii. 11; 2 Pet. ii. 11; diwkthv N.T.o .; uJbristhv in Rom. i. 30 only; often in LXX. See on blasphemym Mark vii. 22, and comp. 1 Cor. x. 30. Ubristhv is one whose insolence and contempt of others break forth in wanton and outrageous acts. Paul was uJbristhv when he persecuted the church. He was uJbrisqeiv shamefully entreated at philippi (1 Thess. ii. 2). Christ prophesies that the Son of man shall be shamefully entreted (uJbrisqhsetai, Luke xviii. 32). Similar regretful references of paul to his former career appear in Acts xxii. 4; Gal. i. 13,23. Such a passage may have occurred in some Pauline letters to which this writer had access, or it may be an imitation. I obtained mercy (hlehqhn). Comp. Ver. 16. In speaking of his conversin, Paul uses cariv grace. See ver. 14, and the apostleship he speaks of himself as one who has obtained mercy (hlehmenov) of the Lord to be faithful. 1 Cor. vii. 25; comp. 2 Cor. iv. 1.

    14. Was exceeding abundant (uperepleonasen). Or abounded exceedingly. N.T.o . o LXX. o Class. Paul is fond of compounds with uJper, which, with a few exceptions, are found only in his writings. In the pastorals there are only three. See 1 Tim. ii. 2; 2 Tim. iii. 2. With faith. For faith as treated in the Pastorals, see Introduction, and sound doctrine, ver. 10.

    15. This is a faithful saying (pistov o logov). Better, faithful is the saying. A favorite phrase in these Epistles. o P. See 1 Tim. iii. 1; iv. 9; 2 Timothy ii. 11; Tit. iii. 8.

    Worthy of all acceptation (pashv apodochv axiov). The phrase only here and ch. iv. 9. Apodoch Past o o LXX. Comp. Acts ii. 41, ajpodexamenoi ton logon received his word. Pashv all or every describes the reception of which the saying is worthy as complete and excluding all doubt.

    Came into the world (hlqen eiv ton kosmon). The phrase is unique in the Pastorals, and does not appear in Paul. It is Johannine. See Jas. i. 9; iii. 19; xxi. 27; xii. 46.

    To save sinners (anartwlouv swsai). The thought is Pauline, but not the phrase. See Luke ix. 56; xix. 10.

    Chief (prwtov). Or foremost. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 9, and Ephesians iii. 8. This expression is an advance on those.

    16. First (prwtw) Not the chief sinner, but the representative instance of God's longsuffering applied to a high-handed transgressor. It is explained by pattern.

    All longsuffering (thn apasan makroqumian). More correctly, "all his longsuffering." The A.V. misses the possessive force of the article. For longsuffering see on be patient, Jas. v. 7. The form apav occurs as an undisputed reading only once in Paul, Eph. vi. 13, and not there as an adjective. Often in Acts and Luke. This use of the article with the adjective pav or apav is without parallel in Paul.

    Pattern (upotupwsin). Or, ensample. Only here and 2 Tim. i. 13. o LXX. o Class. An example of the writer's fondness for high-sounding compounds. Paul uses tupov.

    To them. The A.V. conveys the sense more clearly than Rev. "Of them," which is ambiguous. The genitive has a possessive sense. He would be their ensample, or an ensample for their benefit.

    Believe (pisteu.ein). This verb, so frequent in Paul, occurs six times in the pastorals. In two instances, 1 Tim. i. 11; Tit. i. 3, it is passive, in the sense of to be intrusted with. Here in the Pauline sense of believing on Christ. In 1 Tim. iii. 16, passive, of Christ believe d on in the world. In 2 Tim. i. 12, of God the Father, in whom the writer confides to keep the trust committed to him. In Tit. iii. 8, of belief in God. With ejpi upon and the dative, Roman ix. 33; x. 11; 1 Pet. ii. 6 (all citations), and Roman iv. 18; Luke xxiv. 25.

    Unto life everlasting (eiv zwhn aiwnion). Better, eternal life. See additional not on 2 Thess. i. 9. The conception of life eternal is not limited to the future life (as von Soden). Godliness has promise of the life which now is, as well as of that which is to come (Timothy iv. 8). The promise of eteral life (2 Tim. i. 1) and the words who brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (2 Tim. i. 10) may fairly be taken to cover the present life.

    17. King eternal (basilei twn aiwnwn). Lit. the king of the ages. Only here and Apoc. xv. 3. Comp. Heb. i. 2; xi. 3. In LXX, Tob. vi. 10. For kindred expressions in LXX, see Exod. xv. 18; 1 Sam. xiii. 13; Psalm ix. 7; xxviii. 10; lxxiii. 12; cxliv. 13; cxlv. . See also additional note on 2 Thessalonians i. 9.

    Immortal (afqartw). Lit. Incorruptible. In Paul, applied to God only, Roman i. 23.

    Invisible (aortw). Applied to God, Col. i. 15; Hebrew xi. 27. The only wise God (monw qew). Wise should be omitted. Rend. The only God. Sofw wise was interpolated from Rom. xvi. 27 - the only instance in which Paul applies the term to God. Comp. Jude 4, 25; Luke v. 21; Jas. v. 44.

    Honor and glory (timh kai doxa). This combination in doxology only here and Apoc v. 12, 13. Comp. Apoc. iv. 9. In doxologies Paul uses only doxa glory, with the article, the glory, and with to whom or to him. (Be).

    Forever and ever (eiv touv aiwnav twn aiwnwn). Lit unto the aeons of the aeons. The formula in Paul, Roman xvi. 26; Gal. i. 5; Philippians iv. 20. Also in Hebrews and 1 Peter, and often in Revelation The doxology as a whole is unique in N.T.

    18. This charge (tauthn thn paraggelian). See on ver. T It refers to what follows, that thou might'st war, etc.

    I commit (paratiqemai). The verb in the active voice means to place beside. In the middle, to deposit or intrust. Only once in Paul, 1 Corinthians x. 27. Comp. 1 Pet. iv. 19.

    According to the prophecies which went before on thee (kata tav proagousav epi se profhteiav). Const, according to with I commit: which went before is to be taken absolutely, and not with on thee: const. prophecies with on these. On thee means concerning thee. The sense of the whole passage is: "I commit this charge unto thee in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning thee." Prophecy is ranked among the foremost of the special spiritual endowments enumerated by Paul. See Roman xii. 6; 1 Cor. xii. 10; xiii. 2, 8; xiv. 6, 22. In 1 Corinthians 12. 28; Eph. iv. 11, prophets come next after apostles in the list of those whom God has appointed in the church. In Epesians ii. 20, believers, Jew and Gentile, are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. According to 1 Tim. iv. 14, prophecy has previously designated Timothy as the recipient of a special spiritual gift; and the prophecies in our passage are the single expressions or detailed contents of the prophecy mentioned there. Proagein to go before is not used by Paul. In the Pastorals and Heb. it appears only as an intransitive verb, and so in the only instance in Luke, xviii. 39. In Acts always transitive, to bring forth. See Acts xii. 6; xvi. 30; xvii. 5; xxv. 26. That by them (ina en autaiv). %Ina that denoting the purport of the charge. By them (en), lit. in them; in their sphere, or, possibly, in the power of these.

    Thou mightiest war a good warfare (strateuh - thn kalhn strateian). More correctly, the good warfare. Strateia war-fare once by Paul, 2 Cor. x. 4. Not flight (machn), but covering all the particulars of a soldier's service.

    19. Holding (ecwn). Not merely having, but holding fast, as in 2 Timothy i. 13.

    Faith and a good conscience (pistin kai agaqhn suneidhsin). The phrase good conscience is not in Paul, although suneidhsiv is a Pauline word. The phrase appears once in Acts xxiii. 1), and twice in 1 Peter (ii. 16, 21). In Hebrews evil (ponhrav) conscience and fair (kalhn) conscience; x. 22; xiii. 18. The combination faith and good conscience is peculiar to the Pastorals. Comp. 1 Tim. iii. 9.

    Which (hn). Referring to God conscience.

    Having put away (apwsamenoi). The A.V. is not strong enough. Better, having thrust from them. It implies willful violence against conscience. Twice in Paul, Roman xi. 1, 2, and three times in Acts.

    Concerning faith have made shipwreck (peri thn pistin enauaghsan). Better, "concerning the faith made shipwreck." For a similar use of peri concerning, see Acts xix. 25; Luke x. 40; 1 Timothy vi. 21; 2 Tim. ii. 18; iii. 8. It is noteworthy that peri with the accusative occurs only once in Paul (Philipians ii. 23). Nauagein to make shipwreck only here and 2 Cor. xi. 25. Nautical metaphors are rare in Paul's writings.

    20. Hymenaeus and Alexander. Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 17; iv. 14.

    Have delivered unto Satan (paredwka tw Satana). See on 1 Corinthians v. 5.

    They may learn (paideuqwsi). Neither A.V. nor Rev. Gives the true force of the word, which is, may be taught by punishment or disciplined. See on Eph. vi. 4.

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