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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - 1TIMOTHY 2

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    CHAPTER II

    1. I exhort (parakalw). See on consolation, Luke vi. 24.

    First of all (prwton pantwn). Connect with I exhort. The only instance of this phrase in N.T.

    Supplications be made (poieisqai dehseiv). The phrase occurs Luke v. 33; Philipians i. 4. o LXX. o Class. Dehsiv is petitionary prayer. Proseuch prayer is limited to prayer to God, while dehsiv may be addressed to men. The two are associated, 1 Tim. v. 5: the inverse order, Eph. vi. 18; Philipians iv. 6.

    Intercessions (eunteuxeiv). Only here and ch. iv. 5. LXX, 2 Macc. iv. 8. The verb ejntugcanein, commonly rendered to make intercession, Romans viii. 27, 34; xi. 2; and uJperentugcanein to intercede in behalf of, Romans viii. 26. The verb signifies to fall in with a person; to draw near so as to converse familiarly. Hence, enteuxiv is not properly intercession in the accepted sense of that term, but rather approach to God in free and familiar prayer. Entugcanein in the passages cited is not to make intercession, but to intervene, interfere. Thus in Rom. viii. 26, it is not that the Spirit pleads in our behalf, but that he throws himself into our case; takes part in it. So Hebrew viii. 25: not that Jesus is ever interceding for us, but that he is eternally meeting us at every point, and intervening in al our affairs for our benefit. In ejnteuxeiv here the idea of interposition is prominent: making prayers a factor in relations with secular rulers.

    2. Kings (basilewn). In Paul only 2 Cor. xi. 32.

    That are in authority (twn en uperoch ontwn). Uperoch authority only here and 1 Cor. ii. 1. Several times in LXX Originally, projection, prominence: metaphorically, preeminence, superiority. In Byzantine Greek, a little like our Excellency. This very phrase is found in an inscription of the early Roman period, after 133 B. C., at Pergamum. Paul has the phrase ejx ousiai uJperecousai higher powers, Roman xiii. 1; and oiJ uJperecontev those in high places is found Wisd. vi. 5.

    We may lead (diagwmen). Past o . Comp. Tit. iii. 3.

    Quiet and peaceable (hremon kai hsucion). Hremov, N.T.o . In class. Only the adverb hjrema quietly. Hsuciov tranquil, o P. Only here and 1 Peter iii. 4. In LXX once, Isa. lxvi. 2. Hremov denotes quiet arising fro the absence of outward disturbance: hJouciov tranquillity arising from within. Thus, ajnhr hJsuciov is the composed, discreet, self-contained man, who keeps himself from rash doing: hremov ajnhr is he who is withdrawn from outward disturbances. Hence, hremov here may imply keeping aloof from political agitation's and freedom from persecutions.

    Honesty (semnothti). Better, gravity. Honesty, according to the modern acceptation, is an unfortunate rendering. In earlier English it signified becoming department, decency, decorum. So Shakespeare: "He is of a noble strain, of approved valor and confirmed honesty" (Much Ado, ii.1). This noun and the kindred adjective semnov only in the Pastorals, except Philip. iv. 8. The adjective signifies reverend or venerable; exhibiting a dignity which arises from moral elevation, and thus invites reverence. In LXX it is used to characterize the name of God (2 Macc. vi. 28); the words of wisdom (Prov. viii. 6); the words of the pure (Proverbs 15.26). Godliness (eusebeia) see on 1 Pet. i. 3, and sound doctrine, 1 Timothy i. 10. o P. Mostly in the Pastorals.

    3. Acceptable (apodekton) Past o . Compare ajpodoch acceptation, ch. i. 15, and Paul's eujrosdektov acceptable, Rom. xv. 16, 31; 2 Corinthians vi. 2; vii. 12.

    4. Who will have all men to be saved (ov pantav anqrwpouv qelei swqhnai). Lit, who willeth all men, etc. As who, or seeing that he, giving the ground of the previous statement. Prayer to God for all is acceptable to him, because he wills the salvation of all. Qelei willeth, marking a determinate purpose.

    Come to the knowledge of the truth (eiv epignwsin alhqeiav elqein). The phrase only here and 2 Tim. iii. 7. Epignwsiv is a favorite Pauline word. See on Roman iii. 20; Col. i. 9; 1 Tim. ii. 4; iv. 3. It signifies advanced or full knowledge. The difference between the simple gnwsiv and the compound word is illustrated in Roman i. 21, 28, and 1 Cor. xiii. 12. In N.T. always of the knowledge of things ethical or divine, and never ascribed to God. For ajlh.qeia truth, see on sound doctrine, ch. i. 10. It appears 14 times in the Pastorals, and always without a defining genitive. So, often in Paul, but several times with a defining genitive, as truth of God, of Christ, of the gospel. The logical relation in the writer's mind between salvation and the knowledge of the truth is not quite clear. Knowledge of the truth may be regarded as the means of salvation, or it may be the ideal goal of the whole saving work. See 1 Cor. xiii. 12; Philip. iii. 8; Jas. xvii. 3. The latter is more in accord with the general drift of teaching in these Epistles.

    5. For (gar). The universality of the grace is grounded in the unity of God. Comp. Roman iii. 30. One divine purpose for all implies one God who purposes.

    One God. These Epistles deal much with the divine attributes. See 1 Timothy i. 17; vi. 13, 15, 16; iii. 156; iv. 10; 2 Tim. ii. 13; Tit. i. 2. Mediator (mesithv) See on Gal. iii. 19. The word twice in Paul, Gal. iii. 29, 20, once of Moses and once generally. In Hebrews always of Christ; viii. 6; ix. 15, xii. 24. This is the only instance in the pastorals. As the one God, so the one mediato implies the extension of the saving purpose to all.

    The man Christ Jesus. The phrase only here.

    6. Who gave himself (o douv eauton). The phrase with the simple verb only here, Gal. i. 4, and Tit. ii. 14. Paul uses the compound verb paradidonai, Gal. ii. 20; Eph. v. 2, 25. Comp. Rom. viii. 32. Ransom (antilutron). N.T.o . o LXX. o Class. Lutron ransom, Matthews xx. 28; Mark x. 45, applied to Christ's life given for many. But neither this nor any of its kindred words is used by Paul. He uses ajpolutrwsiv, but that means the act not the means of redemption.

    For all (uper). Uper does not mean instead of (anti). See on Romans v. 6. Any idea of exchange or substitution which may be implied, resides in ajntilutron; but it is pressing that unique word too far to find in it the announcement of a substitutional atonement.

    To be testified in due time (to marturion kairoiv idioiv). Lit. (gave himself a ransom) the testimony in its own times. That is, the gift of Christ as a ransom was to be the substance or import of the testimony which was to be set forth in its proper seasons. Thus marturion testimony is in apposition with the whole preceding sentence, and not with ransom only. Marturion is used sometimes simply as witness or testimony (Matthews viii. 4; Mark vi. 11): sometimes specially of the proclamation of the gospel, as Matthews xxiv. 14; Acts iv. 33; 1 Thess. i. 10. The apostles are said, marturein to bear witness, as eye or ear witnesses of the sayings, deeds, and sufferings of Jesus (1 Cor. xv. 15). In 1 Cor. i. 6, marturion tou Cristou is practically = the gospel. In 2 Thessalonians i. 10, to marturion hJmwn ejf' uJmav our testimony among you is our public attestation of the truth of the gospel. The idea of witness is a favorite one with John. See John i. 7. The exact phrase kairoiv ijdioiv in its own times, only in the Pastorals, here, ch. vi. 15; Tit. i. 3. In Galatians vi. 9 kairw ijdiw in due time. Comp. Gal. iv. 4.

    7. I am ordained (eteqhn egw). Better, Iwas appointed. See on.John xv. 16.

    A preacher (khrux). Lit. a herald. See on 2 Pet. ii. 5. Paul does not use the noun, but the kindred verb khrussein to proclaim or preach is very common in his writings. See Rom. x. 8; 1 Cor. i. 23; 2 Corinthians iv. 5; Philip. i. 15, etc.

    I speak the truth in Christ and lie not. Omit in Christ. A strange asseveration to an intimate and trusted friend. Apparently an imitation of Rom. ix. 1.

    A teacher of the Gentiles (didaskalov eqnwn). Paul does not use this phrase. He expressly distinguishes between teacher and apostle. See 1 Corinthians xii. 28; Eph. iv. 11. He calls himself ejqnwn ajpostolov apostle of the Gentiles (Rom. xi. 13); leitourgov Cristou Ihsou eijv ta eqnh minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles (Rom. xv. 16); and desmiov tou Cristou Ihsou uJper uJmwn twn ejqnwn prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles (Eph. iii. 1).

    In faith and verity (en pistei kai alhqeia). Or faith and truth. The combination only here. Paul has sincerity and truth (1 Cor. v. 8), and sanctification of the Spirit and faith of the truth (2 Thess. ii. 13). The phrase must not be explained in true faith, nor faithfully and truly. It means that faith and truth are the element or sphere in which the apostolic function is discharged: that he preaches with a sincere faith in the gospel, and with a truthful representation of the gospel which he believes.

    8. I will (boulomai). Better, I desire. See on Matthews i. 9, and comp. Philip. i. 12. Paul's word is qelw I will. See Rom. xvi. 19; 1 Corinthians vii. 32; x. 20; xiv. 5, 19, etc.

    Everywhere (en panti topw). Lit. in every place. Wherever Christian congregations assemble. Not every place indiscriminately.

    Lifting up holy hands (epairontav osiouv ceirav). The phrase is unique in N.T. o LXX. Among Orientals the lifting up of the hands accompanied taking an oath, blessing, and prayer. The custom passed over into the primitive church, as may be seen from the mural paintings in the catacombs. See Clement, Ad Corinth. xxix, which may possibly be a reminiscence of this passage. The verb ejpairein to raise, twice in Paul, 2 Corinthians x. 5; xi. 20; but often in Luke. Osiouv holy, o P. See on Luke i. 75.

    Without wrath and doubting (cwriv orghv kai dialogismwn). The combination only here. Orgh is used by Paul mostly of the righteous anger and the accompanying judgment of God against sin. As here, only in Eph. iv. 31; Col. iii. 8. Dialogismov in N.T. habitually in the plural, as here. The only exception is Luke ix. 46, 47. By Paul usually in the sense of disputatious reasoning. It may also mean sceptical questionings or criticisms as Philip. ii. 14. So probably here. Prayer, according to our writer, is to be without the element of sceptical criticism, whether of God's character and dealings, or of the character and behavior of those for whom prayer is offered.

    9. In like manner (wsautwv). The writer's thought is still running upon the public assemblies for worship.

    Adorn themselves (kosmein eautav). Kosmein adorn, o P. Of female adornment, 1 Pet. iii. 5; Apoc. xxi. 2. In Matthews xxv. 7, of trimming the lamps. From kosmov order, so that the primary meaning is to arrange. Often in LXX and Class. Prominent in the writer's mind is the attire of women in church assemblies. Paul treats this subject 1 Cor. xi. 5 ff. In modest apparel (en katasyolh kosmiw). Katastolh N.T.o . Once in LXX, Isa. lxi. 3. Opinions differ as to the meaning. Some apparel, others guise or deportment = katasthma demeanour, Tit. ii. 3. There seems, on the whole, to be no sufficient reason for departing from the rendering of A.V. and Rev. 97 Kosmiw modest, seemly, Past o . Note the word - play, kosmein kosmiw.

    With shamefacedness and sobriety (meta aidouv kai swfrosunhv). Aidwv N.T.o . (aijdouv in Heb. xii. 28 is an incorrect reading). In earlier Greek, as in Homer, it sometimes blends with the sense of aijscunh shame, though used also of the feeling of respectful timidity in the presence of superiors, or of penitent respect toward one who has been wronged (see Homer, II. i. 23). Hence it is connected in Homer with militaly discipline (II. v. 531). It is the feeling of a suppliant or an unfortunate in the presence of those from whom he seeks aid; of a younger man toward an older and wiser one. It is a feeling based upon the sense of deficiency, inferiority, or unworthiness. On the other hand, it is the feeling of a superior in position or fortune which goes out to an unfortunate. See Homer, II. xxiv. 208; Od. xiv. 388; Soph. Oed. Col. 247. In the Attic period, a distinction was recognised between aijscunh and aijdwv: aijdwv representing a respectful and reverent attitude toward another, while aijscunh was the sense of shame on account of wrong doing. Thus, "one aijdeitai is respectful to his father, but aijscunetai is ashamed because he has been drunk." 98 Trench (N.T. Synon. xix.) remarks that "aijdwv is the nobler word and implies the nobler motive. In it is involved an innate moral repugnance to the doing of the dishonorable act, which moral repugnance scarcely or not at all exists in the aijscunh. Let the man who is restrained by aijscunh alone be insured against the outward disgrace which he fears his act will entail,.and he will refrain from it no longer." 99 The A.V. shame.facedness is a corruption of the old English shamefastness. So Chaucer:

    Schamefast chastite." Knight's T. 2057.

    Shakespeare:

    "'Tis a blushing shamefast spirit that mutinies in a man's bosom." Richard III. i. 4.

    It is one of a large class of words, as steadfast, soothfast, rootfast, masterfast, handfast, bedfast, etc. Shamefaced changes and destroys the original force of the word, which was bound or made fast by an honorable shame. Swfrosunh sobrietys o P. Once in Acts, xxvi. 25. The kindred verb swfronein to be of sound mind, Rom. xii. 3-5 2 Cor. v. 13; Titus ii. 6. Several representatives of this family of words appear in the Pastorals, and with the exception of swfrosunh and swfronein, nowhere else in N.T. Such are swfronizein to be soberminded (Titus ii. 4); swfronismov discipline (2 Tim. i. 7); swfronwv soberly (Titus ii. 12); swfrwn soberminded (1 Tim. iii. 2). The word is compounded of saov or swv safe, sound, and frhn mind. It signifies entire command of the passions and desires; a self-control which holds the rein over these. So Aristotle (Rhet. i. 9): The virtue by which we hold ourselves toward the pleasures of the body as. the law enjoins." Comp. 4 Macc. i. 31. Euripides calls it "the fairest gift of the gods" (Med. 632). That it appears so rarely in N.T. is, as Trench remarks, "not because more value was attached to it in heathen ethics than in Christian morality, but because it is taken up and transformed into a condition yet higher still, in which a man does not command himself, which is well, but, which is better still, is commanded by God." The words with shamefastness and sobriety may either be taken directly with adorn themselves, or better perhaps, as indicating moral qualities accompanying (meta with) the modest apparel. Let them adorn themselves in modest apparel, having along with this shamefastness and sobermindedness.

    With broidered hair (en plegmasin). Lit. with plaitinys. N.T.o . Rend. with braided hair. Broidered is a blunder owing to a confusion with broided, the older form of braided.

    So Chaucer:

    "Hir yelow heer was broyded in a tresse, Bihinde hir bak, a yerde long, I gesse." Knight's T. 1049 f

    Costly array (imatismw polutelei). Neither word in Paul. Imatismov, signifies clothing in general. Polutelhv costly occurs only three times in N.T.

    10. Professing (epaggellomenaiv). In the sense of professing only in the Pastorals. In Tit. i. 2, and everywhere else in N.T. it means promise. See Acts vii. 5; Rom. iv. 21; Gal. iii. 19, etc.

    Godliness (qeosebeian). N.T.o . Several times in LXX. The adjective qeosebhv worshipping God, John ix. 31. It is = eujsebeia. See ver. 2. Const. by good works with professing godliness: omit the parenthesis which - godliness; take which (o) as = with that which (en toutw o) and construe it with adorn. The whole will then read: "That women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefastness and sobriety; not with braided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array, but (adorn themselves) with that which becometh women professing godliness through good works." 100

    11. Learn (manqanetw). Comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 35.

    In silence (en hsucia). See on peaceable, ver. 2. Rev, renders quietness; but the admonition concerns the behavior of women in religious assemblies. Comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 34. The word is used in the sense of silence, Acts xxii. 2: with the broader meaning quietness in 2 Thessalonians iii. 12.

    12. Suffer (epitrepw). Lit.turn over to; thence, permit. See 1 Corinthians xiv. 34.

    Usurp authority (auqentein). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. It occurs in late ecclesiastical writers. The kindred noun aujqenthv one who does a thing with his own hand, Wisd. xii. 6, and also in Herodotus, Euripides, and Thucyelides. Auqentia right, 3 Macc. ii. 29. The verb means to do a thing one's self; hence, to exercise authority. The A.V. usurp authority is a mistake. Rend. to have or exercise dominion over.

    13. Was formed (eplasqh). Comp. Rom. ix. 20. Strictly of one working in soft substances, as a potter in clay; moulding or shaping. Often in Class. and LXX.

    14. Was not deceived (ouk hpathqh). Once in Paul, Eph. v. 6. Comp. 2 Corinthians. xi. 3. Rev. beguiled. As it is evident that Adam was beguiled, the interpreters have tried many ways of explaining the expression, either by supplying prwtov first, or by saying (as Bengel) that the woman did not deceive the man, but persuaded him; or by supplying by the serpent, or so long as he was alone; or by saying that Eve was directly and Adam indirectly deceived.

    Being deceived (exapathqeisa). completely or thoroughly beguiled. Was in the transgression (en parabasei gegonen). A.V. misses the force of gegonen. Ginesqai ejn often signifies the coming or falling into a condition, as Acts xii. 11; xxii. 17; Apoc. i. 10; 1 Cor. ii. 3; 2 Corinthians iii. 7; 1 Thess. ii. 5. Rend. hath fallen into transgression.

    15. She shall be saved in childbearing (swqhsetai dia thv teknogoniav). Better, "through the childbearing."

    (1) Saved is used in the ordinary N.T. sense.

    (2) She shall be saved is set over against hath fallen into transgression.

    (3) It is difficult to see what is the peculiar saving virtue of childbearing.

    (4) The subject of swqhsetai shall be saved is the same as that of ejn parabasei gegonen hath fallen into transgression.

    A common explanation is that gunh is to be taken in its generic sense as referring to all Christian mothers, who will be saved in fulfilling their proper destiny and acquiescing in all the conditions of a Christian woman's life, instead of attempting to take an active part as teachers or otherwise in public religious assemblies. On the other hand, the woman, Eve, may be regarded as including all the Christian mothers. Notice the change to the plural,;' if they continue." She, though she fell into transgression, shall be saved by the childbearing " (Gen. iii. 15); that is, by the relation in which the woman stood to the Messiah. This seems to be the better explanation. Teknogonia child bearing, N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Comp. teknogonein to bear children, 1 Tim. v. 14. The expression is utterly un-Pauline.

    If they continue (ean meinwsin). They, the woman regarded collectively or as including her descendants. Tho promise does not exempt them from the cultivation of Christian virtues and the discharge of Christian duties. Sanctification (agiasmw). A Pauline word; but the triad, faith, love, sanctification, is unique in N.T.

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