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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - 2TIMOTHY 1

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    CHAPTER I

    1 An apostle by the will of God. So 2nd Corinthians, Ephesians, Colosians. 1st Corinthians adds called or by call (klhtov).

    According to the promise, etc. (kat epaggelian). Apostolov kata does not appear in any of the Pauline salutations. In 1 Timothy. kat' ejpitaghn according to the commandment, and in Titus kata pistin etc., according to the faith, etc. Kat' ejpaggelian, though in other connections, Acts xiii. 23; Galatians. iii. 29. Epaggelia, primarily announcement, but habitually promise in N.T. In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy. iv. 8. With the promise of the life in Christ goes the provision for its proclamation. Hence the apostle, in proclaiming "ye shall live; through Christ," is an apostle according to the promise.

    Of life which is in Christ Jesus. The phrase promise of life only here and 1 Tim. iv. 8. o P. Life in Christ is a Pauline thought. See Romans viii. 2; 2 Cor. iv. 10; Rom. vi. 2-14; Gal. ii. 19, 20; Colossians iii. 4; Philippians. i. 21. It is also a Johannine thought; see John i. 4; iii. 15; vi. 25; xiv. 6; 1 John v. 11.

    2. Dearly beloved (agaphtw). Better, beloved. (Comp. 1 Corinthians iv. 17. In 1 Tim. i. 2, Timothy is addressed as gnhsiov, and Tit. in Tit. i. 4.

    3. I thank God (carin ecw tw qew). Lit. I have thanks to God. The phrase in Luke xvii. 9; Acts ii. 47; o P. unless 2 Cor. i. 15; 130 1 Timothy i. 12; Heb. xii. 28; 3rd John verse 4. Paul uses eujcaristw I give thanks (not in Pastorals) or eujloghtov oJ qeov blessed be God (not in Pastorals). The phrase carin ecw is a Latinism, habere gratiam, of which several are found in Pastorals.

    I serve (latreuw). In Pastorals only here. Comp. Rom. i. 9, 25; Philip. iii. 3. Frequent in Hebrews. Originally, to serve for hire. In N.T. both of ritual service, as Heb. viii. 5; ix. 9; x. 2; xiii. 10; and of worship or service generally, as Luke i. 74; Rom. i. 9. Especially of the service rendered to God by the Israelites as his peculiar people, as Acts xxvi. 7. Comp. latreia service, Rom. ix. 4; Heb. ix. 1, 6. In LXX always of the service of God or of heathen deities.

    From my forefathers (apo progonwn). Progonov, Past o . See on 1 Timothy v. 4. The phrase N.T.o . For the thought, comp. Acts xiv. 14; Philippians. iii. 5. He means, in the spirit and with the principles inherited from his fathers. Comp. the sharp distinction between the two periods of Paul's life, Galatians. i. 13,14.

    With pure conscience (en kaqara suneidhsei). As 1 Tim. iii. 9. The phrase, Past o . Heb. ix. 14 has kaqariei thn sunidhsin hJmwn shall purge our conscience.

    That without ceasing (wv adialeipton). The passage is much involved. Note

    (1) that carin ecw tw qew I thank God must have an object.

    (2) That object cannot be that he unceasingly remembers Timothy in his prayers.

    (3) That object, though remote, is uJpomnhsin labwn when I received reminder verse 5).

    He thanks God as he is reminded of the faith of Timothy's ancestors and of Timothy himself. Rend. freely, "I thank God whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, as there goes along with my prayers an unceasing remembrance of thee, and a daily and nightly longing, as I recall thy tears, to see thee, that I may be filled with joy - I thank God, I say, for that I have been reminded of the unfeigned faith that is in thee," etc.'Adialeipton unceasing, only here and Rom. ix. 2. Adialeiptwv, Rom. i. 9; 1 Thess. i. 3; ii. 13; v. 17.

    I have remembrance (ecw thn mneian). The phrase once in Paul, 1 Thessalonians iii. 6. Commonly, mneian poioumai I make mention, Rom. i. 9; Eph. i. 16; 1 Thess. i. 2; Philemon 4. Night and day (nuktov kai hmerav). See 1 Tim. v. 5. The phrase in Paul, 1 Thess. ii. 9; iii. 10; 2 Thess. iii. 8. Const. with greatly desiring. 132

    4. Greatly desiring (epipoqwn). Better, longing. Pastorals only here. Quite frequent in Paul. See Rom. i. 11; 2 Cor. v. 2; ix. 14; Philippians. i. 8, etc. The compounded preposition ejpi does not denote intensity, as A. verse greatly, but direction. Comp. chapter iv. 9, 21. Being mindful of thy tears (memnhmenov sou twn dakruwn). The verb, mimnhskesqai in Paul, only 1 Cor. xi. 2. In Pastorals only here. The words give the reason for the longing to see Timothy. The allusion is probably to the tears shed by Timothy at his parting from Paul. 133 One is naturally reminded of the parting of Paul with the Ephesians elders at Miletus (Acts xx. 17 ff., see especially verse 37). Holtzmann remarks that Paul's discourse on that occasion is related to this passage as program to performance. Bonds await the apostle (Acts xx. 23), and Paul appears as a prisoner (2 Tim. i. 8). He must fulfill his course Acts xx. 24); here he has fulfilled it (2 Tim. iv. 7). He bids the overseers take heed to the flock, for false teachers will arise in the bosom of the church (Acts xx. 29, 30); these letters contain directions for the guidance of the flock, and denunciations of heretical teachers.

    That I may be filled with joy. Const. with longing to see you.

    5. When I call to remembrance (upomnhsin labwn). The object of carin ecw ver. 3. Lit. having received a reminding. The phrases N.T..o . Upomnhsiv reminding (but sometimes intransitive, remembrance), only here, 2 Pet. i. 13; iii. 1. In LXX three times. As distinguished from ajnamnhsiv remembrance (1 Cor. xi. 24, 25) it signifies a reminding or being reminded by another; while ajnamnhsiv is a recalling by one's self.

    Unfeigned faith that is in thee (thv en soi anupokritou pistewv). See on 1 Tim. i. 5. For the peculiar collocation of the Greek words, comp. Acts xvii. 28; Rom. i. 12; Eph. i. 15. The writer's thought is probably not confined to Christian faith, but has in view the continuity of Judaism and Christianity. In verse 3 he speaks of serving God from his forefathers. In Acts xxiv. 14 Paul is represented as saying that even as a Christian he serves the God of his fathers, believing all things contained in the law and the prophets.

    Dwelt (enwkhsen). Paul uses the verb with sin, the divine Spirit, God, the word of Christ, but nowhere with faith. The phrase faith dwells in, N.T.o . According to Paul, Christians are or stand in faith; but faith is not represented as dwelling in them. Christ dwells in the heart through faith (Eph. iii. 17).

    First (prwton). With reference to Timothy, and with a comparative sense, as Matt. v. 24; vii. 5; Mark. iii. 27; 1 Thess. iv. 16, etc. This is shown by the last clause of the verse. The writer merely means that faith had already dwelt in Timothy's grandmother and mother before it did in him. How much farther back his believing ancestry went he does not say. Comp. Acts xvi. 1.

    Grandmother (mammh). N.T. Once in LXX, 4 Macc. xvi. 9. Later Greek. The correct classical word is thqh. See Aristoph. Ach. 49; Plato, Repub. 461 D. From the emphasis upon Timothy's receiving his training from his Jewish mother, it has been inferred that his father died early. That he was the child of a mixed marriage appears from Acts xvi. 1 I am persuaded (pepeismai). The verb in Pastorals only here and verse

    12. Often in Paul.

    6. Wherefore (di hn aitian). Lit. for which cause. Aitia not in Paul. The phrase in verse 12; Tit. i. 13; also in Luke, Acts, and Hebrews Paul's expression is dio or dia touto.

    Stir up (anazwpurein). N.T.o . LXX, (Gen. xlv. 27; 1 Macc. xiii. 7. In Class., as Eurip. Electra, 1121, ajn' au su zwpureiv neikh nea you are rekindling old strifes. From ajna again zwov alive, pur fire. To zwpuron is a piece of hot coal, an ember, a spark. Plato calls the survivors of the flood smikra zwpura tou twn ajnqrwpwn genouv diaseswsmena small sparks of the human race preserved. The word is, therefore, figurative, to stir or kindle the embers. Ana combines the meanings again and up, rekindle or kindle up. Vulg. only the former, resuscitare. Comp. ajnaptein xii. 49; Jas. iii. 5. It is not necessary to assume that Timothy's zeal had become cold.

    The gift of God (to carisma tou qeou). See on 1 Tim. iv. 14. The laying on of my hands. See on 1 Tim. iv. 14.

    7. Spirit of fear (pneuma deiliav). Better, of cowardice. N.T. Comp. Rom. viii. 15, and see on the Spirit, Rom. viii. 4, 5.

    Of power (dunamewv). Found in all the Pauline Epistles except Philemon. In Pastorals only here, verse 8, and chapter iii. 5. Not used by our writer in the sense of working miracles, which it sometimes has in Paul. Here, the power to overcome all obstacles and to face all dangers. It is closely linked with the sense of parrhsia boldness.

    Of love (agaphv). See on Gal. v. 22.

    Of a sound mind (swfronismou). N.T.o . o LXX,o Class. Not self-control, but the faculty of generating it in others or in one's self, making them swfronev of sound mind. Comp. Tit. ii. 4. Rend. discipline. See on swfrosunh 1 Tim. ii. 9.

    8. Be not ashamed (mh epaiscunqhv). See on Luke ix. 26.

    Testimony (marturion). See on 1 Tim. ii. 6.

    His prisoner (desmion autou). Paul styles himself the prisoner of the Lord, Eph. iii. 1; iv. 1, Philem. i. 9. Only here in Pastorals. Not in a figurative sense, one who belongs to Christ, but one who is imprisoned because of his labors as an apostle of Christ. On Paul's supposed second imprisonment, see Intro.

    Be partaker of the afflictions (sunkakopaqhson). Only here and chapter ii. 3. o LXX, o Class. The compounded sun with, not with the gospel, as Rev., but with me. Share afflictions with me for the gospel. According to the power of God. Which enables him to endure hardness. Connect with be partaker, etc.

    9. Who hath saved us. Salvation is ascribed to God. See on our Savior, l Tim. i. 1.

    Called (kalesantov). Comp. 1 Tim. vi. 12, and see Rom. viii. 30; ix. 11; 1 Cor. i. 9; Gal. i. 6; 1 Thess. ii. 12. It is Paul's technical term for God's summoning men to salvation. In Paul the order is reversed: called, saved.

    With a holy calling (lkhsei agia). Klhsiv, calling, often in Paul; but the phrase holy calling only here. In Paul, klhsiv sometimes as here, with the verb kalein to call, as l Corinthians vii. 20; Eph. iv. 1, 4. Purpose (proqesin). See on Acts xi. 23; Rom. ix. 11.

    Grace which was given (carin thn doqeisan). Comp. Rom. xii. 3, 6; xv. 15; 1 Cor. iii. 10; Eph. iii. 8; iv. 7. The phrase only here in Pastorals

    Before the world began (pro cronwn aiwniwn). See additional note on 2 Thess. i. 9. In Pastorals the phrase only here and Tit. i. 2. Not in Paul. Lit. before eternal times. If it is insisted that aijwniov means everlasting, this statement is absurd. It is impossible that anything should take place before everlasting times. That would be to say that there was a beginning of times which are from everlasting. Paul puts the beginnings of salvation in God's purpose before the time of the world (1 Corinthians ii. 7; 1 Pet. i. 20); and Christ's participation in the saving counsels of God prior to time, goes with the Pauline doctrine of Christ's preexistence. The meaning, therefore, of this phrase is rightly given in A.V.: before the world began, that is, before time was reckoned by aeons or cycles. Then, in that timeless present, grace was given to us in God's decree, not actually, since we did not exist. The gift planned and ordered in the eternal counsels is here treated as an actual bestowment.

    10. Made manifest (fanerwqeisan). See on 1 Tim. iii. 16. In contrast With the preceding clause, this marks the historical fulfillment in time of the eternal, divine counsel. Comp. Tit. i. 3. There is an implication that the divine counsel was hidden until the fitting time: comp. Eph. iii. 5, and see Col. i. 26.

    By the appearing (dia thv epifaneiav). See on 2 Thess. ii. 8; 1 Timothy vi. 14.

    Who hath abolished (katarghsantov). Better, since he made of none effect. In Pastorals only here. frequent in Paul. See on make without effect, Rom. iii. 3, and comp. is swallowed up, 1 Cor. xv. 54. Notice the association of the verb with ejpifaneia appearing in 2 Thess. ii. 8. Brought to light (fwtisantov). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians iv. 5; Eph. i. 18; iii. 9.

    Immortality (afqarsian). Better, incorruption. With this exception, only in Paul. See Wisd. ii. 23; vi. 9; 4 Macc. ix. 22; xvii. 12.

    11. A teacher of the Gentiles (didaskalov eqnwn). Omit of the Gentiles. Comp. 1 Tim. ii. 7, from which the words were probably transferred when the three Epistles were jointly edited. Paul calls himself an apostle, and describes himself as preaching (khrusswn); but he nowhere calls himself didaskalov a teacher, although he uses didaskein to teach, of himself, 1 Cor. iv. 17; Col. i. 28. He also uses didach teaching, of matter given by him to the converts, Rom. vi. 17; xvi. 17; 1 Cor. xiv. 6. He distinguishes between the apostle and the teacher, 1 Cor. xii. 28; Eph. iv. 11.

    12. I am not ashamed. Comp. verse 8, and Rom. i. 16.

    Whom I have believed (w pepisteuka). Or, in whom I have put my trust. See on John i. 12; ii. 22; Rom. iv. 5.

    Able (dunatov). Often used with a stronger meaning, as 1 Corinthians i. 26, mighty; Acts xxv. 5, oiJdunatoi the chief men: as a designation of God, oJ dunatov the mighty one, Luke i. 49; of preeminent ability or power in something, as of Jesus, dunatov ejn ergw kai logw mighty in deed and word, L. xxiv. xix. of spiritual agencies, " The weapons of our warfare are dunata mighty," etc., 2 Cor. x. 4. Very often in LXX. That which I have committed (thn paraqhkhn mou). More correctly, that which has been committed unto me: my sacred trust. The meaning of the passage is that Paul is convinced that God is strong to enable him to be faithful to his apostolic calling, in spite of the sufferings which attend it, until the day when he shall be summoned to render his final account. The paraqhkh or thing committed to him was the same as that which he had committed to Timothy that; he might teach others (1 Tim. vi. 20). It was the form of sound words (verse 13); that which Timothy had heard from Paul (chapter ii. 2); that fair deposit verse 14). It was the gospel to which Paul had been appointed verse 11); which had been intrusted to him (1 Tim. i. 11; Tit. i. 3; comp. 1 Cor. ix. 17; Gal. ii. 7; 1 Thessalonians ii. 4). The verb paratiqenai to commit to one's charge is a favorite with Luke. See Luke. xii. 48; Acts xx. 32. Sums deposited with a Bishop for the use of the church were called paraqhkai thv ejkklhsiav trust-funds of the church. In the Epistle of the pseudo-Ignatius to Hero (7) we read: "Keep my deposit (paraqhkhn) which I and Christ have committed (parqemeqa) to you. I commit (paratiqhmi) to you the church of the Antiochenes."

    That day (ejkeinhn thn hJmeran). The day of Christ's second appearing. See on 1 Thess. v. 2. In this sense the phrase occurs in the N.T. Epistles only chapter i. 18; iv. 8; 2 Thess. i. 10; but often in the Gospels, as Matt. vii. 22; xxvi. 29; Mark. xiii. 32, etc. The day of the Lord's appearing is designated by Paul as hJ hJmera, absolutely, the day, Romans xiii. 12; 1 Cor. iii. 13; 1 Thess. v. 4: hJmera tou kuriou the day of the Lord, 1 Cor. i. 8; 2 Corinthians. i. 14; 1 Thessalonians v. 2; 2 Thess. ii. 2: the day of Jesus Christ or Christ, Philippians. i. 6, 10; ii. 16: the day when God shall judge, Rom. ii. 16: the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, Rom. ii. 5: the day of redemption, Eph. iv. 30.

    13. The form (upotupwsin). Pasts o . o LXX, o Class. See on 1 Timothy i. 16.

    Of sound words (ugiainontwn logwn). See on 1 Tim. i. 16.

    In faith and love. The teaching is to be held, preached, and practiced, not as a mere schedule of conduct, however excellent, but with the strong conviction of faith and the favor of love.

    14. That good thing which was committed (thn kalhn paraqhkhn). That fair, honorable trust, good and beautiful in itself, and honorable to him who receives it. The phrase N.T.o . See on verse 12. Comp. the good warfare, 1 Tim. i. 18; teaching, 1 Tim. iv. 6; fight, 1 Tim. vi. 12; confession, 1 Tim. vi. 12.

    15. In Asia. Proconsular Asia, known as Asia Propria or simply Asia. It was the Romans province formed out of the kingdom of Pergamus, which was bequeathed to the Romans by Attalus III (B.C. 130), including the Greek cities on the western coast of Asia, and the adjacent islands with Rhodes. It included Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia. The division Asia Major and Asia Minor was not adopted until the fourth century A.D. Asia Minor (Anatolia) was bounded by the Euxine, Aegean, and Mediterranean on the north, west, and south; and on the east by the mountains on the west of the upper course of the Euphrates.

    Have turned away (apestrafhnsan). Not from the faith, but from Paul.

    16. Onesiphorus. Mentioned again, chapter iv. 19.

    Refreshed (aneyuzen). N.T.o . Several times in LXX; often in Class. Anayuxiv refreshing, Acts iii. 19; and katayucein to cool, Luke xvi. 24. Originally to cool; to revive by fresh air.

    Chain (alusin). Once in Paul, Eph. vi. 20. Several times in Mark, Luke, and Acts. It may mean handcuffs or manacles (see Lightfoot, Philippians, ed. of 1896, page 8), but is not limited to that sense either in classical or later Greek. See Hdt. ix. 74; Eurip. Orest. 984. Mark. v. 4 is not decisive.

    18. Very well (beltion). N.T.o . The sense is comparative; better than I can tell you.

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