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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT WORD STUDIES - JOHN 16

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    CHAPTER XVI

    1. Be offended (skandalisqhte) Rev., made to stumble. In this Gospel only here and vi. 61. See on Matt. v. 29. Wyc, be not slandered.

    2. They shall put you out of the synagogues. See on ix. 22.

    Yea (all). Literally, but. They shall excommunicate you, but worse than this, the hour cometh, etc.

    The hour cometh that (ina). Literally, "there cometh an hour in order that." The hour is ordained with that end in view: it comes fraught with the fulfillment of a divine purpose.

    Whosoever (pav o). Literally, everyone who.

    Doeth service (latreian prosferein). Literally, bringeth or offereth service. Latreia means, strictly, service for hire, but is used of any service, and frequently of the service of God.

    3. Unto you. Omit.

    4. But (alla). Marks a breaking off of the enumeration of fearful details; but (to say no more of these things),I have spoken these, etc.

    At the beginning (ex archv). Properly, from the beginning. So Rev. The phrase only here and vi. 64.

    7. It is expedient (sumferei). From son together, and ferw to bear or bring. The underlying idea of the word is concurrence of circumstances. Go away (apelqw). The different words for go should be noted in this verse, and ver. 10. Here, expressing simple departure from a point.

    Depart (poreuqw). Rev., go. With the notion of going for a purpose, which is expressed in I will send him.

    8. Will reprove (elegxei). See on iii. 20. Rev., convict.

    Of sin - righteousness - judgment (peri) Literally, concerning. Rev., in respect of. Of gives a wrong impression, viz., that He will convict the world of being sinful, unrighteous, and exposed to judgment. This is true, but the preposition implies more. He will convict the world as respects these three; that is, will convict it of ignorance of their real nature.

    Righteousness (dikaiosunhv). Only here and ver. 10 in the Gospel. It occurs in the First Epistle and in Revelation.

    10. I go (upagw). Withdraw from their sight and earthly fellowship. See on viii. 21, and footnote.

    Ye see (qewreite). Rev., behold. See on i. 18.

    11. Is judged (kekritai). Perfect tense. Rev., therefore, rightly, hath been judged.

    12. Bear (bastazein). See on x. 31; xii. 6.

    Now (arti). See on xiii. 33. With reference to a future time, when they will be able to bear them.

    13. Spirit of truth. Literally, of the truth. See on xiv. 7.

    Will guide (odhghsei). From oJdov, way, and hJgeomai, to lead. The kindred noun, oJdhgov, guide, leader, occurs Matt. xv. 14; Acts i. 16, etc.

    Into all truth (eiv pasan thn alhqeian). Rev., more correctly, into all the truth. Some editors read, ejn th ajlhqeia pash, in all the truth. Others, eijv thn ajlhqeian pasan, joining pasan in an adverbial sense with will guide you: i.e., will guide you wholly into the truth. The Spirit does not reveal all truth to men, but He leads them to the truth as it is in Christ. Of himself. Rev., rightly, from himself. See on vii. 17.

    He shall hear (an akoush). Some read, ajkouei, heareth, and omit an, the conditional particle. %Osa an ajkoush, the reading of the Rec. Text, is, strictly, whatsoever things he may have heard.

    Will shew (anaggelei). Better, as Rev., declare. Compare Mark v. 14, 19; Acts xx. 27; 2 Cor. vii. 7. Also to rehearse; Acts xiv. 27. Used of the formal proclamation of the Christian religion (Acts xx. 20; 1 Pet. i. 12; 1 John i. 5). See on Acts xix. 18.

    Things to come (ta ercomena). The article, omitted by A.V., is important. The meaning is not, He will show you some things to come, but the things that are to come, or the things that are coming. These things are whatsoever He shall hear. The phrase occurs only here in the New Testament.

    14. Shall receive (lhyetai). Rev., take. See on iii. 32.

    15. All things that (panta osa). Literally, all things as many as. Rev., all things whatsoever.

    Shall take (lhyetai). The best texts read lambanei, taketh. The relation between the Son and the Spirit is put by Jesus as present and constant.

    16. Ye shall not see (ou qewreite). The present tense: "ye behold me no more." So Rev. Ye shall see (oyesqe). A different verb for seeing is used here. For the distinction, see on i. 18. Qewrew emphasizes the act of vision, oJraw, the result. Qewrew denotes deliberate contemplation conjoined with mental or spiritual interest. "The vision of wondering contemplation, in which they observed little by little the outward manifestation of the Lord, was changed and transfigured into sight, in which they seized at once, intuitively, all that Christ was. As long as His earthly presence was the object on which their eyes were fixed, their view was necessarily imperfect. His glorified presence showed Him in His true nature" (Westcott).

    Because I go unto the Father. The best texts omit.

    17. Then (oun). Rev., correctly, therefore. It is a particle of logical connection, not of time.

    18. He saith (lalei). Emphasizing the purport of the saying.

    A little while (to mikron). In vv. 16, 17, without the article. Here the article the or this little while defines the special point of their difficulty; this "little while" of which He speaks.

    We cannot tell (ouk oidamen). Rev., more simply and literally, we know not.

    He saith (lalei). Emphasizing the form of the saying.

    19. Knew (egnw). Better, Rev., perceived. See on ii. 24.

    20. Weep - lament - be sorrowful (klausete - qrhnhsete - luphqhsesqe). Of these three words, the last is the most general in meaning, expressing every species of pain, of body or of soul, and not necessarily the outward manifestation of sorrow. Both the other words denote audible expressions of grief. Qrhnew marks the more formal expression. It means to utter a dirge over the dead. Thus Homer, of the mourning over Hector in Troy:

    "On a fair couch they laid the corse, and placed Singers beside it leaders of the dirge (qrhnwn), Who sang (eqrhneon) a sorrowful, lamenting strain, And all the women answered it with sobs."

    "Iliad," xxiv. 720-722.

    The verb occurs Matt. xi. 17; Luke vii. 32; xxiii. 27. Klaiw means audible weeping, the crying of children, as distinguished from dakruw, to shed tears, to weep silently, which occurs but once in the New Testament, of Jesus' weeping (John xi. 35). See on Luke vii. 32.

    21. A woman (h gunh). Literally, the woman. The generic article marking the woman as representing her sex: woman as such.

    She is in travail. A common Old Testament image of sorrow issuing in joy. See Isa. xxi. 3; xxvi. 17; lxvi. 7; Hos. xiii. 13; Micah iv. 9, 10. The anguish (thv qliyewv). Commonly rendered affliction or tribulation in A.V. See on Matt. xiii. 21.

    Joy (thn caran). Properly, the joy which answers to the anguish.

    A man (anqrwpov). See on i. 30.

    22. Have sorrow (luphn ecete). This form of expression occurs frequently in the New Testament, to denote the possession or experience of virtues, sensations, desires, emotions, intellectual or spiritual faculties, faults, or defects. It is stronger than the verb which expresses any one of these. For instance, to have faith is stronger than to believe: to have life, than the act of living. It expresses a distinct, personal realization of the virtue or fault or sentiment in question. Hence, to have sorrow is more than to be sorrowful. In Matt. xvii. 20, Christ does not say if ye believe, but if ye have faith; if faith, in ever so small a degree, is possessed by you as a conscious, living principle and motive. Compare have love (xiii. 35; 1 John iv. 16); have peace (xvi. 33); have trust (2 Cor. iii. 4); have boldness (Heb. x. 19; 1 John ii. 28).

    23. Ye shall ask (erwthsete). Or, as Rev., in margin, ask - question. To question is the primary meaning of the verb, from which it runs into the more general sense of request, beseech. So Mark vii. 26; Luke iv. 38; John xvii. 15, etc. Here the meaning is, ye shall ask me no question (compare ver. 19, where the same verb is used). Compare Matt. xvi. 13; xxi. 24; John i. 19. Ask, absolutely, Luke xxii. 68. Note, moreover, the selection of the word here as marking the asking on familiar terms. See on xi. 22. Another verb for ask occurs in the following sentence: "If ye shall ask (aithsthte) anything," etc. Here the sense is, if ye shall make any request. Compare Matt. v. 42; vii. 7, 9, 10, etc. Note, also, that this word for asking the Father marks the asking of an inferior from a superior, and is the word which Christ never uses of His own requests to the Father. Compare 1 John iii. 22.

    Verily, verily. See on i. 51; x. 1.

    Whatsoever ye shall ask - in my name - give. The best texts change osa an, whatsoever, to ant, if (ye shall ask) anything; and place in my name after give it you. So Rev. If ye shall ask anything of the Father, He will give it you in my name. Not only is the prayer offered, but the answer is given in Christ's name.

    24. Ask (aiteite). The present imperative, implying continuous asking. Be asking. Compare Mark vi. 22, aithson, the aorist imperative, marking a single, definite petition.

    May be full (h peplhrwmenh). Very literally, may be having been fulfilled. Rev., more correctly, fulfilled. Compare xv. 11.

    25. Proverbs (paroimiaiv). See on parables, Matt. xiii. 3. He had spoken under figures, as the vine, and the woman in travail.

    Shall shew (anaggelw). Rev., tell. See on ver. 13. The best texts read ajpaggelw, the original force of which is to bring tidings from (apo) something or someone.

    Plainly (parrhsia). See on vii. 13.

    26. Ye shall ask - I will pray. Note again the use of the two verbs for asking. Ye shall ask (aithsesqe); I will pray (erwthsw). See on ver. 23.

    27. Loveth (filei). As sons, with the love of natural affection. See on v. 20. The same verb in the following clause, of the love of the disciples for Christ.

    From God. Some editors read, from the Father. Para, from beside.

    28. From the Father (para). The best texts read, ejk, out of.

    Go (poreuomai). See on ver. 7.

    29. Speakest - speakest (laleiv - legeiv) The first, of the form; the second, of the purport. See on ver. 18.

    30. We are sure (oidamen). Better, as Rev., we know.

    By this (en toutw). Literally, in this. Compare 1 John ii. 3, 5; iii. 16, 19, 24; iv. 9, 10, 13, 17; v. 2.

    31. Now (arti). See on xiii. 33. With reference to the coming time of greater trial.

    32. That (ina). See on ver. 2, and xv. 12. In the divine counsel the hour cometh that ye may be scattered, and may leave, etc.

    To his own (eiv ta idia). To his own home. See on i. 11.

    33. Ye shall have (exete). The best texts read, exete, ye have.

    Be of good cheer (qarseite). Only here in John.

    I have overcome (nenikhka). The verb occurs only three times outside of John's writings. Only here in the Gospel, and frequently in First Epistle and Revelation. Uniformly of spiritual victory.

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