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1. The Jews' feast of tabernacles. The Rev. brings out the defining force of the two articles: the feast of the Jews, the feast of tabernacles. This feast occurred in the early autumn (September or early October), and lasted for seven days. Its observance is commanded in Exod. xxiii. 16; xxxiv. 22; Lev. xxiii. 39, 42, 43; Deut. xvi. 13. Its significance was twofold. It was a harvest-home festival, and hence was called the Feast of Ingathering, and it comememorated the dwelling of Israel in tents or booths in the wilderness. Hence the name Feast of Booths or Tabernacles. The association of the latter event with harvest was designed to remind the people in their prosperity of the days of their homeless wandering, that their hearts might not be lifted up and forget God, who delivered them from bondage (Deut. viii. 12-17). Therefore they were commanded to quit their permanent homes and to dwell in booths at the time of harvest. The festival was also known as the Feast of Jehovah, or simply the Festival (Lev. xxiii. 39; 1 Kings viii. 2), because of its importance, and of being the most joyful of all festivals. At the celebration of the feast at Jerusalem booths were erected in the streets and squares and on the housetops. 30 The Greek word for this feast, skhnophgia, construction of tabernacles, occurs only here in the New Testament.
4. Openly (en parrhsia). Literally, in boldness. The reasoning is: no man can assert the position which Christ claims, and at the same time keep secret the works which go to vindicate it.
5. Neither (oude). Better, as Rev., not even.
Did believe (episteuon). The imperfect, were believing; referring not to a single act of faith, but to faith as habitual and controlling.
11. Then (oun). Better, therefore; because He did not come up with the Galilaeans.
Sought (ezhtoun). The imperfect: kept seeking; persistently sought for Him.
He (ekeinov). Emphatic: that one of whom we have heard, and whom we once saw.
12. Murmuring. See on vi. 41.
The people (toiv ocloiv). See on i. 19.
Said (elegon). Imperfect: were saying.
Deceiveth (plana). Rev., better, leadeth astray. See on Mark xii. 24; Jude 13.
13. Openly (parrhsia). The word may mean either without reserve (x. 24; xi. 14), or without fear (xi. 54).
14. About the midst of the feast (thv eorthv mesoushv). A peculiar form of expression found only here. The midst is expressed by a participle from the verb mesow, to be in the middle. Literally, the feast being midway. Taught (edidasken). Or began to teach. Imperfect tense.
15. Letters (grammata). See on v. 47.
16. Doctrine (didach). Better, teaching, as Rev. Doctrine has acquired a conventional sense which might mislead.
17. Will do his will (qelh to qelhma autou poiein). This is a notable illustration of the frequent blunder of the A.V. in rendering qelein, to will or determine, as a mere auxiliary verb. By overlooking the distinct meaning of the verb to will, and resolving willeth to do into will do, it sacrifices the real force of the passage. Jesus says, if it be one's will to do; if his moral purpose is in sympathy with the divine will.
He shall know. Sympathy with the will of God is a condition of understanding it.
Of God (ek tou Qeou). Better, from; proceeding out of.
Of myself (ap emautou). Of myself is misleading, being commonly understood to mean concerning myself. Rev., correctly, from myself; without union with the Father. Compare v. 30.
18. His own glory (thn doxan thn idian). Literally, the glow which is His own; the second article throwing His own into sharp contrast with His that sent Him. On His own, see on Acts i. 7; Matt. xxii. 5; xxv. 15. The same (outov). Notice the characteristic use of the pronoun taking up and emphasizing the principal subject of the sentence.
19. Did - give (dedwken). Some texts read the aorist tense edwken, in which case this rendering is correct. If with others we read the perfect, we should render hath not Moses given you the law, which you still profess to observe.
Keepeth (poiei). Rev., rightly, doeth. Compare do in ver. 17.
Go ye about (zhteite). Properly, seek ye. So Rev. 20. A devil (daimonion). Or more correctly, a demon. See on Mark i. 34. The name was applied to Jesus by the multitude (oclov) and not by those whom He was addressing in ver. 19, because of the gloomy suspicions which they thought He entertained, and in entire ignorance of the design of the Jews which Jesus had penetrated. The same term was applied to John the Baptist, the ascetic, as one who withdrew from social intercourse (Matt. xi. 18).
21. One work (en ergon). The healing on the Sabbath (v. 1-8).
24. Appearance (oyin). Primarily, seeing or sight. In xi. 44; Revelation i. 16, face, and hence external appearance. The word occurs only in the three passages cited.
25. Them of Jerusalem (Ierosolumitwn). Literally, of the Jerusalemites, who knew better than the multitude the designs of the priesthood. The word occurs only here and Mark i. 5.
26. Do the rulers know indeed? The interrogative particle mhpote may be rendered by the familiar expression they do not, do they? Rev., can it be that the rulers, etc. Indeed (alhqwv); literally, truly.
The very (alhqwv). Omit.
27. Howbeit (alla). But, it cannot be that the rulers have made such a discovery, for we know whence this man is.
We know (oidamen). The knowing of the rulers is expressed by egnwsan; have they ascertained by searching and watching. The people's knowledge, oidamen, is that of settled conviction.
Whence (poqen). Referring to His parentage and family.
No one knoweth whence He is. Opinions differ as to the precise reference of these words. Some explain by a popular idea that the Messiah would not be known until anointed by Elias, when he would suddenly appear. Others refer to Isa. liii. 8; or to Dan. vii. 13. Meyer says that while the popular belief that the immediate ancestry of the Messiah would be unknown when He came cannot further be historically proved, it is credible, partly from the belief in His divine origin, and partly from the obscurity into which the Davidic family had sunk.
28. Then (oun). Rev., rightly, therefore, giving the reason for the succeeding words in Jesus' emotion awakened by the misconceptions of the people.
Me - whence I am. Conceding the truth of the people's statement in ver. 27, we know this man whence he is, so far as His outward person and His earthly origin were concerned. He goes on to show that they are ignorant of His divine relationship.
29. From him (par autou). See on vi. 46.
30. Then. Another of the frequent instances in which the A.V. of this Gospel renders the logical particle as a particle of time. Translate as Rev., therefore; because of His claim to be sent from God.
To take (piasai). See on Acts iii. 7.
31. Will he do (mhti poihsei). Literally, surely he will not at all do.
33. Unto them. Omit.
I go (upagw). I withdraw. See on vi. 21.
34. Ye shall seek me. Not as now, for disputation or violence, but for help.
Where I am. In absolute, eternal being and fellowship with the Father. I am (egw eimi) is the formula of the divine existence (viii. 58). The phrase carries a hint of the essential nature of Jesus, and thus prepares the way for ye cannot come (see on ver. 7). The difference in character will make it essentially impossible.
35. Will He go (outov mellei poreuesqai). Literally, whither does this man intend to go, or whither is He thinking of going? The A.V. misses the contemptuous insinuation in this man (Rev.).
The dispersed among the Gentiles (thn diasporan twn Ellhnwn). Literally, the dispersion of the Greeks. The Jews who remained in foreign lands after the return from the Captivity were called by two names:
1. The Captivity, which was expressed in Greek by three words, viz., ajpoikia, a settlement far from home, which does not occur in the New Testament; metoikesia, change of abode, which is found in Matthew i. 11, 12, 17, and always of the carrying into Babylon; aijcmalwsia, a taking at the point of the spear; Eph. iv. 8; Apoc. xiii. 10.
36. What manner of saying is this (tiv estin outov o logov)? Rev., more simply and literally, what is this word?
37. The last day. The eighth, the close of the whole festival, and kept as a Sabbath (Lev. xxiii. 36). It was called the Day of the Great Hosanna, because a circuit was made seven times round the altar with "Hosanna;" also the Day of Willows, and the Day of Beating the Branches, because all the leaves were shaken off the willow-boughs, and the palm branches beaten in pieces by the side of the altar. Every morning, after the sacrifice, the people, led by a priest, repaired to the Fountain of Siloam, where the priest filled a golden pitcher, and brought it back to the temple amid music and joyful shouts. Advancing to the altar of burnt-offering, at the cry of the people, "Lift up thy hand!" he emptied the pitcher toward the west, and toward the east a cup of wine, while the people chanted, "With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." It is not certain that this libation was made on the eighth day, but there can be no doubt that the following words of the Lord had reference to that ceremony.
38. The scripture hath said. There is no exactly corresponding passage, but the quotation harmonizes with the general tenor of several passages, as Isa. lv. 1; lviii. 11; Zech. xiii. 1; xiv. 8; Ezek. xlvii. 1; Joel iii. 18. Belly (koiliav). The word is often used in the Old Testament for the innermost part of a man, the soul or heart. See Job xv. 35; xxxii. 19; Proverbs xviii. 8; xx. 27, 30. The rite of drawing and pouring out the water pointed back to the smitten rock in the desert. In Exod. xvii. 6, "there shall come water out of it," is literally, "there shall come water from within him." The word belly here means the inmost heart of the believer, which pours forth spiritual refreshment. Compare 1 Cor. x. 4; John iv. 14.
Shall flow (reusousin). The word occurs only here in the New Testament.
Rivers. A type of abundance. Compare Num. xx. 11.
39. The Spirit. The Holy Spirit, personally.
The Holy Ghost (pneuma agion). The best texts omit agion, holy, and the definite article is not in the text, so that the strict rendering is simply spirit. Literally, spirit was not yet. Given, in A.V. and Rev., is added to guard against a possible misconception, which, as Alford observes, "no intelligent reader could fall into." The word spirit, standing thus alone, marks, not the personal Spirit, but His operation or gift or manifestation. Canon Westcott aptly says: "It is impossible not to contrast the mysteriousness of this utterance with the clear teaching of St. John himself on the 'unction' of believers (1 John ii. 20 sqq.), which forms a commentary, gained by later experience, upon the words of the Lord."
Was glorified (edoxasqh). We have here one of John's characteristic terms, even as the idea is central to his Gospel - to show forth Jesus as the manifested glory of God (i. 14). The beginning of our Lord's miracles was a manifestation of His glory (ii. 11). His glory was the expression of the Father's will (viii. 54). By His work He glorified the Father upon earth (xii. 28; xvii. 4), and in this was Himself glorified (xvii. 10). The sickness and resurrection of Lazarus were for the glory of God (xi. 4). The consummation of His work was marked by the words, "Now was the Son of man glorified, and God was glorified in Him" (xiii. 31). His glory He had with the Father before the world was (xvii. 5). It is consummated at His ascension (vii. 39; xii. 16). The passion is the way to glory (xii. 23, 24; xiii. 31). The fruitfulness of believers in Him is for the glory of God (xv. 8), and the office of the Spirit is to glorify Christ (xvi. 14).
40. Many. The best texts omit. Read as Rev., some.
This saying (ton logon). The best texts substitute tw logwn toutwn, these words. So Rev. The prophet. See on i. 21.
41. Shall Christ, etc. (mh gar o Cristov). The Rev. gives better the force of the interrogative particle with gar, for: What, doth the Christ come, etc. The idea in full is, "you cannot (mh) say that, for (gar) doth the Christ, etc."
Shall - come (ercetai). The present tense. Rev., rightly, doth - come.
43. There was a division (scisma egeneto). More correctly, as Rev., "there arose a division." See on i. 3.
44. Would have taken (hqelon piasai). See on vii. 17. Rather, were disposed: or wished to take him.
46. Like this man. Some of the best texts omit.
Deceived (peplanhsqe). Rev., led astray. See on ver. 12.
48. Of the rulers or of the Pharisees. The Greek order, as followed by Rev., is more suggestive: Hath any of the rulers believed on Him, or (to appeal to a larger circle) of the Pharisees?
49. This people (o oclov outov). Better, multitude, as contrasted with the orthodox Jews. See on i. 19.
Cursed. As specimens of Rabbinical utterances concerning this class may be cited the expressions vermin, people of the earth, and the saying, "the ignorant is impious; only the learned shall have part in the resurrection." Even more abusive and abominable is this: "He shall not take a daughter of the people of the earth, because they are an abomination, and their wives are an abomination, and concerning their daughters it is said, Deuteronomy xxvii. 21" -!
50. He that came to Him by night (o elqwn nuktov prov auton). The texts vary, either substituting proteron, before, for nuktov, by night, or omitting the whole clause, and reading, Nicodemus saith unto them, being one of them.
51. Any man (ton anqrwpon). Literally, the man, whoever he may be, that comes before them.
Before it hear him (ean mh akoush par autou). Rev., more correctly, except it first hear. Hear him, is an inadequate rendering of par' aujtou, which is, as Rev., from himself; para, implying from beside, i.e., from his side of the case.
52. Search. Compare v. 39.
Look (ide). Some render see, and translate the following oti, that, instead of for. So Rev. The difference is unimportant.
53. This verse, and the portion of Chapter 8, as far as ver. 12, are generally pronounced by the best critical authorities not to belong to John's Gospel.