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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 12

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    12:1 {In the meantime} (en hois). It is a classic idiom to start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, "in which things or circumstances," without any expressed antecedent other than the incidents in #11:53f. In #12:3 Luke actually begins the sentence with two relatives anq' hwn hosa (wherefore whatever). {Many thousands} (muriadwn). Genitive absolute with episunacqeiswn (first aorist passive participle feminine plural because of muriad"n), a double compound late verb, episunagw, to gather together unto. The word "myriads" is probably hyperbolical as in #Ac 21:20, but in the sense of ten thousand, as in #Ac 19:19, it means a very large crowd apparently drawn together by the violent attacks of the rabbis against Jesus. {Insomuch that they trode one upon another} (hwste katapatein allelous). The imagination must complete the picture of this jam. {Unto his disciples first of all} (pros tous maqetas autou prwton). this long discourse in #Lu 12 is really a series of separate talks to various groups in the vast crowds around Jesus. this particular talk goes through verse #12. {Beware of} (prosecete heautois apo). Put your mind (noun understood) for yourselves (dative) and avoid (apo with the ablative). {The leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy} (tes zumes hetis estin hupocrisis twn farisaiwn). In #Mr 8:15 Jesus had coupled the lesson of the Pharisees with that of Herod, in #Mt 16:6 with that of the Sadducees also. He had long ago called the Pharisees hypocrites (#Mt 6:2,5,16). The occasion was ripe here for this crisp saying. In #Mt 13:33 leaven does not have an evil sense as here, which see. See #Mt 23:13 for hypocrites. Hypocrisy was the leading Pharisaic vice (Bruce) and was a mark of sanctity to hide an evil heart.

    12:2 {Covered up} (sugkekalummenon estin). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of sugkaluptw, an old verb, but here only in the N.T., to cover up on all sides and so completely. Verses #2-9 here are parallel with #Mt 10:26-33 spoken to the Twelve on their tour of Galilee, illustrating again how often Jesus repeated his sayings unless we prefer to say that he never did so and that the Gospels have hopelessly jumbled them as to time and place. See the passage in Matthew for discussion of details.

    12:3 {In the inner chambers} (en tois tameiois). Old form tamieion, a store chamber (#Lu 12:24), secret room (#Mt 6:6; Lu 12:3).

    12:4 {Unto you my friends} (humin tois filois). As opposed to the Pharisees and lawyers in #11:43,46,53. {Be not afraid of} (me fobeqete apo). First aorist passive subjunctive with me, ingressive aorist, do not become afraid of, with apo and the ablative like the Hebrew _min_ and the English "be afraid of," a translation Hebraism as in #Mt 10:28 (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 102). {Have no more that they can do} (me econtwn perissoteron ti poiesai). Luke often uses the infinitive thus with ecw, a classic idiom (#7:40,42; 12:4,50; 14:14; Ac 4:14, etc.).

    12:5 {Whom ye shall fear} (tina fobeqete). First aorist passive subjunctive deliberative retained in the indirect question. tina is the accusative, the direct object of this transitive passive verb (note apo in verse #4). {Fear him who} (fobeqete ton). First aorist passive imperative, differing from the preceding form only in the accent and governing the accusative also. {After he hath killed} (meta to apokteinai). Preposition meta with the articular infinitive. Literally, "After the killing" (first aorist active infinitive of the common verb apokteinw, to kill. {Into hell} (eis ten geennan). See on ¯Mt 5:22. gehenna is a transliteration of _Ge-Hinnom_, Valley of Hinnon where the children were thrown on to the red-hot arms of Molech. Josiah (#2Ki 23:10) abolished these abominations and qen it was a place for all kinds of refuse which burned ceaselessly and became a symbol of punishment in the other world. { this one fear} (touton fobeqete). As above.

    12:6 {Is forgotten} (estin epilelesmenon). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of epilanqanomai, common verb to forget. See #Mt 10:29 for a different construction.

    12:7 {Numbered} (eriqmentai). Perfect passive indicative. Periphrastic form in #Mt 10:30 which see for details about sparrows, etc.

    12:8 {Everyone who shall confess me} (pas hos an homologesei en emoi). Just like #Mt 10:32 except the use of an here which adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of en after homologew both here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (_Prolegomena_, p. 104). {The Son of man} (ho huios tou anqrwpou). Here #Mt 10:32 has k'agw (I also) as the equivalent.

    12:9 {Shall be denied} (aparneqesetai). First future passive of the compound verb aparneomai. Here #Mt 10:33 has arnesomai simply. Instead of "in the presence of the angels of God" (emprosqen twn aggelwn tou qeou) #Mt 10:33 has "before my Father who is in heaven."

    12:10 {But unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit} (twi de eis to hagion pneuma blasfemesanti). this unpardonable Sin is given by #Mr 3:28f.; Mt 12:31f. immediately after the charge that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Luke here separates it from the same charge made in Judea (#11:15-20). As frequently said, there is no sound reason for saying that Jesus only spoke his memorable sayings once. Luke apparently finds a different environment here. Note the use of eis here in the sense of "against."

    12:11 {Be not anxious} (me merimnesete). First aorist active subjunctive with me in prohibition. Do not become anxious. See a similar command to the Twelve on their Galilean tour (#Mt 10:19f.) and in the great discourse on the Mount of Olives at the end (#Mr 13:11; Lu 21:14f.), given twice by Luke as we see. {How or what ye shall answer} (pws e ti apologesesqe). Indirect question and retaining the deliberative subjunctive apologesesqe and also eipete (say).

    12:12 {What ye ought to say} (ha dei eipein). Literally, what things it is necessary (dei) to say. this is no excuse for neglect in pulpit preparation. It is simply a word for courage in a crisis to play the man for Christ and to trust the issue with God without fear.

    12:13 {Bid my brother} (eipe twi adelfwi mou). this volunteer from the crowd draws attention to the multitude (verses #13-21). He does not ask for arbitration and there is no evidence that his brother was willing for that. He wants a decision by Jesus against his brother. The law (#De 21:17) was two-thirds to the elder, one-third to the younger.

    12:14 {A judge or a divider} (kriten e meristen). Jesus repudiates the position of judge or arbiter in this family fuss. The language reminds one of #Ex 2:14. Jesus is rendering unto Caesar the things of Caesar (#Lu 20:25) and shows that his kingdom is not of this world (#Joh 18:36). The word for divider or arbiter (meristes) is a late word from merizomai (verse #13) and occurs here only in the N.T.

    12:15 {From all covetousness} (apo pases pleonexias). Ablative case. From every kind of greedy desire for more (pleon, more, hexia, from ecw, to have) an old word which we have robbed of its sinful aspects and refined to mean business thrift. {In the abundance of the things which he possesseth} (en twi perisseuein tini ek twn huparcontwn autwi). A rather awkward Lukan idiom: "In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out of the things belonging (articular participle) to him."

    12:16 {A parable unto them} (parabolen pros autous). The multitude of verses #13,15. A short and pungent parable suggested by the covetousness of the man of verse #13. {Brought forth plentifully} (euforesen). Late word from euforos (bearing well), in medical writers and Josephus, here only in the N.T.

    12:17 {Reasoned within himself} (dielogizeto en hautwi). Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his perplexity. {Where to bestow} (pou sunaxw). Future indicative deliberative, where I shall gather together. {My fruits} (tous karpous mou). So it is with the rich fool: my fruits, my barns, my corn, my goods, just like Nabal whose very name means fool (#1Sa 25:11), whether a direct reference to him or not.

    12:18 {I will pull down} (kaqelw). Future active of kaqairew, an old verb, the usual future being kaqairesw. this second form from the second aorist kaqeilon (from obsolete hel") like afelei in #Re 22:19. {My barns} (mou tas apoqekas). From apotiqemi, to lay by, to treasure. So a granary or storehouse, an old word, six times in the N.T. (#Mt 3:12; 6:26; 13:30; Lu 3:17; 12:18,24). {All my corn} (panta ton siton). Better grain (wheat, barley), not maize or Indian corn. {My goods} (ta agaqa mou). Like the English, my good things. So the English speak of goods (freight) train.

    12:19 {Laid up for many years} (keimena eis ete polla). Not in D and some other Latin MSS. The man's apostrophe to his "soul" (yuce) is thoroughly Epicurean, for his soul feeds on his goods. The asyndeton here (take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry) shows his eagerness. Note difference in tenses (anapauou, keep on resting, fage, eat at once, pie, drink thy fill, eufrainou, keep on being merry), first and last presents, the other two aorists.

    12:20 {Thou foolish one} (afrwn). Fool, for lack of sense (a privative and fren, sense) as in #11:40; 2Co 11:19. Old word, used by Socrates in Xenophon. Nominative form as vocative. {Is thy soul required of thee} (ten yucen sou aitousin apo sou). Plural active present, not passive: "They are demanding thy soul from thee." The impersonal plural (aitousin) is common enough (#Lu 6:38; 12:11; 16:9; 23:31). The rabbis used "they" to avoid saying "God."

    12:21 {Not rich toward God} (me eis qeon ploutwn). The only wealth that matters and that lasts. Cf. #16:9; Mt 6:19f. Some MSS. do not have this verse. Westcott and Hort bracket it.

    12:22 {Unto his disciples} (pros tous maqetas autou). So Jesus turns from the crowd to the disciples (verses #22-40, when Peter interrupts the discourse). From here to the end of the chapter Luke gives material that appears in Matthew, but not in one connection as here. In Matthew part of it is in the charge to the Twelve on their tour in Galilee, part in the eschatological discourse on the Mount of Olives. None of it is in Mark. Hence Q or the logia seems to be the source of it. The question recurs again whether Jesus repeated on other occasions what is given here or whether Luke has here put together separate discourses as Matthew is held by many to have done in the Sermon on the Mount. We have no way of deciding these points. We can only say again that Jesus would naturally repeat his favorite sayings like other popular preachers and teachers. So #Lu 12:22-31 corresponds to #Mt 6:25-33, which see for detailed discussion. The parable of the rich fool was spoken to the crowd, but this exhortation to freedom from care (#22-31) is to the disciples. So the language in #Lu 12:22 is precisely that in #Mt 6:25. See there for me merimnate (stop being anxious) and the deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question (fagete, endusesqe). So verse #23 here is the same in #Mt 6:25 except that there it is a question with ouc expecting the affirmative answer, whereas here it is given as a reason (gar, for) for the preceding command.

    12:24 {The ravens} (tous korakas). Nowhere else in the N.T. The name includes the whole crow group of birds (rooks and jackdaws). Like the vultures they are scavengers. #Mt 6:26 has simply "the birds" (ta peteina). {Storechamber} (tameion). Not in #Mt 6:26. Means secret chamber in #Lu 12:3. {Of how much more} (poswi mallon). #Mt 6:26 has question, ouc mallon.

    12:25 {A cubit} (pecun). #Mt 6:27 has pˆchun hena (one cubit, though hena is sometimes merely the indefinite article. {Stature} (helikian) as in Matthew, which see.

    12:26 {Not able to do even that which is least} (oude elaciston dunasqe). Negative oude in the condition of the first class. Elative superlative, very small. this verse not in Matthew and omitted in D. Verse #27 as in #Mt 6:28, save that the verbs for toil and spin are plural in Matthew and singular here (neuter plural subject, ta krina).

    12:28 {Clothe} (amfiazei). Late Greek verb in the _Koin‚_ (papyri) for the older form amfiennumi (#Mt 6:30). See Matthew for discussion of details. Matthew has "the grass of the field" instead of "the grass in the field" as here.

    12:29 {Seek not ye} (humeis me zeteite). Note emphatic position of "ye" (humeis). Stop seeking (me and present imperative active). #Mt 6:31 has: "Do not become anxious" (me merimnesete), me and ingressive subjunctive occur as direct questions (What are we to eat? What are we to drink? What are we to put on?) whereas here they are in the indirect form as in verse #22 save that the problem of clothing is not here mentioned: {Neither be ye of doubtful mind} (kai me metewrizesqe). me and present passive imperative (stop being anxious) of metewrizw. An old verb from metewros in midair, high (our meteor), to lift up on high, qen to lift oneself up with hopes (false sometimes), to be buoyed up, to be tossed like a ship at sea, to be anxious, to be in doubt as in late writers (Polybius, Josephus). this last meaning is probably true here. In the LXX and Philo, but here only in the N.T.

    12:31 See #Mt 6:33 for this verse. Luke does not have "first" nor "his righteousness" nor "all."

    12:32 {Little flock} (to mikron poimnion). Vocative with the article as used in Hebrew and often in the _Koin‚_ and so in the N.T. See both pater and ho pater in the vocative in #Lu 10:21. See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 465f. poimnion (flock) is a contraction from poimenion from poimen (shepherd) instead of the usual poimne (flock). So it is not a diminutive and mikron is not superfluous, though it is pathetic. {For it is your Father's good pleasure} (hoti eudokesen ho pater humwn). First aorist active indicative of eudokew. Timeless aorist as in #Lu 3:22. this verse has no parallel in Matthew.

    12:33 {Sell that ye have} (pwlesate ta huparconta humwn). Not in Matthew. Did Jesus mean this literally and always? Luke has been charged with Ebionism, but Jesus does not condemn property as inherently sinful. "The attempt to keep the letter of the rule here given (#Ac 2:44,45) had disastrous effects on the church of Jerusalem, which speedily became a church of paupers, constantly in need of alms (#Ro 15:25,26; 1Co 16:3; 2Co 8:4; 9:1)" (Plummer). {Purses which wax not old} (ballantia me palaioumena). So already ballantion in #Lu 10:4. Late verb palaiow from palaios, old, to make old, declare old as in #Heb 8:13, is passive to become old as here and #Heb 1:11. {That faileth not} (anekleipton). Verbal from a privative and ekleipw, to fail. Late word in Diodorus and Plutarch. Only here in the N.T. or LXX, but in papyri. "I prefer to believe that even Luke sees in the words not a mechanical rule, but a law for the spirit" (Bruce). {Draweth near} (eggizei). Instead of #Mt 6:19 "dig through and steal." {Destroyeth} (diafqeirei). Instead of "doth consume" in #Mt 6:19.

    12:34 {Will be} (estai). Last word in the sentence in Luke. Otherwise like #Mt 6:21. See #1Co 7:32-34 for similar principle.

    12:35 {Be girded about} (estwsan periezwsmenai). Periphrastic perfect passive imperative third plural of the verb perizwnnumi or perizwnnuw (later form), an old verb, to gird around, to fasten the garments with a girdle. The long garments of the orientals made speed difficult. It was important to use the girdle before starting. Cf. #17:8; Ac 12:8. {Burning} (kaiomenoi). Periphrastic present middle imperative, already burning and continuously burning. The same point of the Parable of the Ten Virgins (#Mt 25:1-13) is found here in condensed form. this verse introduces the parable of the waiting servants (#Lu 12:35-40).

    12:36 {When he shall return from the marriage feast} (pote analusei ek twn gamwn). The interrogative conjunction pote and the deliberative aorist subjunctive retained in the indirect question. The verb analuw, very common Greek verb, but only twice in the N.T. (here and #Php 1:23). The figure is breaking up a camp or loosening the mooring of a ship, to depart. Perhaps here the figure is from the standpoint of the wedding feast (plural as used of a single wedding feast in #Lu 14:8), departing from there. See on ¯Mt 22:2. {When he cometh and knocketh} (elqontos kai krousantos). Genitive absolute of the aorist active participle without autou and in spite of autoi (dative) being used after anoixwsin (first aorist active subjunctive of anoigw).

    12:37 {He shall gird himself} (perizwsetai). Direct future middle. Jesus did this (#Joh 13:4), not out of gratitude, but to give the apostles an object lesson in humility. See the usual course in #Lu 17:7-10 with also the direct middle (verse #8) of periswnnuw.

    12:38 {And if} (k'an = kai + ean). Repeated. elqei and heurei, both second aorist subjunctive with ean, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined. {Blessed} (makarioi). Beatitude here as in verse #37.

    12:39 {The thief} (ho kleptes). The change here almost makes a new parable to illustrate the other, the parable of the housebreaking (verses #39,40) to illustrate the parable of the waiting servants (#35-38). this same language appears in #Mt 24:43f. "The Master returning from a wedding is replaced by a thief whose study it is to come to the house he means to plunder at an unexpected time" (Bruce). The parallel in #Mt 24:43-51 with #Lu 12:39-46 does not have the interruption by Peter. {He would have watched} (egregoresen an). Apodosis of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled, made plain by use of an with aorist indicative which is not repeated with ouk afeken (first aorist active indicative of afiemi, k aorist), though it is sometimes repeated (#Mt 24:43).

    12:40 {Be ye} (ginesqe). Present middle imperative, keep on becoming. {Cometh} (ercetai). Futuristic present indicative. See #Mt 24:43-51 for details in the comparison with Luke.

    12:41 {Peter said} (eipen de ho petros). this whole paragraph from verse #22-40 had been addressed directly to the disciples. Hence it is not surprising to find Peter putting in a question. this incident confirms also the impression that Luke is giving actual historical data in the environment of these discourses. He is certain that the Twelve are meant, but he desires to know if others are included, for he had spoken to the multitude in verses #13-21. Recall #Mr 13:37. this interruption is somewhat like that on the Mount of Transfiguration (#Lu 9:33) and is characteristic of Peter. Was it the magnificent promise in verse #37 that stirred Peter's impulsiveness? It is certainly more than a literary device of Luke. Peter's question draws out a parabolic reply by Jesus (#42-48).

    12:42 {Who qen} (tis ara). Jesus introduces this parable of the wise steward (#42-48) by a rhetorical question that answers itself. Peter is this wise steward, each of the Twelve is, anyone is who acts thus. {The faithful and wise steward} (ho pistos oikonomos ho fronimos). The faithful steward, the wise one. A steward is house manager (oikos, nemw, to manage). Each man is a steward in his own responsibilities. {Household} (qerapeias). Literally, service from qerapeuw. medical service as in #Lu 9:11, by metonymy household (a body of those domestics who serve). {Their portion of food} (to sitometrion). Late word from sitometrew (#Ge 47:12) for the Attic ton siton metrew, to measure the food, the rations. Here only in the N.T. or anywhere else till Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 158) found it in an Egyptian papyrus and qen an inscription in Lycia (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 104).

    12:44 {Over all} (epi pasin). See #Mt 24-47 for epi with locative in this sense. Usually with genitive as in verse #42 and sometimes with accusative as in verse #14.

    12:45 {Shall say} (eipei). Second aorist subjunctive, with ean, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined. {Delayeth} (cronizei). From cronos, time, spends time, lingers. {Shall begin} (arxetai). First aorist middle subjunctive with ean and the same condition as eipei, above. {The menservants} (tous paidas) {and the maidservants} (kai tas paidiskas). paidiske is a diminutive of pais for a young female slave and occurs in the papyri, orginally just a damsel. Here pais can mean slave also though strictly just a boy.

    12:46 {Shall cut him asunder} (dicotomesei). An old and somewhat rare word from dicotomos and that from dica and temnw, to cut, to cut in two. Used literally here. In the N.T. only here and #Mt 24:51. {With the unfaithful} (meta twn apistwn). Not here "the unbelieving" though that is a common meaning of apistos (a privative and pistos, from peiqw), but the unreliable, the untrustworthy. Here #Mt 24:51 has "with the hypocrites," the same point. The parallel with #Mt 24:43-51 ends here. #Mt 24:51 adds the saying about the wailing and the gnashing of teeth. Clearly there Luke places the parable of the wise steward in this context while Matthew has it in the great eschatological discourse. Once again we must either think that Jesus repeated the parable or that one of the writers has misplaced it. Luke alone preserves what he gives in verses #47,48.

    12:47 {Which knew} (ho gnous). Articular participle (second aorist active, punctiliar and timeless). The one who knows. So as to me hetoimasas e poiesas (does not make ready or do). {Shall be beaten with many stripes} (daresetai pollas). Second future passive of derw, to skin, to beat, to flay (see on #Mt 21:35; Mr 12:3,5). The passive voice retains here the accusative pollas (supply plegas, present in #Lu 10:30). The same explanation applies to oligas in verse #48.

    12:48 {To whomsoever much is given} (panti de hwi edoqe polu). Here is inverse attraction from hoi to panti (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 767f.). Note par' autou (from him) without any regard to panti. {They commit} (pareqento). Second aorist middle indicative, timeless or gnomic aorist. Note the impersonal plural after the passive voice just before.

    12:49 {I came to cast fire} (pur elqon balein). Suddenly Jesus lets the volcano in his own heart burst forth. The fire was already burning. "Christ came to set the world on fire, and the conflagration had already begun" (Plummer). The very passion in Christ's heart would set his friends on fire and his foes in opposition as we have just seen (#Lu 11:53f.). It is like the saying of Jesus that he came to bring not peace, but a sword, to bring cleavage among men (#Mt 10:34-36). {And what will I, if it is already kindled?} (kai ti qelw ei ede anefqe;). It is not clear what this passage means. Probably ti is be taken in the sense of "how" (pws). How I wish. qen ei can be taken as equal to hoti. How I wish that it were already kindled. anefqe is first aorist passive of anaptw, to set fire to, to kindle, to make blaze. Probably Luke means the conflagration to come by his death on the Cross for he changes the figure and refers to that more plainly.

    12:50 {I have a baptism} (baptisma de ecw). Once again Jesus will call his baptism the baptism of blood and will challenge James and John to it (#Mr 10:32f.; Mt 20:22f.). So here. "Having used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water. The one sets forth the result of his coming as it affects the world, the other as it affects himself. The world is lit up with flames and Christ is bathed in blood" (Plummer). {And how I am straitened} (kai pws sunecomai). See this same vivid verb sunecomai in #Lu 8:37; Ac 18:5; Php 1:23 where Paul uses it of his desire for death just as Jesus does here. The urge of the Cross is upon Jesus at the moment of these words. We catch a glimpse of the tremendous passion in his soul that drove him on. {Till it be accomplished} (hews hotou telesqei). First aorist passive subjunctive of tele" with hews hotou (until which time), the common construction for the future with this conjunction.

    12:51 {But rather division} (all' e diamerismon). Peace at any price is not the purpose of Christ. It is a pity for family jars to come, but loyalty to Christ counts more than all else. These ringing words (#Lu 12:51-53) occur in #Mt 10:34-36 in the address to the Twelve for the Galilean tour. See discussion of details there. These family feuds are inevitable where only part cleave to Christ. In Matthew we have kata with the genitive whereas in Luke it is epi with the dative (and accusative once).

    12:54 {To the multitudes also} (kai tois oclois). After the strong and stirring words just before with flash and force Jesus turns finally in this series of discourses to the multitudes again as in verse #15. There are similar sayings to these verses #54-59 in #Mt 16:1f; 5:25f. There is a good deal of difference in phraseology whether that is due to difference of source or different use of the same source (Q or logia) we do not know. Not all the old MSS. give #Mt 16:2,3. In Matthew the Pharisees and Sadducees were asking for a sign from heaven as they often did. These signs of the weather, "a shower" (ombros, #Lu 12:54) due to clouds in the west, "a hot wave" (kauswn, verse 55) due to a south wind (noton) blowing, "fair weather" (eudia, #Mt 16:2) when the sky is red, are appealed to today. They have a more or less general application due to atmospheric and climatic conditions.

    12:56 {To interpret this time} (ton kairon touton dokimazein). To test dokimazein as spiritual chemists. No wonder that Jesus here calls them "hypocrites" because of their blindness when looking at and hearing him. So it is today with those who are willfully blind to the steps of God among men. this ignorance of the signs of the times is colossal.

    12:57 {Even of yourselves} (kai af' heautwn). Without the presence and teaching of Jesus they had light enough to tell what is right (to dikaion) and so without excuse as Paul argued in #Ro 1-3.

    12:58 {Give diligence to be quit of him} (dos ergasian apellacqai ap' autou). Second aorist active imperative dos from didwmi. apellacqai, perfect passive infinitive of apallassw an old verb common, but only twice in the N.T. (here and #Ac 19:12). Used here in a legal sense and the tense emphasizes a state of completion, to be rid of him for good. {Hale thee} (katasurei). Drag down forcibly, old verb, only here in the N.T. {To the officer} (twi praktori). The doer, the proctor, the exactor of fines, the executor of punishment. Old word, only here in the N.T.

    12:59 {Till thou have paid} (hews apodwis). Second aorist active subjunctive of apodidwmi, to pay back in full. {The last mite} (to escaton lepton). From lepw, to peel off the bark. Very small brass coin, one-eighth of an ounce. In the N.T. only here and #Lu 21:2; Mr 12:42 (the poor widow's mite) which see.

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