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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 11

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    11:1 {As he was praying in a certain place} (en twi einai auton en topwi tini proseucomenon). Characteristically Lukan idiom: en with articular periphrastic infinitive (einai proseucomenon) with accusative of general reference (auton). {That}. Not in the Greek, asyndeton (kai egeneto eipen). {When he ceased} (hws epausato). Supply proseucomenos (praying), complementary or supplementary participle. {Teach us} (didaxon hemas). Jesus had taught them by precept (#Mt 6:7-15) and example (#Lu 9:29). Somehow the example of Jesus on this occasion stirred them to fresh interest in the subject and to revival of interest in John's teachings (#Lu 5:33). So Jesus gave them the substance of the Model Prayer in Matthew, but in shorter form. Some of the MSS. have one or all of the phrases in Matthew, but the oldest documents have it in the simplest form. See on ¯Mt 6:7-15 for discussion of these details (Father, hallowed, kingdom, daily bread, forgiveness, bringing us into temptation). In #Mt 6:11 "give" is dos (second aorist active imperative second singular, a single act) while here #Lu 11:3 "give" is didou (present active imperative, both from didwmi) and means, "keep on giving." So in #Lu 11:4 we have "For we ourselves also forgive" (kai gar autoi afiomen), present active indicative of the late w verb afiw while #Mt 6:12 has "as we also forgave" (hws kai hemeis afekamen), first aorist (k aorist) active of afiemi. So also where #Mt 6:12 has "debts" (ta ofeilemata) #Lu 11:4 has "sins" (tas hamartias). But the spirit of each prayer is the same. There is no evidence that Jesus meant either form to be a ritual. In both #Mt 6:13; Lu 11:4 me eisenegkeis occurs (second aorist subjunctive with me in prohibition, ingressive aorist). "Bring us not" is a better translation than "lead us not." There is no such thing as God enticing one to sin (#Jas 1:13). Jesus urges us to pray not to be tempted as in #Lu 22:40 in Gethsemane.

    11:5 {At midnight} (mesonuktiou). Genitive of time. {And say to him} (kai eipei autwi). this is the deliberative subjunctive, but it is preceded by two future indicatives that are deliberative also (hexei, poreusetai). {Lend me} (creson moi). First aorist active imperative second singular. Lend me {now}. From kicremi, an old verb, to lend as a matter of friendly interest as opposed to daneizw, to lend on interest as a business. Only here in the N.T.

    11:6 {To set before him} (ho paraqesw autwi). {Which I shall place beside him}. Future active of paratiqemi. See #9:16 for this same verb.

    11:7 {And he} (kakeinos). Emphatic. {Shall say} (eipei). Still the aorist active deliberative subjunctive as in verse #5 (the same long and somewhat involved sentence). {Trouble me not} (me moi kopous parece). me and the present imperative active. Literally, "Stop furnishing troubles to me." On this use of kopous parecw see also #Mt 26:10; Mr 14:6; Ga 6:17 and the singular kopon, #Lu 18:5. {The door is now shut} (ede he qura kekleistai). Perfect passive indicative, shut to stay shut. Oriental locks are not easy to unlock. From kleiw, common verb. {In bed} (eis ten koiten). Note use of eis in sense of en. Often a whole family would sleep in the same room. {I cannot} (ou dunamai). That is, I am not willing.

    11:8 {Though} (ei kai). kai ei would be "Even if," a different idea. {Because he is his friend} (dia to einai filon autou). dia and the accusative articular infinitive with accusative of general reference, a causal clause="because of the being a friend of his." {Yet because of his importunity} (dia ge ten anaidian autou). From anaides, shameless, and that from a privative and aidws, shame, shamelessness, impudence. An old word, but here alone in the N.T. Examples in the papyri. The use of ge here, one of the intensive particles, is to be noted. It sharpens the contrast to "though" by "yet." As examples of importunate prayer Vincent notes Abraham in behalf of Sodom (#Ge 18:23-33) and the Syro-Phoenician woman in behalf of her daughter (#Mt 15:22-28).

    11:9 {Shall be opened} (anoigesetai). Second future passive third singular of anoignumi and the later anoigw.

    11:11 {Of which of you that is a father} (tina de ex humwn ton patera). There is a decided anacoluthon here. The MSS. differ a great deal. The text of Westcott and Hort makes ton patera (the father) in apposition with tina (of whom) and in the accusative the object of aitesei (shall ask) which has also another accusative (both person and thing) "a loaf." So far so good. But the rest of the sentence is, {will ye give him a stone?} (me liqon epidwsei autwi;). me shows that the answer No is expected, but the trouble is that the interrogative tina in the first clause is in the accusative the object of aitesei while here the same man (he) is the subject of epidwsei. It is a very awkward piece of Greek and yet it is intelligible. Some of the old MSS. do not have the part about "loaf" and "stone," but only the two remaining parts about "fish" and "serpent,"egg" and "scorpion." The same difficult construction is carried over into these questions also.

    11:13 {Know how to give} (oidate didonai). See on #Mt 7:11 for this same saying. Only here Jesus adds the Holy Spirit (pneuma hagion) as the great gift (the _summum bonum_) that the Father is ready to bestow. Jesus is fond of "how much more" (poswi mallon, by how much more, instrumental case).

    11:14 {When} (tou daimoniou exelqontos). Genitive absolute ana asyndeton between kai egeneto and elalesen as often in Luke (no hoti or kai).

    11:15 {Dumb} (kwfon). See on ¯Mt 9:32. {By Beelzebub} (en beezeboul). Blasphemous accusation here in Judea as in Galilee (#Mr 3:22; Mt 12:24,27). See on Matthew for discussion of the form of this name and the various items in the sin against the Holy Spirit involved in the charge. It was useless to deny the fact of the miracles. So they were explained as wrought by Satan himself, a most absurd explanation.

    11:16 {Tempting him} (peirazontes). These "others" (heteroi) apparently realized the futility of the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. Hence they put up to Jesus the demand for "a sign from heaven" just as had been done in Galilee (#Mt 12:38). By "sign" (semeion) they meant a great spectacular display of heavenly power such as they expected the Messiah to give and such as the devil suggested to Jesus on the pinnacle of the temple. {Sought} (ezetoun). Imperfect active, kept on seeking.

    11:17 {But he} (autos de). In contrast with them. {Knowing their thoughts} (eidws autwn ta dianoemata). From dianoew, to think through or distinguish. this substantive is common in Plato, but occurs nowhere else in the N.T. It means intent, purpose. Jesus knew that they were trying to tempt him. {And a house divided against a house falleth} (kai oikos epi oikon piptei). It is not certain that diamerisqeisa (divided) is to be repeated here as in #Mt 12:25; Mr 3:25. It may mean, {and house falls upon house}, "one tumbling house knocking down its neighbor, a graphic picture of what happens when a kingdom is divided against itself" (Bruce).

    11:18 {Because ye say} (hoti legete). Jesus here repeats in indirect discourse (accusative and infinitive) the charge made against him in verse #15. The condition is of the first class, determined as fulfilled.

    11:19 {And if I by Beelzebub} (ei de egw en beezeboul). Also a condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. A Greek condition deals only with the _statement_, not with the actual facts. For sake of argument, Jesus here assumes that he casts out demons by Beelzebub. The conclusion is a _reductio ad absurdum_. The Jewish exorcists practiced incantations against demons (#Ac 19:13).

    11:20 {By the finger of God} (en daktulwi qeou). In distinction from the Jewish exorcists. #Mt 12:28 has "by the Spirit of God." {qen is come} (ara efqasen). fqanw in late Greek comes to mean simply to come, not to come before. The aorist indicative tense here is timeless. Note Ara (accordingly) in the conclusion (apodosis).

    11:21 {Fully armed} (kaqwplismenos). Perfect passive participle of kaqoplizw, an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Note perfective use of kata in composition with hoplizw, to arm (from hopla, arms). Note indefinite temporal clause (hotan and present subjunctive phulassˆi). {His own court} (ten heautou aulen). His own homestead. #Mr 3:27; Mt 12:29 has "house" (oikian). aule is used in the N.T. in various senses (the court in front of the house, the court around which the house is built, qen the house as a whole). {His goods} (ta huparconta autou). "His belongings." Neuter plural present active participle of huparcw used as substantive with genitive.

    11:22 {But when} (epan de). Note hotan in verse #21. {Stronger than he} (iscuroteros autou). Comparative of iscuros followed by the ablative. {Come upon him and overcome him} (epelqwn nikesei auton). Second aorist active participle of epercomai and first aorist active subjunctive of nikaw. Aorist tense here because a single onset while in verse #22 the guarding (fulassei, present active subjunctive) is continuous. {His whole armor} (ten panoplian autou). An old and common word for all the soldier's outfit (shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, breastplate). Tyndale renders it "his harness." In the N.T. only here and #Eph 6:11,13 where the items are given. {Wherein he trusted} (ef' hei epepoiqei). Second past perfect active of peiqw, to persuade. The second perfect pepoiqa is intransitive, to trust. Old and common verb. He trusted his weapons which had been so efficacious. {His spoils} (ta skula autou). It is not clear to what this figure refers. Strong as Satan is Jesus is stronger and wins victories over him as he was doing qen. In #Col 2:15 Christ is pictured as triumphing openly over the powers of evil by the Cross.

    11:23 {He that is not with me} (ho me wn met' emou). this verse is just like #Mt 12:30.

    11:24 {And finding none} (kai me heuriskon). Here #Mt 12:43 has kai ouc heuriskei (present active indicative instead of present active participle). #Lu 11:24-26 is almost verbatim like #Mt 12:43-45, which see. Instead of just "taketh" (paralambanei) in verse #26, Matthew has "taketh with himself" (paralambanei meq' heautou). And Luke omits: "Even so shall it be also unto this evil generation" of #Mt 12:45. {Than the first} (twn prwtwn). Ablative case after the comparative ceirona. The seven demons brought back remind one of the seven that afflicted Mary Magdalene (#Lu 8:2).

    11:27 {As he said these things} (en twi legein auton). Luke's common idiom, en with articular infinitive. Verses #27,28 are peculiar to Luke. His Gospel in a special sense is the Gospel of Woman. this woman "speaks well, but womanly" (Bengel). Her beatitude (makaria) reminds us of Elisabeth's words (#Lu 1:42, eulogˆmenˆ). She is fulfilling Mary's own prophecy in #1:48 (makariousin me, shall call me happy).

    11:28 {But he said} (autos de eipen). Jesus in contrast turns attention to others and gives them a beatitude (makarioi). "The originality of Christ's reply guarantees its historical character. Such a comment is beyond the reach of an inventor" (Plummer).

    11:29 {Were gathering together unto him} (epaqroizomenwn). Genitive absolute present middle participle of epaqroizw, a rare verb, Plutarch and here only in the N.T., from epi and aqroizw (a common enough verb). It means to throng together (aqroos, in throngs). Vivid picture of the crowds around Jesus. {But the sign of Jonah} (ei me to semeion iwna). Luke does not give here the burial and resurrection of Jesus of which Jonah's experience in the big fish was a type (#Mt 12:39ff.), but that is really implied (Plummer argues) by the use here of "shall be given" (doqesetai) and "shall be" (estai), for the resurrection of Jesus is still future. The preaching of Jesus ought to have been sign enough as in the case of Jonah, but the resurrection will be given. Luke's report is much briefer and omits what is in #Mt 12:41.

    11:31 {With the men of this generation} (meta twn andrwn tes geneas tautes). Here #Mt 12:42 has simply "with this generation," which see.

    11:32 {At the preaching of Jonah} (eis to kerugma iwna). Note this use of eis as in #Mt 10:41; 12:41. Luke inserts the words about the Queen of the South (#31) in between the discussion of Jonah (verses #29f., 32). Both solomwnos (#31) and iwna (verse #32) are in the ablative case after the comparative pleion (more, {something more}).

    11:33 {In a cellar} (eis krupten). A crypt (same word) or hidden place from kruptw, to hide. Late and rare word and here only in the N.T. These other words (lamp, lucnon, bushel, modion, stand, luchnian) have all been discussed previously (#Mt 5:15). #Lu 11:33 is like #Mt 6:22f., which see for details.

    11:35 {Whether not} (me). this use of me in an indirect question is good Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1045). It is a pitiful situation if the very light is darkness. this happens when the eye of the soul is too diseased to see the light of Christ.

    11:36 {With its bright shining} (tei astrapei). Instrumental case, as if by a flash of lightning the light is revealed in him. See on ¯10:18.

    11:37 {Now as he spake} (en de twi lalesai). Luke's common idiom, en with the articular infinitive (aorist active infinitive) but it does not mean "after he had spoken" as Plummer argues, but simply "in the speaking," no time in the aorist infinitive. See #3:21 for similar use of aorist infinitive with en. {Asketh} (erwtai). Present active indicative, dramatic present. Request, not question. {To dine} (hopws aristesei). Note hopws rather than the common hina. Aorist active subjunctive rather than present, for a single meal. The verb is from ariston (breakfast). See distinction between ariston and deipnon (dinner or supper) in #Lu 14:12. It is the morning meal (breakfast or lunch) after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue (#Mt 22:4), not the very early meal called akratisma. The verb is, however, used for the early meal on the seashore in #Joh 21:12,15. {With him} (par' autwi). By his side. {Sat down to meat} (anepesen). Second aorist active indicative of anapiptw, old verb, to recline, to fall back on the sofa or lounge. No word here for "to meat."

    11:38 {That he had not first washed before dinner} (hoti ou prwton ebaptisqe pro tou aristou). The verb is first aorist passive indicative of baptizw, to dip or to immerse. Here it is applied to the hands. It was the Jewish custom to dip the hands in water before eating and often between courses for ceremonial purification. In Galilee the Pharisees and scribes had sharply criticized the disciples for eating with unwashed hands (#Mr 7:1-23; Mt 15:1-20) when Jesus had defended their liberty and had opposed making a necessity of such a custom (tradition) in opposition to the command of God. Apparently Jesus on this occasion had himself reclined at the breakfast (not dinner) without this ceremonial dipping of the hands in water. The Greek has "first before" (prwton pro), a tautology not preserved in the translation.

    11:39 {The Lord} (ho kurios). The Lord Jesus plainly and in the narrative portion of Luke. {Now} (nun). Probably refers to him. You Pharisees do now what was formerly done. {The platter} (tou pinakos). The dish. Old word, rendered "the charger" in #Mt 14:8. Another word for "platter" (paroyis) in #Mt 23:25 means "side-dish." {But your inward part} (to de eswqen humwn). The part within you (Pharisees). They keep the external regulations, but their hearts are full of plunder (harpages, from harpazw, to seize) and wickedness (ponerias, from poneros, evil man). See #Mt 23:25 for a like indictment of the Pharisees for care for the outside of the cup but neglect of what is on the inside. Both inside and outside should be clean, but the inside first.

    11:40 {However} (plen). See #Lu 6:24. Instead of devoting so much attention to the outside. {Those things which are within} (ta enonta). Articular neuter plural participle from eneimi, to be in, common verb. this precise phrase only here in the N.T. though in the papyri, and it is not clear what it means. Probably, give as alms the things within the dishes, that is have inward righteousness with a brotherly spirit and the outward becomes "clean" (kaqara). Properly understood, this is not irony and is not Ebionism, but good Christianity (Plummer).

    11:42 {Tithe} (apodekatoute). Late verb for the more common dekateuw. So in #Mt 23:23. Take a tenth off (apo-). Rue (peganon). Botanical term in late writers from pegnumi, to make fast because of its thick leaves. Here #Mt 23:23 has "anise." {Every herb} (pan lacanon). General term as in #Mr 4:32. Matthew has "cummin." {Pass by} (parercesqe). Present middle indicative of parercomai, common verb, to go by or beside. #Mt 23:23 has "ye have left undone" (afekate). Luke here has "love" (agapen), not in Matthew. {Ought} (edei). As in Matthew. Imperfect of a present obligation, not lived up to just like our "ought" (owed, not paid). pareinai, as in Matthew, the second aorist active infinitive of afiemi. to leave off. Common verb. Luke does not have the remark about straining out the gnat and swallowing the camel (#Mt 23:34). It is plain that the terrible exposure of the scribes and Pharisees in #Mt 23 in the temple was simply the culmination of previous conflicts such as this one.

    11:43 {The chief seats in the synagogues} (ten prwtokaqedrian en tais sunagwgais). Singular here, plural in #Mt 23:6. this semi-circular bench faced the congregation. #Mt 23:6 has also the chief place at feasts given by Luke also in that discourse (#20:46) as well as in #14:7, a marked characteristic of the Pharisees.

    11:44 {The tombs which appear not} (ta mneneia ta adela). These hidden graves would give ceremonial defilement for seven days (#Nu 19:16). Hence they were usually whitewashed as a warning. So in #Mt 23:27 the Pharisees are called "whited sepulchres." Men do not know how rotten they are. The word adelos (a privative and delos, apparent or plain) occurs in the N.T. only here and #1Co 14:8, though an old and common word. {Here men walking around} (peripatountes) walk over the tombs without knowing it. These three woes cut to the quick and evidently made the Pharisees wince.

    11:45 {Thou reproachest us also} (kai hemas hubrizeis). Because the lawyers (scribes) were usually Pharisees. The verb hubrizw is an old one and common for outrageous treatment, a positive insult (so #Lu 18:32; Mt 22:6; Ac 14;5; 1Th 2:2). So Jesus proceeds to give the lawyers three woes as he had done to the Pharisees.

    11:46 {Grievous to be borne} (dusbastakta). A late word in LXX and Plutarch (dus and bastazw). Here alone in text of Westcott and Hort who reject it in #Mt 23:4 where we have "heavy burdens" (fortia barea). In #Gal 6:2 we have bare with a distinction drawn. Here we have fortizete (here only in the N.T. and #Mt 11:28) for "lade," fortia as cognate accusative and qen fortiois (dative after ou prosyauete, touch not). It is a fierce indictment of scribes (lawyers) for their pettifogging interpretations of the written law in their oral teaching (later written down as _Mishna_ and qen as _Gemarah_), a terrible load which these lawyers did not pretend to carry themselves, not even "with one of their fingers" to "touch" (prosyauw, old verb but only here in the N.T.), touch with the view to remove. #Mt 23:4 has kinesai, to move. A physician would understand the meaning of prospauw for feeling gently a sore spot or the pulse.

    11:48 {Consent} (suneudokeite). Double compound (sun, eu, dokew), to think well along with others, to give full approval. A late verb, several times in the N.T., in #Ac 8:1 of Saul's consenting to and agreeing to Stephen's death. It is a somewhat subtle, but just, argument made here. Outwardly the lawyers build tombs for the prophets whom their fathers (forefathers) killed as if they disapproved what their fathers did. But in reality they neglect and oppose what the prophets teach just as their fathers did. So they are "witnesses" (martures) against themselves (#Mt 23:31).

    11:49 {The wisdom of God} (he sofia tou qeou). In #Mt 23:34 Jesus uses "I send" (egw apostellw) without this phrase "the wisdom of God." There is no book to which it can refer. Jesus is the wisdom of God as Paul shows (#1Co 1:30), but it is hardly likely that he so describes himself here. Probably he means that God in his wisdom said, but even so "Jesus here speaks with confident knowledge of the Divine counsels" (Plummer). See #Lu 10:22; 15:7,10. Here the future tense occurs, "I will send" (apostelw). {Some of them} (ex autwn). No "some" (tinas) in the Greek, but understood. They will act as their fathers did. They will kill and persecute.

    11:50 {That ... may be required} (hina ... ekzeteqei). Divinely ordered sequence, first aorist passive subjunctive of ekzetew, a late and rare verb outside of LXX and N.T., requiring as a debt the blood of the prophets. {Which was shed} (to ekkecumenon). Perfect passive participle of ekcew and ekcunnw (an Aeolic form appearing in the margin of Westcott and Hort here, ekcunnomenon, present passive participle). If the present passive is accepted, it means the blood which is perpetually shed from time to time. {From the foundation of the world} (apo kataboles kosmou). See also #Mt 25:34; Joh 17:24; Eph 1:4, etc. It is a bold metaphor for the purpose of God.

    11:51 {From the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah} (apo haimatos Abel hews haimatos Zachariou). The blood of Abel is the first shed in the Old Testament (#Ge 4:10), that of Zacharias the last in the O.T. canon which ended with Chronicles (#2Ch 24:22). Chronologically the murder of Uriah by Jehoiakim was later (#Jer 26:23), but this climax is from genesis to II Chronicles (the last book in the canon). See on ¯Mt 23:35 for discussion of Zachariah as "the son of Barachiah" rather than "the son of Jehoiada." {Between the altar and the sanctuary} (metaxu tou qusiasteriou kai tou oikou). Literally, between the altar and the house (#Mt 23:35 has temple, naou).

    11:52 {Ye took away the key of knowledge} (erate ten kleida tes gnwsews). First aorist active indicative of air", common verb. But this is a flat charge of obscurantism on the part of these scribes (lawyers), the teachers (rabbis) of the people. They themselves (autoi) refused to go into the house of knowledge (beautiful figure) and learn. They qen locked the door and hid the key to the house of knowledge and hindered (ekwlusate, effective aorist active) those who were trying to enter (tous eisercomenous, present participle, conative action). It is the most pitiful picture imaginable of blind ecclesiastics trying to keep others as blind as they were, blind leaders of the blind, both falling into the pit.

    11:53 {From thence} (k'akeiqen). Out of the Pharisee's house. What became of the breakfast we are not told, but the rage of both Pharisees and lawyers knew no bounds. {To press upon him} (enecein). An old Greek verb to hold in, to be enraged at, to have it in for one. It is the same verb used of the relentless hatred of Herodias for John the Baptist (#Mr 6:19). {To provoke him to speak} (apostomatizein). From apo and stoma (mouth). Plato uses it of repeating to a pupil for him to recite from memory, qen to recite by heart (Plutarch). Here (alone in the N.T.) the verb means to ply with questions, to entice to answers, to catechize. {Of many things} (peri pleionwn). "Concerning more (comparative) things." They were stung to the quick by these woes which laid bare their hollow hypocrisy.

    11:54 {Laying wait for him} (enedreuontes auton). An old verb from en and hedra, a seat, so to lie in ambush for one. Here only and #Ac 23:21 in the N.T. Vivid picture of the anger of these rabbis who were treating Jesus as if he were a beast of prey. {To catch something out of his mouth} (qereusai to ek tou stomatos autou). An old Greek verb, though here only in the N.T., from qera (cf. #Ro 11:9), to ensnare, to catch in hunting, to hunt. These graphic words from the chase show the rage of the rabbis toward Jesus. Luke gives more details here than in #20:45-47; Mt 23:1-7, but there is no reason at all why Jesus should not have had this conflict at the Pharisee's breakfast before that in the temple in the great Tuesday debate.

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