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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 11

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    CHAPTER XI

    2-4. Compare Matt. vi. 9-13.

    3. Daily bread (ton arton ton ejpiousion). Great differences of opinion exist among commentators as to the strict meaning of the word rendered daily. The principal explanations are the following:

    1. From ejpienai, to come on. Hence, a. The coming, or tomorrow's bread.

    b. Daily: regarding the days in their future succession.

    c. Continual.

    d. Yet to come, applied to Christ, the Bread of life, who is to come hereafter.

    2. From ejpi and oujsia, being. Hence, a. For our sustenance (physical), and so necessary.

    b. For our essential life (spiritual).

    c. Above all being, hence pre-eminent, excellent.

    d. Abundant.

    It would be profitless to the English reader to go into the discussion. A scholar is quoted as saying that the term is "the rack of theologians and grammarians." A satisfactory discussion must assume the reader's knowledge of Greek. Those who are interested in the question will find it treated by Tholuck ("Sermon on the Mount"), and also very exhaustively by Bishop Lightfoot ("On a Fresh Revision of the New Testament"). The latter adopts the derivation from ejpienai, to come on, and concludes by saying, "the familiar rendering, daily, which has prevailed uninterruptedly in the Western Church from the beginning, is a fairly adequate representation of the original; nor, indeed, does the English language furnish any one word which would answer the purpose so well." The rendering in the margin of Rev. is, our bread for the coming day. It is objected to this that it contradicts the Lord's precept in Matt. vi. 34, not to be anxious for the morrow. But word does not necessarily mean the morrow. "If the prayer were said in the evening, no doubt it would mean the following day; but supposing it to be used before dawn, it would designate the day then breaking" (the coming day). "And further, if the command not to be anxious is tantamount to a prohibition against prayer for the object about which we are forbidden to be anxious, then not only must we not pray for tomorrow's food, but we must not pray for food at all; since the Lord bids us (Matt. vi. 25) not to be anxious for our life" (Lightfoot, condensed).

    4. Forgive. See on ch. iii. 3; Jas. v. 15.

    Sins (amartiav). See on Matt. i. 21. Compare debts, Matt. vi. 12. That is indebted. Matthew's debts appears here.

    Lead (eisenegkhv). Rev. gives "bring us not," which, besides being a more accurate rendering of the word (eijv, into, ferw, to bear or bring), avoids the invidious hint of seducing or enticing which attaches to lead. James tells us that God does not tempt any man (i. 13); but the circumstances of a man's life often, indeed always, involve possibilities of temptation. A caution is written even over the door of God's own house (Eccl. v. 1). God also sends trials to prove and chasten us; but something may change the salutary power of trial into the corrupting power of evil solicitation; and that something, as James tells us (i. 14), is our own evil desire. God tempteth no man; but "every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed." We pray, therefore, "suffer us not to be drawn away by our own lusts: keep us out of the power of our own evil hearts. Thou knowest our frame, and rememberest that we are dust. Remember our weakness. What thou imposest we would not shun. What thou dost not impose, keep us from seeking. Forbid that our evil desire should convert our temptable condition into actual temptation. Keep us out of situations in which, so far as we can judge, it would be beyond our present strength to keep from sinning." It is not a coward's prayer. No man is a coward for being afraid of his own heart. It marks the highest quality of courage to know what to be afraid of and to fear it. To pray that God will not bring us within the possibility of temptation, would be to ignore our manhood, or to pray to be taken out of the world. But we may pray, and will surely pray, the more keenly conscious we become of the weakness of our nature, that God will not suffer the trials of life to become temptations to evil.

    Temptation. See on Matt. vi. 13.

    THE PARABLE OF THE FRIEND AT MIDNIGHT, 5-9.

    Peculiar to Luke.

    5. Set before. See on ch. ix. 16.

    7. My children are with me in bed. "A whole family - parents, children, and servants - sleep in the same room" (Thomson, "Land and Book"). Tynd. my servants are with me in the chamber.

    8. Importunity (anaideian). Only here in New Testament. A very striking word to describe persistence. Lit., shamelessness. As related to prayer, it is illustrated in the case of Abraham's intercession for Sodom (Gen. xviii. 23-33); and of the Syro-Phoenician woman (Matthew xv. 22-28).

    9. Ask (aiteite). The word for the asking of an inferior (Acts xii. 20; iii. 2); and hence of man from God (Matt. vii. 7; Jas. i. 5). Christ never uses the word of his own asking from the Father, but always ejrwtw, as asking on equal terms. Martha shows her low conception of his person when she uses the term of his asking God (John xi. 22). 8 Ask, seek, knock. "The three repetitions of the command are more than mere repetitions; since to seek is more than to ask, and to knock than to seek" (Trench, "Parables").

    11. Of any of you (tina). The A.V. renders as though the pronoun were indefinite; but it is interrogative and commences the sentence. Rev., therefore, rightly, of which of you that is a father, etc.

    13. Being (uparcontev). See on Jas. ii. 15.

    Heavenly Father. Lit., the Father, he who is from Heaven.

    14, 15, 17-23. Compare Matt. xii. 22-37.

    14. Dumb (kwfon). See on Matt. ix. 32.

    15. Beelzebub. See on Matt. x. 25.

    16. Tempting. See on temptation, Matt. vi. 13.

    Sign. See on Matt. xi. 20.

    17. Thoughts (dianohmata). Only here in New Testament. Primarily with a sense of intent, purpose.

    A house divided against itself falleth (oikov epi oikon piptei). Some make this an enlargement on the previous sentence - a more detailed description of the general is brought to desolation, and render house falleth upon house. So Rev., margin. It might be taken metaphorically: the divided kingdom is brought to desolation, and its families and households in their party strifes are brought to ruin. Wyc., and an house shall fall on an house. Tynd., one house shall fall upon another.

    18. Satan. See on ch. x. 18.

    Be divided. See on Matt. xii. 26.

    20. Is come upon you. See on Matt. xii. 28.

    21. A strong man (o iscurov). It has the article: the strong man. So Rev. See on Matt. xii. 29.

    Armed (kaqwplismenov). Fully armed: down (kata) from head to heel.

    His palace (eautou aulhn). Lit., his own. jAulh is strictly the open court in front of a house: later, the court round which the house is built, and so applied to the house generally, as our door or roof. Rev., court; for there, in the open space, commanding the doors, he would mount guard.

    22. A stronger. Also with the article: the stronger.

    All his armor (thn panoplian). Wrong; for the armor is regarded as a whole - the panoply - which is a transcript of this word. Rightly, Rev., his whole armor. Tynd., his harness.

    Spoils (ta skula). See on Mark v. 35. Compare on goods, Matthew xii. 29.

    24. Dry places (anudrwn topwn). Rev., more literally, waterless. The haunts of evil spirits (Isa. xiii. 21, 22; xxxiv. 14). By satyrs in these two passages are meant goblins shaped like goats, which were sacrificed to by some of the Israelites (Lev. xvii. 7, 2 Chron. xi. 15); a remnant of the Egyptian worship of Mendes or Pan, who, under the figure of a goat, was worshipped by the Egyptians as the fertilizing principle in nature. In Isa. xxxiv. 14, it is said "the screech-owl shall rest there." This is rendered in margin of A.V. and in the Rev., Old Testament, the night-monster (Hebrew, Lilith); and by Cheyne (Isaiah) night-fairy. The reference is to a popular superstition that Lilith, Adam's first wife, forsook him and became a demon which murdered young children and haunted desert places.

    Rest. See on Matt. xi. 28.

    26. Taketh to him (paralambanei). See on Matt. iv. 5.

    Seven. Emphatic: "taketh spirits, seven of them."

    More wicked. See on ch. iii. 19; Mark vii. 21.

    Dwell (katoikei). Settle down (kata) to make their dwelling (oikov) there.

    27. Blessed, etc. "She speaks well, but womanly" (Bengel).

    29-36. Compare Matt. xii. 38-45.

    29. Were gathered thick together (epaqroizomenwn). The present participle; and therefore, as Rev., were gathering together unto him, or upon him (epi). Only here in New Testament.

    Evil. See on adulterous. Matt. xii. 39.

    30. A sign to the Ninevites. Compare Matt. xii. 40.

    31. Shall rise up (egerqhsetai). From the dead.

    A greater (pleion). Lit., something more. See on Matt. xii. 6. Wyc., here is more than Solomon.

    32. Shall rise up (anasthsontai). This verb is also used of rising from the dead, and that is implied here; but the meaning is, shall appear as witness. Hence Rev., stand up. See on Matt. xii. 41.

    Preaching (khrugma). The proclamation. See on 2 Pet. ii. 5.

    33. Candle. Properly, lamp.

    Secret place (krupthn). Rather, a cellar or crypt. which latter is the Greek word transcribed.

    The bushel. See on Matt. v. 15.

    Candlestick. Properly stand. See on Matt. v. 15.

    Which enter in (eisporeuomenoi). Better with the continuous force of the present participle, are entering in from time to time.

    Light (feggov). The word occurs in only two other places: Matthew xxiv. 29; Mark xiii. 24, on which see notes.

    34. Single - full of light. See on Matt. vi. 22.

    35. The light that is in thee. Lit., the light, that, namely, which is in thee; thus emphasizing the inward light. See on Matt. vi. 23.

    36. The bright shining of a candle (o lucnov th astraph). More correctly, as Rev., the lamp with its bright shining. jAstraph means lightning: see ch. x. 18; and that is the usual meaning in classical Greek, though it occurs, rarely, of the light of a lamp. It is used here to emphasize the idea of moral illumination.

    37. Besought (erwta). Too strong. Better, as Rev., asketh. The present tense.

    Dine (aristhsh). See on dinner, Matt. xxii. 4. The morning meal, immediately after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue.

    Washed (ebaptisqh). See on Mark vii. 4.

    39. Platter (pinakov). The word rendered charger in Matt. xiv. 8, on which see note. Compare, also, paroyiv, platter, Matt. xxiii. 25.

    41. Such things as ye have (ta enonta). Only here in New Testament. Commentators differ as to the meaning, but generally reject that of the A.V. Rev., those things which are within. The meaning is, give alms of the contents of the cups and platters. Jesus is insisting upon inward righteousness as against pharisaic externalism, and says: "Your virtue consists in washing the outside, and making a respectable appearance. Cultivate rather the loving, brotherly spirit of inward righteousness, which will prompt you to give of the food which the vessels contain (that which is within) to your suffering brother." "Do you think it is enough to wash your hands before eating? There is a surer means. Let some poor man partake of your meats and wines" (Godet). So Bengel, Meyer, Alford. Compare Matt. ix. 13; Hos. vi. 6. Wyc., That thing that is over (i.e., remaining in the dishes) give ye alms. 9

    42. Ye tithe (apodekatoute). Tithe is tenth. See on Matt. xxiii. 23.

    Rue (phganon). Probably from phgnumi, to make fast; because of its thick, fleshy leaves. Matthew has anise. See on xxiii. 23.

    Herb (lacanon). See on Mark iv. 32. Wyc. has wort, originally the general term for a plant. Hence colewort, liverwort, and similar words. Compare the German wurz, root or herb.

    43. Pharisees (toiv Farisaioiv). Luke's form of expression differs from that of Matthew, who says, "ye Pharisees; while Luke has "woe unto you, the Pharisees," marking them by the article as a well-known religious body.

    44. Tombs which appear not (ta mnhmeia ta adhla). Lit., the tombs, the unseen ones. The word adhlov, unapparent, occurs only here and 1 Corinthians xiv. 8, of the trumpet giving an uncertain sound.

    That walk over (peripatountev). The participle, and without the article; and therefore better, as they walk; walk about (peri) on their daily business. In Matthew the sepulchres are whitened, that men may see them and avoid ceremonial defilement. Here they are not seen, and men walking on them are unconsciously defiled. See on Matt. xxiii. 27.

    45. Reproachest (ubrizeiv). The lawyer converts Jesus' reproach (see Mark xvi. 14, upbraided) into an insult; the word meaning to outrage or affront.

    Us also (kai hmav). Or perhaps better, even us, the learned.

    46. Also (kai). Emphatic. "Even or also unto you lawyers, woe." Note the article as in the address to the Pharisees (ver. 43): You, the lawyers. Ye lade. Compare heavy laden, Matt. xi. 28.

    Grievous to be born (dusbastakta). Only here and Matt. xxiii. 4.

    Touch (prosyauete). Only here in New Testament. A technical term in medicine for feeling gently a sore part of the body, or the pulse. Matthew xxiii. 4, has kinhsao, move.

    47. Ye build. Or are building, carrying on the work now. See on Matthew xxiii. 29.

    Tombs of the prophets. See on Matt. xxiii. 29.

    48. Ye bear witness that ye allow (marturev este kai suneudokeite). Rev., more correctly, ye are witnesses and consent. The compound verb means "give your full approval." Ye think (dokeite); favorably (eu); along with them (sun).

    51. The altar and the temple. Oikou, temple, lit., house, is equivalent to naou, sanctuary (Rev.), in Matt. xxiii. 35. The altar is the altar of burnt-offering. See on Matt. iv. 5; and compare 2 Chron. xxiv. 18-21.

    53. To urge him vehemently (deinwv enecein). See on Mark vi. 19.

    Provoke to speak (apostomatizein). Only here is New Testament.

    From ajpo, from, and stoma, the mouth. Originally to dictate to a pupil what he is to learn by heart. Thus Plato: "When the grammar-master dictated (apostomatizoi) to you" ("Euthydemus," 276). Hence to catechize, with the idea of putting words into Christ's mouth, and making him say what they wanted him to say.

    54. Lying in wait - to catch (enedreuontevqhreusai). Metaphors from hunting.

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