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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 10

    Luke 9 - Luke 11 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    10:1 {Appointed} (anedeixen). First aorist active indicative of anadeiknumi, an old verb, not only common, but in LXX. In the N.T. only here and #Ac 1:24. Cf. anadeixis in #Lu 1:80. To show forth, display, proclaim, appoint. {Seventy others} (heterous hebdomekonta kai). The "also" (kai) and the "others" point back to the mission of the Twelve in Galilee (#9:1-6). Some critics think that Luke has confused this report of a mission in Judea with that in Galilee, but needlessly so. What earthly objection can there be to two similar missions? B D Syr. Cur. and Syr. Sin. have "seventy-two." The seventy elders were counted both ways and the Sanhedrin likewise and the nations of the earth. It is an evenly balanced point. {Two and two} (ana duo). For companionship as with the Twelve though #Mr 6:7 has it duo (vernacular idiom). B K have here ana duo, a combination of the idiom in #Mr 6:7 and that here. {He himself was about to come} (emellen autos ercesqai). Imperfect of mellw with present infinitive and note autos. Jesus was to follow after and investigate the work done. this was only a temporary appointment and no names are given, but they could cover a deal of territory.

    10:2 {Harvest} (qerismos). Late word for the older qeros, summer, harvest. The language in this verse is verbatim what we have in #Mt 9:37,38 to the Twelve. Why not? The need is the same and prayer is the answer in each case. Prayer for preachers is Christ's method for increasing the supply.

    10:3 {As lambs} (hws arnas). Here again the same language as that in #Mt 10:16 except that there "sheep" (probata) appears instead of "lambs." Pathetic picture of the risks of missionaries for Christ. They take their life in their hands.

    10:4 {Purse} (ballantion). Old word for money-bag, sometimes a javelin as if from ballw. Only in Luke in the N.T. (#10:4; 12:33; 22:35ff.). See #Lu 9:3; Mr 6:7f.; Mt 10:9f. for the other similar items. {Salute no man on the way} (medena kata ten hodon aspasesqe). First aorist (ingressive) middle subjunctive with medena. The peril of such wayside salutations was palaver and delay. The King's business required haste. Elisha's servant was not to tarry for salutations or salaams (#2Ki 4:29). These oriental greetings were tedious, complicated, and often meddlesome if others were present or engaged in a bargain.

    10:5 {First say} (prwton legete). Say first. The adverb prwton can be construed with "enter" (eiselqete), but probably with legete is right. The word spoken is the usual oriental salutation.

    10:6 {A son of peace} (huios eirenes). A Hebraism, though some examples occur in the vernacular _Koin‚_ papyri. It means one inclined to peace, describing the head of the household. {Shall rest} (epanapaesetai). Second future passive of epanapauw, a late double compound (epi, ana) of the common verb pauw. {It shall turn to you again} (ef' humas anakamyei). Common verb anakamptw, to bend back, return. The peace in that case will bend back with blessing upon the one who spoke it.

    10:7 {In that same house} (en autei tei oikiai). Literally, in the house itself, not "in the same house" (en tei autei oikiai), a different construction. A free rendering of the common Lukan idiom is, "in that very house." {Eating} (esqontes). An old poetic verb esqw for esqiw that survives in late Greek. {Such things as they give} (ta par' autwn). "The things from them." {For the laborer is worthy of his hire} (axios gar ho ergates tou misqou autou). In #Mt 10:10 we have tes trofes autou (his food). #1Ti 5:18 has this saying quoted as scripture. That is not impossible if Luke wrote by A.D. 62. Paul there however may quote only #De 25:4 as scripture and get this quotation either from #Lu 10:7 or from a proverbial saying of Jesus. It is certainly not a real objection against the Pauline authorship of First Timothy. {Go not from house to house} (me metabainete ex oikias eis oikian). As a habit, me and the present imperative, and so avoid waste of time with such rounds of invitations as would come.

    10:8 {Such things as are set before you} (ta paratiqemena humin). The things placed before you from time to time (present passive participle, repetition). Every preacher needs this lesson of common politeness. These directions may seem perfunctory and even commonplace, but every teacher of young preachers knows how necessary they are. Hence they were given both to the Twelve and to the Seventy.

    10:9 {Is come nigh unto you} (eggiken ef' humas). Perfect active indicative of eggizw as in #Mt 3:2 of the Baptist and #Mr 1:15 of Jesus. Note ef' humas here.

    10:10 {Into the streets thereof} (eis tas plateias autes). Out of the inhospitable houses into the broad open streets.

    10:11 {Even the dust} (kai ton koniorton). Old word from konis, dust, and ornumi, to stir up. We have seen it already in #Mt 10:14; Lu 9:5. Dust is a plague in the east. Shake off even that. {Cleaveth} (kolleqenta). First aorist passive participle of kollaw, to cling as dust and mud do to shoes. Hence the orientals took off the sandals on entering a house. {We wipe off} (apomassomeqa). Middle voice of an old verb apomassw, to rub off with the hands. Nowhere else in the N.T. But ekmassw, occurs in #Lu 7:38,44. {Against you} (humin). Fine example of the dative of disadvantage (the case of personal interest, the dative).

    10:12 {More tolerable} (anektoteron). Comparative of the verbal adjective anektos from anecomai. An old adjective, but only the comparative in the N.T. and in this phrase (#Mt 10:15; 11:22,24; Lu 10:12,14).

    10:13 {Would have repented} (an metenoesan). Conclusion (apodosis) of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled. {Long ago} (palai). Implies a considerable ministry in these cities of which we are not told. Chorazin not mentioned save here and #Mt 11:21. Perhaps karazeh near Tell Hum (Capernaum). {Sitting in sackcloth and ashes} (en sakkwi kai spodoi kaqemenoi). Pictorial and graphic. The sakkos (sackcloth) was dark coarse cloth made of goat's hair and worn by repentants, mourners, suppliants. It is a Hebrew word, _sag_. The rough cloth was used for sacks or bags. To cover oneself with ashes was a mode of punishment as well as of voluntary humiliation.

    10:15 {Shalt thou be exalted?} (me huywqesei;). me expects the answer No. The verb is future passive indicative second singular of huyow, to lift up, a late verb from huyos, height. It is used by Jesus of the Cross (#Joh 12:32). {Unto Hades} (hews haidou). See on ¯Mt 16:18 for this word which is here in contrast to Heaven as in #Isa 14:13-15. Hades is not gehenna. "The desolation of the whole neighborhood, and the difficulty of identifying even the site of these flourishing towns, is part of the fulfilment of this prophecy" (Plummer). Ragg notes the omission of Nazareth from this list of cities of neglected privilege and opportunity. "Is it the tender memories of boyhood that keep from His liy the name of the arch-rejector (#4:28 sqq.) Nazareth?"

    10:16 {Rejecteth him that sent me} (aqetei ton aposteilanta me). These solemn words form a fit close for this discourse to the Seventy. The fate of Chorazin, beqsaida, Capernaum will befall those who set aside (a privative and qetew, from tiqemi) the mission and message of these messengers of Christ. See this verb used in #7:30 of the attitude of the scribes and Pharisees toward John and Jesus. It is this thought that makes it so grave a responsibility to be co-workers with Christ, high privilege as it is (#Joh 9:4).

    10:17 {Returned with joy} (hupestreyan meta caras). They had profited by the directions of Jesus. Joy overflows their faces and their words. {Even the demons} (kai ta daimonia). this was a real test. The Twelve had been expressly endowed with this power when they were sent out (#Lu 9:1), but the Seventy were only told to heal the sick (#10:9). It was better than they expected. The Gospel worked wonders and they were happy. The demons were merely one sign of the conflict between Christ and Satan. Every preacher has to grapple with demons in his work. {Are subject} (hupotassetai). Present passive indicative (repetition).

    10:18 {I beheld Satan fallen} (eqewroun ton satanan pesonta). Imperfect active (I was beholding) and second aorist (constative) active participle of piptw (not {fallen}, peptwkota, perfect active participle, nor {falling}, piptonta, present active participle, but {fall}, pesonta). As a flash of lightning out of heaven, quick and startling, so the victory of the Seventy over the demons, the agents of Satan, forecast his downfall and Jesus in vision pictured it as a flash of lightning.

    10:19 {And over all the power of the enemy} (kai epi pasan ten dunamin tou ecqrou). this is the heart of "the authority" (ten exousian) here given by Jesus which is far beyond their expectations. The victory over demons was one phase of it. The power to tread upon serpents is repeated in #Mr 16:18 (the Appendix) and exemplified in Paul's case in Malta (#Ac 28:3-5). But protection from physical harm is not the main point in this struggle with Satan "the enemy" (#Mt 13:25; Ro 16:20; 1Pe 5:8). {Nothing shall in any wise hurt you} (ouden humas ou me adikesei). Text has future active indicative, while some MSS. read adikesei, aorist active subjunctive of adikew, common verb from adikos (a privative and dikos), to suffer wrong, to do wrong. The triple negative here is very strong. Certainly Jesus does not mean this promise to create presumption or foolhardiness for he repelled the enemy's suggestion on the pinnacle of the temple.

    10:20 {Are written} (engegraptai). Perfect passive indicative, state of completion, stand written, enrolled or engraved, from engrafw, common verb. "As citizens possessing the full privileges of the commonwealth" (Plummer).

    10:21 {In that same hour} (en autei tei hwrai). Literally, "at the hour itself," almost a demonstrative use of autos (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 686) and in Luke alone in the N.T. (#2:38; 10:21; 12:12; 20:19). #Mt 11:25 uses the demonstrative here, "at that time" (en ekeinwi twi kairwi). {Rejoiced in the Holy Spirit} (egalliasato twi pneumati twi hagiwi). First aorist middle of the late verb agalliaw for agallw, to exult. Always in the middle in the N.T. save #Lu 1:47 in Mary's _Magnificat_. this holy joy of Jesus was directly due to the Holy Spirit. It is joy in the work of his followers, their victories over Satan, and is akin to the joy felt by Jesus in #Joh 4:32-38 when the vision of the harvest of the world stirred his heart. The rest of this verse is precisely like #Mt 11:25f., a peculiarly Johannine passage in Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark, and so from Q (the logia of Jesus). It has disturbed critics who are unwilling to admit the Johannine style and type of teaching as genuine, but here it is. See on Matthew for discussion. "That God had proved his independence of the human intellect is a matter for thankfulness. Intellectual gifts, so far from being necessary, are often a hindrance" (Plummer).

    10:22 {Knoweth who the Son is} (ginwskei tis estin ho huios). Knows by experience, ginwskei. Here #Mt 11:27 has epiginwskei (fully knows) and simply ton huion (the Son) instead of the "who" (tis) clause. So also in "who the Father is" (tis estin ho pater). But the same use and contrast of "the Father,"the Son." in both Matthew and Luke, "an aerolite from the Johannean heaven" (Hase). No sane criticism can get rid of this Johannine bit in these Gospels written long before the Fourth Gospel was composed. We are dealing here with the oldest known document about Christ (the logia) and the picture is that drawn in the Fourth Gospel (see my _The Christ of the Logia_). It is idle to try to whittle away by fantastic exegesis the high claims made by Jesus in this passage. It is an ecstatic prayer in the presence of the Seventy under the rapture of the Holy Spirit on terms of perfect equality and understanding between the Father and the Son in the tone of the priestly prayer in #Joh 17. We are justified in saying that this prayer of supreme Fellowship with the Father in contemplation of final victory over Satan gives us a glimpse of the prayers with the Father when the Son spent whole nights on the mountain alone with the Father. Here is the Messianic consciousness in complete control and with perfect confidence in the outcome. Here as in #Mt 11:27 by the use of {willeth to reveal him} (bouletai apokaluyai). The Son claims the power to reveal the Father "to whomsoever he wills" (hwi an bouletai, indefinite relative and present subjunctive of boulomai, to will, not the future indicative). this is divine sovereignty most assuredly. Human free agency is also true, but it is full divine sovereignty in salvation that is here claimed along with possession (paredoqe, timeless aorist passive indicative) of all power from the Father. Let that supreme claim stand.

    10:23 {Turning to the disciples} (strafeis pros tous maqetas). Second aorist passive of strefw as in #9:55. The prayer was a soliloquy though uttered in the presence of the Seventy on their return. Now Jesus turned and spoke "privately" or to the disciples (the Twelve, apparently), whether on this same occasion or a bit later. {Blessed} (makarioi). A beatitude, the same adjective as in #Mt 5:3-11. A beatitude of privilege very much like that in #Mt 5:13-16. Jesus often repeated his sayings.

    10:24 {Which ye see} (ha humeis blepete). The expression of humeis makes "ye" very emphatic in contrast with the prophets and kings of former days.

    10:25 {And tempted him} (ekpeirazwn auton). Present active participle, conative idea, trying to tempt him. There is no "and" in the Greek. He "stood up (aneste, ingressive second aorist active) trying to tempt him." peirazw is a late form of peira" and ekpeirazw apparently only in the LXX, and N.T. (quoted by Jesus from #De 6:16 in #Mt 4:7; Lu 4:12 against Satan). Here and #1Co 10:9. The spirit of this lawyer was evil. He wanted to entrap Jesus if possible. {What shall I do to inherit eternal life?} (ti poiesas zwen aiwniou kleronomesw;). Literally, "By doing what shall I inherit eternal life?" Note the emphasis on "doing" (poiesas). The form of his question shows a wrong idea as to how to get it. {Eternal life} (zwen aiwnion) is endless life as in John's Gospel (#Joh 16:9; 18:18,30) and in #Mt 25:46, which see.

    10:26 {How readest thou?} (pws anaginwskeis;). As a lawyer it was his business to know the facts in the law and the proper interpretation of the law. See on ¯Lu 7:30 about nomikos (lawyer). The rabbis had a formula, "What readest thou?"

    10:27 {And he answering} (ho de apokriqeis). First aorist participle, no longer passive in idea. The lawyer's answer is first from the _Shema_ (#De 6:3; 11:13) which was written on the phylacteries. The second part is from #Le 19:18 and shows that the lawyer knew the law. At a later time Jesus himself in the temple gives a like summary of the law to a lawyer (#Mr 12:28-34; Mt 22:34-40) who wanted to catch Jesus by his question. There is no difficulty in the two incidents. God is to be loved with all of man's four powers (heart, soul, strength, mind) here as in #Mr 12:30.

    10:28 {Thou hast answered right} (orqws apekriqes). First aorist passive indicative second singular with the adverb orqws. The answer was correct so far as the words went. In #Mr 12:34 Jesus commends the scribe for agreeing to his interpretation of the first and the second commandments. That scribe was "not far from the kingdom of God," but this lawyer was "tempting" Jesus. {Do this and thou shalt live} (touto poiei kai zesei). Present imperative (keep on doing this forever) and the future indicative middle as a natural result. There was only one trouble with the lawyer's answer. No one ever did or ever can "do" what the law lays down towards God and man always. To slip once is to fail. So Jesus put the problem squarely up to the lawyer who wanted to know {by doing what}. Of course, if he kept the law {perfectly always}, he would inherit eternal life.

    10:29 {Desiring to justify himself} (qelwn dikaiwsai heauton). The lawyer saw at once that he had convicted himself of asking a question that he already knew. In his embarrassment he asks another question to show that he did have some point at first: {And who is my neighbor?} (kai tis estin mou plesion;). The Jews split hairs over this question and excluded from "neighbor" Gentiles and especially Samaritans. So here was his loop-hole. A neighbor is a nigh dweller to one, but the Jews made racial exceptions as many, alas, do today. The word plesion here is an adverb (neuter of the adjective plˆsios) meaning ho plesion wn (the one who is near), but "n was usually not expressed and the adverb is here used as if a substantive.

    10:30 {Made answer} (hupolabwn). Second aorist active participle of hupolambanw (see #7:43), to take up literally, and qen in thought and speech, old verb, but in this sense of interrupting in talk only in the N.T. {Was going down} (katebainen). Imperfect active describing the journey. {Fell among robbers} (leistais periepesen). Second aorist ingressive active indicative of peripiptw, old verb with associative instrumental case, to fall among and to be encompassed by (peri, around), to be surrounded by robbers. A common experience to this day on the road to Jericho. The Romans placed a fort on this "red and bloody way." These were bandits, not petty thieves. {Stripped} (ekdusantes). Of his clothing as well as of his money, the meanest sort of robbers. {Beat him} (plegas epiqentes). Second aorist active participle of epitiqemi, a common verb. Literally, "placing strokes or blows" (plegas, plagues) upon him. See #Lu 12:48; Ac 16:23; Re 15:1,6,8 for "plagues." {Half-dead} (hemiqane). Late word from hemi, half, and qneskw, to die. Only here in the N.T. Vivid picture of the robbery.

    10:31 {By chance} (kata sugkurian). Here only in the N.T., meaning rather, "by way of coincidence." It is a rare word elsewhere and in late writers like Hippocrates. It is from the verb sugkurew, though sugkuresis is more common. {Was going down} (katebainen). Imperfect active as in verse #30. Passed by on the other side (antiparelqen). Second aorist active indicative of antiparercomai, a late double compound here (verses #31,32) only in the N.T., but in the papyri and late writers. It is the ingressive aorist (elqen), came alongside (para), and qen he stepped over to the opposite side (anti) of the road to avoid ceremonial contamination with a stranger. A vivid and powerful picture of the vice of Jewish ceremonial cleanliness at the cost of moral principle and duty. The Levite in verse #32 behaved precisely as the priest had done and for the same reason.

    10:33 {A certain Samaritan} (samareites de tis). Of all men in the world to do a neighborly act! {As he journeyed} (hodeuwn). Making his way. {Came where he was} (elqen kat' auton). Literally, "came down upon him." He did not sidestep or dodge him, but had compassion on him.

    10:34 {Bound up his wounds} (katedesen ta traumata). First aorist active indicative of katadew, old verb, but here only in the N.T. The verb means "bound down." We say "bind up." Medical detail that interested Luke. The word for "wounds" (traumata) here only in the N.T. {Pouring on them oil and wine} (epicewn elaion kai oinon). Old verb again, but here only in the N.T. Oil and wine were household remedies even for wounds (soothing oil, antiseptic alcohol). Hippocrates prescribed for ulcers: "Bind with soft wool, and sprinkle with wine and oil." {Set him} (epibibasas). An old verb epibibazw (epi, bibaz"), to cause to mount. In the N.T. only here and #Ac 19:35; 23:24, common in LXX. {Beast} (ktenos). Old word from ktaomai, to acquire, and so property (ktema) especially cattle or any beast of burden. {An inn} (pandoceion). The old Attic form was pandokeion (from pan, all, and decomai, to receive). A public place for receiving all comers and a more pretentious caravanserai than a kataluma like that in #Lu 2:7. Here only in the N.T. There are ruins of two inns about halfway between Bethany and Jericho.

    10:35 {On the morrow} (epi ten aurion). Towards the morrow as in #Ac 4:5. (Cf. also #Ac 3:1). Syriac Sinaitic has it "at dawn of the day." An unusual use of epi. {Took out} (ekbalwn). Second aorist active participle of ekballw. It could mean, "fling out," but probably only means "drew out." Common verb. {Two pence} (duo denaria). About thirty-five cents, but worth more in purchasing power. {To the host} (twi pandocei). The innkeeper. Here only in the N.T. {Whatever thou spendest more} (hoti an prosdapaneseis). Indefinite relative clause with an and the aorist active subjunctive of prosdapanaw, to spend besides (pros), a late verb for the common prosanaliskw and here only in the N.T. {I will repay} (ego apodwsw). Emphatic. What he had paid was merely by way of pledge. He was a man of his word and known to the innkeeper as reliable. {When I come back again} (en twi epanercesqai me). Luke's favorite idiom of en and the articular infinitive with accusative of general reference. Double compound verb epanercomai.

    10:36 {Proved neighbor to him that fell} (plesion gegonenai tou empesontos). Second perfect infinitive of ginomai and second aorist active participle of empiptw. Objective genitive, became neighbor to the one, etc. Jesus has changed the lawyer's standpoint and has put it up to him to decide which of "these three" (toutwn twn triwn, priest, Levite, Samaritan) acted like a neighbor to the wounded man.

    10:37 {On him} (met' autou). With him, more exactly. The lawyer saw the point and gave the correct answer, but he gulped at the word "Samaritan" and refused to say that. {Do thou} (su poiei). Emphasis on "thou." Would this Jewish lawyer act the neighbor to a Samaritan? this parable of the Good Samaritan has built the world's hospitals and, if understood and practised, will remove race prejudice, national hatred and war, class jealousy.

    10:38 {Now as they went on their way} (en de twi poreuesqai autous). Luke's favorite temporal clause again as in verse #35. {Received him into her house} (hupedexato auton eis ten oikian). Aorist middle indicative of hupodecomai, an old verb to welcome as a guest (in the N.T. only here and #Lu 19:6; Ac 17:7; Jas 2:25). Martha is clearly the mistress of the home and is probably the elder sister. There is no evidence that she was the wife of Simon the leper (#Joh 12:1f.). It is curious that in an old cemetery at Bethany the names of Martha, Eleazar, and Simon have been found.

    10:39 {Which also sat} (he kai parakaqesqeisa). First aorist passive participle of parakaqezomai, an old verb, but only here in the N.T. It means to sit beside (para) and pros means right in front of the feet of Jesus. It is not clear what the point is in kai here. It may mean that Martha loved to sit here also as well as Mary. {Heard} (ekouen). Imperfect active. She took her seat by the feet of Jesus and went on listening to his talk.

    10:40 {Was cumbered} (periespato). Imperfect passive of perispaw, an old verb with vivid metaphor, to draw around. One has sometimes seen women whose faces are literally drawn round with anxiety, with a permanent twist, distracted in mind and in looks. {She came up to him} (epistasa). Second aorist active participle of efistemi, an old verb to place upon, but in the N.T. only in the middle voice or the intransitive tenses of the active (perfect and second aorist as here). It is the ingressive aorist here and really means. stepping up to or bursting in or upon Jesus. It is an explosive act as is the speech of Martha. {Dost thou not care} (ou melei soi). this was a reproach to Jesus for monopolizing Mary to Martha's hurt. {Did leave me} (me kateleipen). Imperfect active, she kept on leaving me. {Bid her} (eipon autei). Late form instead of eipe, second aorist active imperative, common in the papyri. Martha feels that Jesus is the key to Mary's help. {That she help me} (hina moi sunantilabetai). Sub-final use of hina with second aorist middle subjunctive of sunantilambanomai, a double compound verb (sun, with, anti, at her end of the line, and lambanomai, middle voice of lambanw, to take hold), a late compound appearing in the LXX, Diodorus and Josephus. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 87) finds it in many widely scattered inscriptions "throughout the whole extent of the Hellenistic world of the Mediterranean." It appears only twice in the N.T. (here and #Ro 8:26). It is a beautiful word, to take hold oneself (middle voice) at his end of the task (anti) together with (sun) one.

    10:41 {Art anxious} (merimnais). An old verb for worry and anxiety from merizw (meris, part) to be divided, distracted. Jesus had warned against this in the Sermon on the Mount (#Mt 6:25,28,31,34. See also #Lu 12:11,22,26). {And troubled} (kai qorubazei). From qorubazomai, a verb found nowhere else so far. Many MSS. here have the usual form turbazei, from turbazw. Apparently from qorubos, a common enough word for tumult. Martha had both inward anxiety and outward agitation. {But one thing is needful} (henos de estin creia). this is the reading of A C and may be correct. A few manuscripts have: "There is need of few things." Aleph B L (and Westcott and Hort) have: "There is need of few things or one," which seems like a conflate reading though the readings are all old. See Robertson, _Introduction to Textual Criticism of the N.T._, p. 190. Jesus seems to say to Martha that only one dish was really necessary for the meal instead of the "many" about which she was so anxious.

    10:42 {The good portion} (ten agaqen merida). The best dish on the table, fellowship with Jesus. this is the spiritual application of the metaphor of the dishes on the table. Salvation is not "the good portion" for Martha had that also. {From her} (autes). Ablative case after afaireqesetai (future passive indicative). Jesus pointedly takes Mary's side against Martha's fussiness.

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