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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 9

    Luke 8 - Luke 10 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    9:1 {He called the twelve together} (sunkalesamenos tous dwdeka). #Mr 6:7; Mt 10:1 have proskalewmai, to call to him. Both the indirect middle voice.

    9:2 {He sent them forth} (apesteilen autous). First aorist active indicative of apostellw. {To preach the kingdom of God and to heal the sick} (kerussein ten basileian tou qeou kai iasqai). Present indicative for the continuous functions during this campaign. this double office of herald (kerussein) and healer (iasqai) is stated directly in #Mt 10:7-8. Note the verb iaomai for healing here, though qerapeuein in verse #1, apparently used interchangeably.

    9:3 {Neither staff} (mete rabdon). For the apparent contradiction between these words (#Mt 10:10) and #Mr 6:8 see discussion there. For peran (wallet) see also on ¯Mr 6:8 (#Mt 10:10) for this and other details here.

    9:5 {As many as receive you not} (hosoi an me decwntai humas). Indefinite relative plural with an and present middle subjunctive and the negative me. Here #Mt 10:14 has the singular (whosoever) and #Mr 6:11 has "whatever place." {For a testimony against them} (eis marturion ep' autous). Note use of ep' autous where #Mr 6:11 has simply the dative autois (disadvantage), really the same idea.

    9:6 {Went} (dierconto). Imperfect middle, continuous and repeated action made plainer also by three present participles (exercomenoi, euaggelizomenoi, qerapeuontes), describing the wide extent of the work through all the villages (kata tas kwmas, distributive use of kata) everywhere (pantacou) in Galilee.

    9:7 {All that was done} (ta ginomena panta). Present middle participle, "all that was coming to pass." {He was much perplexed} (dieporei). Imperfect active of diaporew, to be thoroughly at a loss, unable to find a way out (dia, a privative, poros, way), common ancient verb, but only in Luke's writings in the N.T. {Because it was said} (dia to legesqai). Neat Greek idiom, the articular passive infinitive after dia. Three reports came to the ears of Herod as Luke has it, each introduced by hoti (that) in indirect discourse: "By some" (hupo tinwn), "by some" (hupo tinwn de), "by others" (allwn de, hupo not here expressed, but carried over). The verbs in the indirect discourse here (verses #7,8) are all three aorists (egerqe first passive; efane second passive; aneste second active), not past perfects as the English has them.

    9:9 {He sought} (ezetei). Imperfect active. He keep on seeking to see Jesus. The rumours disturbed Herod because he was sure that he had put him to death ("John I beheaded").

    9:10 {Declared} (diegesanto). First aorist middle of diegeomai, to carry a narrative through to the end. Jesus listened to it all. {They had done} (epoiesan). Aorist active indicative, they did. {He took them} (paralabwn autous). Second aorist active participle of paralambanw. Very common verb. {beqsaida} (beqsaida). Peculiar to Luke. beqsaida Julias is the territory of Philip, for it is on the other side of the Sea of Galilee (#Joh 6:1).

    9:11 {Spake} (elalei). Imperfect active, he continued speaking. {He healed} (iato). Imperfect middle, he continued healing.

    9:12 {To wear away} (klinein). Old verb usually transitive, to bend or bow down. Many compounds as in English decline, incline, recline, clinic (kline, bed), etc. Luke alone in the N.T. uses it intransitively as here. The sun was turning down towards setting. {Lodge} (kataluswsin). First aorist active subjunctive of kataluw, a common verb, to dissolve, destroy, overthrow, and qen of travellers to break a journey, to lodge (kataluma, inn, #Lu 2:7). Only here and #19:7 in the N.T. in this sense. {Get victuals} (heurwsin episitismon). Ingressive aorist active of heuriskw, very common verb. {Victuals} (episitismon, from episitizomai, to provision oneself, sitizw, from siton, wheat) only here in the N.T., though common in ancient Greek, especially for provisions for a journey (snack). See on ¯Mr 6:32-44; Mt 14:13-21 for discussion of details.

    9:13 {Except we should go and buy food} (ei meti poreuqentes hemeis agoraswmen brwmata). this is a condition of the third class with the aorist subjunctive (agoraswmen), where the conjunction is usually ean (with negative ean me), but not always or necessarily so especially in the _Koin‚_. So in #1Co 14:5 ei me diermeneuei and in #Php 3:12 ei kai katalabw. "Unless" is better here than "except." {Food} (brwmata), means eaten pieces from bibrwskw, to eat, somewhat like our "edibles" or vernacular "eats."

    9:14 {About} (hwsei). Luke as #Mt 14:21 adds this word to the definite statement of #Mr 6:44 that there were 5,000 men, a hundred companies of fifty each. {Sit down} (kataklinate). First aorist active imperative. Recline, lie down. Only in Luke in the N.T. See also verse #15. {In companies} (klisias). Cognate accusative after {kataklinate}. Only here in the N.T. A row of persons reclining at meals (table company). {About fifty each} (hwsei ana pentekonta). Distributive use of ana and approximate number again (hwsei).

    9:16 {The five ... the two} (tous pente ... tous duo). Pointing back to verse #13, fine example of the Greek article. {And gave} (kai edidou). Imperfect active of didwmi, kept on giving. this picturesque imperfect is preceded by the aorist kateklasen (brake), a single act. this latter verb in the N.T. only here and the parallel in #Mr 6:41, though common enough in ancient Greek. We say "break off" where here the Greek has "break down" (or thoroughly), perfective use of kata.

    9:17 {Twelve baskets} (kofinoi dwdeka). For discussion of kofonoi and sfurides as well as of klasmata (broken pieces) see on ¯Mr 6:43; Mt 14:20.

    9:18 {As he was praying} (en twi einai auton proseucomenon). Common Lukan idiom of en with the articular infinitive for a temporal clause, only here Luke has the periphrastic infinitive (einai proseucomenon) as also in #11:1. this item about Christ's praying alone in Luke. {Alone} (kata monas). In the N.T. only here and #Mr 4:10. Perhaps cwras (places) is to be supplied with monas (lonely places). {Were with him} (sunesan autwi). this seems like a contradiction unless "alone" is to be taken with sunesan. Westcott and Hort put sunentesan in the margin. this would mean that as Jesus was praying alone, the disciples fell in with him. At any rate he was praying apart from them.

    9:19 {That I am} (me einai). Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion, a common Greek idiom. #Mt 16:13 for "I" has "the Son of man" as identical in the consciousness of Christ. The various opinions of men about Jesus here run parallel to the rumours heard by Herod (verses #8,9).

    9:20 {But who say ye?} (humeis de tina legete;). Note the emphatic proleptical position of humeis: "But _ye_ who do ye say? this is really what mattered now with Jesus. {The Christ of God} (ton criston tou qeou). The accusative though the infinitive is not expressed. The Anointed of God, the Messiah of God. See on ¯2:26 for "the Anointed of the Lord." See on ¯Mt 16:17 for discussion of Peter's testimony in full. #Mr 6:29 has simply "the Christ." It is clear from the previous narrative that this is not a new discovery from Simon Peter, but simply the settled conviction of the disciples after all the defections of the Galilean masses and the hostility of the Jerusalem ecclesiastics. The disciples still believed in Jesus as the Messiah of Jewish hope and prophecy. It will become plain that they do not grasp the spiritual conception of the Messiah and his kingdom that Jesus taught, but they are clear that he is the Messiah however faulty their view of the Messiah may be. There was comfort in this for Jesus. They were loyal to him.

    9:21 {To tell this to no man} (medeni legein touto). Indirect command with the negative infinitive after {commanded} (pareggeilen). It had been necessary for Jesus to cease using the word {Messiah} (cristos) about himself because of the political meaning to the Jews. Its use by the disciples would lead to revolution as was plain after the feeding of the five thousand (#Joh 6:15).

    9:22 {Rejected} (apodokimasqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of apodokimazw, to reject after trial. {The third day} (tei tritei hemerai). Locative case of time as in #Mt 16:21. Here in the parallel passage #Mr 8:31 has "after three days" (meta treis hemeras) in precisely the same sense. That is to say, "after three days" is just a free way of saying "on the third day" and cannot mean "on the fourth day" if taken too literally. For discussion of this plain prediction of the death of Christ with various details see discussion on #Mt 16:21; Mr 8:31. It was a low-spirited outlook that depressed the disciples as Mark and Matthew show in the protest of Peter and his rebuke.

    9:23 {He said unto all} (elegen de pros pantas). this is like Luke (cf. verse #43). Jesus wanted all (the multitude with his disciples, as #Mr 8:34 has it) to understand the lesson of self-sacrifice. They could not yet understand the full meaning of Christ's words as applied to his approaching death of which he had been speaking. But certainly the shadow of the cross is already across the path of Jesus as he is here speaking. For details (soul, life, forfeit, gain, profit, lose, world) see discussion on ¯Mt 16:24-26; Mr 8:34-37. The word for lose (apolesei, from apollumi, a very common verb) is used in the sense of destroy, kill, lose, as here. Note the mercantile terms in this passage (gain, lose, fine or forfeit, exchange). {Daily} (kaq' hemeran). Peculiar to Luke in this incident. Take up the cross (his own cross) daily (aorist tense, arat"), but keep on following me (akolouqeitw, present tense). The cross was a familiar figure in Palestine. It was rising before Jesus as his destiny. Each man has his own cross to meet and bear.

    9:26 {Whosoever shall be ashamed} (hos an epaiscunqei). Rather, {Whosoever is ashamed} as in #Mr 8:38. The first aorist passive subjunctive in an indefinite relative clause with an. The passive verb is transitive here also. this verb is from epi and aiscune, shame (in the eyes of men). Jesus endured the shame of the cross (#Heb 12:2). The man at the feast who had to take a lower seat did it with shame (#Lu 14:9). Paul is not ashamed of the Gospel (#Ro 1:16). Onesiphorus was not ashamed of Paul (#2Ti 1:16). {In his own glory} (en tei doxei autou). this item added to what is in #Mr 8:38; Mt 16:27.

    9:27 {Till they see} (hews an idwsin). Second aorist active subjunctive with hews and an referring to the future, an idiomatic construction. So in #Mr 9:1; Mt 16:28. In all three passages "shall not taste of death" (ou me geuswntai qanatou, double negative with aorist middle subjunctive) occurs also. Rabbinical writings use this figure. Like a physician Christ tasted death that we may see how to die. Jesus referred to the cross as " this cup" (#Mr 14:36; Mt 26:39; Lu 22:42). Mark speaks of the kingdom of God as "come" (eleluquian, second perfect active participle). Matthew as "coming" (ercomenon) referring to the Son of man, while Luke has neither form. See Matthew and Mark for discussion of the theories of interpretation of this difficult passage. The Transfiguration follows in a week and may be the first fulfilment in the mind of Jesus. It may also symbolically point to the second coming.

    9:28 {About eight days} (hwsei hemerai oktw). A _nominativus pendens_ without connection or construction. #Mr 9:2 (#Mt 17:1) has "after six days" which agrees with the general statement. {Into the mountain} (eis to oros). Probably Mount Hermon because we know that Jesus was near Caesarea Philippi when Peter made the confession (#Mr 8:27; Mt 16:13). Hermon is still the glory of Palestine from whose heights one can view the whole of the land. It was a fit place for the Transfiguration. {To pray} (proseuxasqai). Peculiar to Luke who so often mentions Christ's habit of prayer (cf. #3:21). See also verse #29 "as he was praying" (en twi proseucesqai, one of Luke's favorite idioms). {His countenance was altered} (egeneto to eidos tou proswpou autou heteron). Literally, "the appearance of his face became different." #Mt 17:2 says that "his face did shine as the sun." Luke does not use the word "transfigured" (metemorfwqe) in #Mr 9:2; Mt 17:2. He may have avoided this word because of the pagan associations with this word as Ovid's metamorfoses. {And his raiment became white and dazzling} (kai ho himatismos autou leukos exastraptwn). Literally, {And his raiment white radiant}. There is no _and_ between "white" and "dazzling." The participle exastraptwn is from the compound verb meaning to flash (astraptw) out or forth (ex). The simple verb is common for lightning flashes and bolts, but the compound in the LXX and here alone in the N.T. See #Mr 9:3 "exceeding white" and #Mt 17:2 "white as the light."

    9:31 {There talked with him} (sunelaloun autwi). Imperfect active, were talking with him. {Who appeared in glory} (hoi ofqentes en doxei). First aorist passive participle of horaw. this item peculiar to Luke. Compare verse #26. {Spake of his decease} (elegon ten exodon). Imperfect active, were talking about his exodus (departure from earth to heaven) very much like our English word "decease" (Latin _decessus_, a going away). The glorious light graphically revealed Moses and Elijah talking with Jesus about the very subject concerning which Peter had dared to rebuke Jesus for mentioning (#Mr 8:32; Mt 16:22). this very word exodus (way out) in the sense of death occurs in #2Pe 1:15 and is followed by a brief description of the Transfiguration glory. Other words for death (qanatos) in the N.T. are ekbasis, going out as departure (#Heb 13:7), afixis, departing (#Ac 20:29), analusis, loosening anchor (#2Ti 4:6) and analusai (#Php 1:23). {To accomplish} (pleroun). To fulfil. Moses had led the Exodus from Egypt. Jesus will accomplish the exodus of God's people into the Promised Land on high. See on Mark and Matthew for discussion of significance of the appearance of Moses and Elijah as representatives of law and prophecy and with a peculiar death. The purpose of the Transfiguration was to strengthen the heart of Jesus as he was praying long about his approaching death and to give these chosen three disciples a glimpse of his glory for the hour of darkness coming. No one on earth understood the heart of Jesus and so Moses and Elijah came. The poor disciples utterly failed to grasp the significance of it all.

    9:32 {Were heavy with sleep} (esan bebaremenoi hupnwi). Periphrastic past perfect of bare", a late form for the ancient barunw (not in N.T. save Textus Receptus in #Lu 21:34). this form, rare and only in passive (present, aorist, perfect) in the N.T., is like barunw, from barus, and that from baros, weight, burden (#Ga 6:2). hupnwi is in the instrumental case. They had apparently climbed the mountain in the early part of the night and were now overcome with sleep as Jesus prolonged his prayer. Luke alone tells of their sleep. The same word is used of the eyes of these three disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane (#Mt 26:43) and of the hearts of many (#Lu 21:34). {But when they were fully awake} (diagregoresantes de). First aorist active participle of this late (Herodian) and rare compound verb (here alone in the N.T.), diagregorew (Luke is fond of compounds with dia). The simple verb gregorew (from the second perfect active egregora) is also late, but common in the LXX and the N.T. The effect of dia can be either to remain awake in spite of desire to sleep (margin of Revised Version) or to become thoroughly awake (ingressive aorist tense also) as Revised Version has it. this is most likely correct. The Syriac Sinaitic has it "When they awoke." Certainly they had been through a strain. {His glory} (ten doxan autou). See also verse #26 in the words of Jesus.

    9:33 {As they were departing from him} (en twi diacwrizesqai autous ap' autou). Peculiar to Luke and another instance of Luke's common idiom of en with the articular infinitive in a temporal clause. this common verb occurs here only in the N.T. The present middle voice means to separate oneself fully (direct middle). this departing of Moses and Elijah apparently accompanied Peter's remark as given in all three Gospels. See for details on Mark and Matthew. {Master} (epistata) here, {Rabbi} (#Mr 9:5), {Lord} (kurie, #Mt 17:4). {Let us make} (poieswmen, first aorist active subjunctive) as in #Mr 9:5, but #Mt 17:4 has "I will make" (poiesw). It was near the time of the feast of the tabernacles. So Peter proposes that they celebrate it up here instead of going to Jerusalem for it as they did a bit later (#Joh 7). {Not knowing what he said} (me eidws ho legei). Literally, {not understanding what he was saying} (me, regular negative with participle and legei, present indicative retained in relative clause in indirect discourse). Luke puts it more bluntly than Mark (Peter's account), "For he wist not what to answer; for they became sore afraid" (#Mr 9:6). Peter acted according to his impulsive nature and spoke up even though he did not know what to say or even what he was saying when he spoke. He was only half awake as Luke explains and he was sore afraid as Mark (Peter) explains. He had bewilderment enough beyond a doubt, but it was Peter who spoke, not James and John.

    9:34 {Overshadowed them} (epeskiazen autous). Imperfect active (aorist in #Mt 17:5) as present participle in #Mr 9:7, inchoative, the shadow began to come upon them. On Hermon as on many high mountains a cloud will swiftly cover the cap. I have seen this very thing at Blue Ridge, North Carolina. this same verb is used of the Holy Spirit upon Mary (#Lu 1:35). Nowhere else in the N.T., though an old verb (epi, skiazw, from skia, shadow). {As they entered into the cloud} (en twi eiselqein autous eis ten nefelen). Luke's idiom of en with the articular infinitive again (aorist active this time, on the entering in as to them). All six "entered into" the cloud, but only Peter, James, and John "became afraid" (efobeqesan, ingressive first aorist passive).

    9:35 If ekeinous be accepted here instead of autous, the three disciples would be outside of the cloud. {Out of the cloud} (ek tes nefeles). this voice was the voice of the Father like that at the baptism of Jesus (#Lu 3:22; Mr 1:11; Mt 3:17) and like that near the end (#Joh 12:28-30) when the people thought it was a clap of thunder or an angel. {My son, my chosen} (ho huios mou, ho eklelegmenos). So the best documents (Aleph B L Syriac Sinaitic). The others make it "My Beloved" as in #Mr 9:7; Mt 17:5. These disciples are commanded to hear Jesus, God's Son, even when he predicts his death, a pointed rebuke to Simon Peter as to all.

    9:36 {When the voice came} (en toi genesqai ten fwnen). Another example of Luke's idiom, this time with the second aorist middle infinitive. Literally, "on the coming as to the voice" (accusative of general reference). It does not mean that it was "after" the voice was past that Jesus was found alone, but simultaneously with it (ingressive aorist tense). {Alone} (monos). Same adjective in #Mr 9:8; Mt 17:8 translated "only." Should be rendered "alone" there also. {They held their peace} (esigesan). Ingressive aorist active of common verb sigaw, became silent. In #Mr 9:9; Mt 17:9, Jesus commanded them not to tell till His Resurrection from the dead. Luke notes that they in awe obeyed that command and it turns out that they finally forgot the lesson of this night's great experience. By and by they will be able to tell them, but not "in those days." {Which they had seen} (hwn hewrakan). Attraction of the relative ha into the case of the unexpressed antecedent toutwn. Perfect active indicative hewrakan with _Koin‚_ (papyri) form for the ancient hewrakasin changed by analogy to the first aorist ending in -an instead of -asin.

    9:37 {On the next day} (tei hexes hemerai). Alone in Luke. It shows that the Transfiguration took place on the preceding night. {They were come down} (katelqontwn autwn). Genitive absolute of second aorist active participle of katercomai, a common enough verb, but in the N.T. only in Luke's writings save #Jas 3:15. {Met him} (sunentesen autwi). First aorist active of sunantaw, common compound verb, to meet with, only in Luke's writings in the N.T. save #Heb 7:1. With associative instrumental case autwi.

    9:38 {Master} (didaskale). Teacher as in #Mr 9:17. {Lord} (kurie, #Mt 17:15). {To look upon} (epibleyai). Aorist active infinitive of epiblepw (epi, upon, blepw, look), common verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Jas 2:3 except #Lu 1:48 in quotation from LXX. this compound verb is common in medical writers for examining carefully the patient. {Mine only child} (monogenes moi). Only in Luke as already about an only child in #7:12; 8:42.

    9:39 {Suddenly} (exefnes). Old adverb, but in the N.T. only in Luke's writings save #Mr 13:36. Used by medical writers of sudden attacks of disease like epilepsy. {It teareth him that he foameth} (sparassei auton meta afrou). Literally, "It tears him with (accompanied with, meta) foam" (old word, afros, only here in the N.T.). From sparassw, to convulse, a common verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Mr 1:26; 9:26 (and sunsparassw, #Mr 9:20). See #Mr 9:17; Mt 17:15; Lu 9:39 for variations in the symptoms in each Gospel. The use of meta afrou is a medical item. {Hardly} (molis). Late word used in place of mogis, the old Greek term (in some MSS. here) and alone in Luke's writings in the N.T. save #1Pe 4:18; Ro 5:7. {Bruising him sorely} (suntribon auton). Common verb for rubbing together, crushing together like chains (#Mr 5:4) or as a vase (#Mr 14:3). See on Matthew and Mark for discussion of details here.

    9:41 {How long shall I be with you and bear with you?} (hews pote esomai pros humas kai anexomai humwn;). Here the two questions of #Mr 9:19 (only one in #Mt 17:17) are combined in one sentence. {Bear with} (anexomai, direct middle future) is, hold myself from you (ablative case humwn). {Faithless} (apistos) is disbelieving and perverse (diestrammene, perfect passive participle of diastrefw), is twisted, turned, or torn in two.

    9:42 {As he was yet a coming} (eti prosercomenou autou). Genitive absolute. While he was yet coming (the boy, that is, not Jesus). Note quaint English "a coming" retained in the Revised Version. {Dashed him} (errexen auton). First aorist active indicative of regnumi or ressw, to rend or convulse, a common verb, used sometimes of boxers giving knockout blows. {Tare grievously} (sunesparaxen). Rare word as only here and #Mr 9:20 in the N.T., which see. {Gave him back to his father} (apedwken auton twi patri autou). Tender touch alone in Luke as in #7:15. {They were all astonished} (exeplessonto de pantes). Imperfect passive of the common verb ekplessw or ekplegnumi, to strike out, a picturesque description of the amazement of all at the easy victory of Jesus where the nine disciples had failed. {At the majesty of God} (epi tei megaleioteti tou qeou). A late word from the adjective megaleios and that from megas (great). In the N.T. only here and #Ac 19:27 of Artemis and in #2Pe 1:16 of the Transfiguration. It came to be used by the emperors like our word "Majesty." {Which he did} (hois epoiei). this is one of the numerous poor verse divisions. this sentence has nothing to do with the first part of the verse. The imperfect active epoiei covers a good deal not told by Luke (see #Mr 9:30; Mt 17:22). Note the attraction of the relative {hois} into the case of {pasin}, its antecedent.

    9:44 {Sink into your ears} (qesqe humeis eis ta wta humwn). Second aorist imperative middle of tiqemi, common verb. "Do you (note emphatic position) yourselves (whatever others do) put into your ears." No word like "sink" here. The same prediction here as in #Mr 9:31; Mt 17:22 about the Son of man only without mention of death and resurrection as there, which see for discussion.

    9:45 {It was concealed from them} (en parakekalummenon ap' autwn). Periphrastic past perfect of parakaluptw, a common verb, but only here in the N.T., to cover up, to hide from. this item only in Luke. {That they should not perceive it} (hina me aisqwntai auto). Second aorist middle subjunctive of the common verb aisqanomai used with hina me, negative purpose. this explanation at least relieves the disciples to some extent of full responsibility for their ignorance about the death of Jesus as #Mr 9:32 observes, as does Luke here that they were afraid to ask him. Plummer says, "They were not allowed to understand the saying qen, in order that they might remember it afterwards, and see that Jesus had met His sufferings with full knowledge and free will." Perhaps also, if they had fully understood, they might have lacked courage to hold on to the end. But it is a hard problem.

    9:46 {A reasoning} (dialogismos). A dispute. The word is from dialogizomai, the verb used in #Mr 9:33 about this incident. In Luke this dispute follows immediately after the words of Jesus about his death. They were afraid to ask Jesus about that subject, but #Mt 18:1 states that they came to Jesus to settle it. {Which of them should be greatest} (to tis an eie meizwn autwn). Note the article with the indirect question, the clause being in the accusative of general reference. The optative with an is here because it was so in the direct question (potential optative with an retained in the indirect). But Luke makes it plain that it was not an abstract problem about greatness in the kingdom of heaven as they put it to Jesus (#Mt 18:1), but a personal problem in their own group. Rivalries and jealousies had already come and now sharp words. By and by James and John will be bold enough to ask for the first places for themselves in this political kingdom which they expect (#Mr 10:35; Mt 20:20). It is a sad spectacle.

    9:47 {Took a little child} (epilabomenos paidion). Second aorist middle participle of the common verb epilambanw. Strictly, Taking a little child to himself (indirect middle). #Mr 9:36 has merely the active labwn of the simple verb lambanw. Set him by his side (estesen auto par' heautwi). "In his arms" #Mr 9:36 has it, "in the midst of them" #Mt 18:3 says. All three attitudes following one another (the disciples probably in a circle around Jesus anyhow) and now the little child (Peter's child?) was slipped down by the side of Jesus as he gave the disciples an object lesson in humility which they sorely needed.

    9:48 { this little child} (touto to paidion). As Jesus spoke he probably had his hand upon the head of the child. #Mt 18:5 has "one such little child." The honored disciple, Jesus holds, is the one who welcomes little children "in my name" (epi twi onomati mou), upon the basis of my name and my authority. It was a home-thrust against the selfish ambition of the Twelve. Ministry to children is a mark of greatness. Have preachers ever yet learned how to win children to Christ? They are allowed to slip away from home, from Sunday school, from church, from Christ. {For he that is least among you all} (ho gar mikroteros en pasin humin huparcwn). Note the use of huparcw as in #8:41; 23:50. The comparative mikroteros is in accord with the _Koin‚_ idiom where the superlative is vanishing (nearly gone in modern Greek). But {great} (megas) is positive and very strong. this saying peculiar to Luke here.

    9:49 {And John answered} (apokriqeis de iwanes). As if John wanted to change the subject after the embarrassment of the rebuke for their dispute concerning greatness (#Lu 9:46-48). {Master} (epistata). Only in Luke in the N.T. as already four times (#5:5; 8:24,45; 9:33). {We forbade him} (ekwluomen auton). Conative imperfect as in #Mr 9:38, We tried to hinder him. {Because he followeth not with us} (hoti ouk akolouqei meq hemwn). Present tense preserved for vividness where Mark has imperfect {ˆkolouthei}. Note also here "with us" (meq' hemwn) where Mark has associative instrumental hemin. It is a pitiful specimen of partisan narrowness and pride even in the Beloved Disciple, one of the Sons of Thunder. The man was doing the Master's work in the Master's name and with the Master's power, but did not run with the group of the Twelve.

    9:50 {"Against you is for you"} (kaq' h-mwn huper h-mwn). #Mr 9:40 has "against us is for us" (hemwn ... hemwn). The _Koin‚_ Greek e and - were often pronounced alike and it was easy to interchange them. So many MSS. here read just as in Mark. The point is precisely the same as it is a proverbial saying. See a similar saying in #Lu 11:23: "He that is not with me is against me." The prohibition here as in #Mr 9:39 is general: "Stop hindering him" (me kwluete, me and the present imperative, not me and the aorist subjunctive). The lesson of toleration in methods of work for Christ is needed today.

    9:51 {When the days were well-nigh come} (en twi sumplerousqai tas hemeras). Luke's common idiom en with the articular infinitive, "in the being fulfilled as to the days." this common compound occurs in the N.T. only here and #Lu 8:23; Ac 2:1. The language here makes it plain that Jesus was fully conscious of the time of his death as near as already stated (#Lu 9:22,27,31). {That he should be received up} (tes analemyews autou). Literally, "of his taking up." It is an old word (from Hippocrates on), but here alone in the N.T. It is derived from analambanw (the verb used of the Ascension, #Ac 1:2,11,22; 1Ti 3:16) and refers here to the Ascension of Jesus after His Resurrection. Not only in John's Gospel (#Joh 17:5) does Jesus reveal a yearning for a return to the Father, but it is in the mind of Christ here as evidently at the Transfiguration (#9:31) and later in #Lu 12:49f. {He steadfastly set his face} (autos to proswpon esterisen). Note emphatic autos, {he himself}, with fixedness of purpose in the face of difficulty and danger. this look on Christ's face as he went to his doom is noted later in #Mr 10:32. It is a Hebraistic idiom (nine times in Ezekiel), this use of face here, but the verb (effective aorist active) is an old one from sterizw (from sterigx, a support), to set fast, to fix. {To go to Jerusalem} (tou poreuesqai eis ierousalem). Genitive infinitive of purpose. Luke three times mentions Christ making his way to Jerusalem (#9:51; 13:22; 17:11) and John mentions three journeys to Jerusalem during the later ministry (#Joh 7:10; 11:17; 12:1). It is natural to take these journeys to be the same in each of these Gospels. Luke does not make definite location of each incident and John merely supplements here and there. But in a broad general way they seem to correspond.

    9:52 {Sent messengers} (apesteilen aggelous). As a precaution since he was going to Jerusalem through Samaria. The Samaritans did not object when people went north from Jerusalem through their country. He was repudiating Mount Gerizim by going by it to Jerusalem. this was an unusual precaution by Jesus and we do not know who the messengers ({angels}) were. {To make ready for him} (hws hetoimasai autwi). hws is correct here, not hwste. The only examples of the final use of hws with the infinitive in the N.T. are this one and #Heb 7:9 (absolute use). In #Acts 20:24 Westcott and Hort read hws teleiwsw and put hws teleiwsai in the margin (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1091).

    9:53 {And they did not receive him} (kai ouk edexanto auton). Adversative use of kai = But. {Because his face was going to Jerusalem} (hoti to proswpon autou en poreuomenon eis ierousalem). Periphrastic imperfect middle. It was reason enough to the churlish Samaritans.

    9:54 {Saw this } (idontes). Second aorist active participle of horaw. Saw the messengers returning. {We bid} (qeleis eipwmen). Deliberative subjunctive eipwmen after qeleis without hina, probably two questions, Dost thou wish? Shall we bid? Perhaps the recent appearance of Elijah on the Mount of Transfiguration reminded James and John of the incident in #2Ki 1:10-12. Some MSS. add here "as Elijah did." The language of the LXX is quoted by James and John, these fiery Sons of Thunder. Note the two aorist active infinitives (katabenai, analwsai, the first ingressive, the second effective).

    9:55 {But he turned} (strafeis de). Second aorist passive participle of strefw, common verb, to turn round. Dramatic act. Some ancient MSS. have here: {Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of} (ouk oidate poiou pneumatos este). this sounds like Christ and may be a genuine saying though not a part of Luke's Gospel. A smaller number of MSS. add also: {For the Son of Man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them} (ho gar huios tou anqrwpou ouk elqen yucas anqrwpwn apolesai alla swsai), a saying reminding us of #Mt 5:17; Lu 19:10. Certain it is that here Jesus rebuked the bitterness of James and John toward Samaritans as he had already chided John for his narrowness towards a fellow-worker in the kingdom.

    9:57 {A certain man} (tis). #Mt 8:19 calls him "a scribe." #Lu 9:57-60; Mt 8:19-22, but not in Mark and so from Q or the logia. {Wherever you go} (hopou ean apercei) is the present middle subjunctive with the indefinite relative adverb ean, common Greek idiom. See on Matthew for "holes,"nests,"Son of man." The idiom "where to lay his head" (pou ten kefalen klinei) is the same in both, the deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question. "Jesus knows the measure of the scribe's enthusiasm" (Plummer). The wandering life of Jesus explains this statement.

    9:59 {And he said unto another} (eipen de pros heteron). #Mt 8:21 omits Christ's "Follow me" (akolouqei moi) and makes this man a volunteer instead of responding to the appeal of Jesus. There is no real opposition, of course. In Matthew's account the man is apologetic as in Luke. Plummer calls him "one of the casual disciples" of whom there are always too many. The scribes knew how to give plausible reasons for not being active disciples. {First} (prwton). One of the problems of life is the relation of duties to each other, which comes first. The burial of one's father was a sacred duty (#Ge 25:9), but, as in the case of Tobit 4:3, this scribe's father probably was still alive. What the scribe apparently meant was that he could not leave his father while still alive to follow Jesus around over the country.

    9:60 {Leave the dead to bury their own dead} (afes tous nekrous qayai tous heautwn nekrous). this paradox occurs so in #Mt 8:22. The explanation is that the spiritually dead can bury the literally dead. For such a quick change in the use of the same words see #Joh 5:21-29 (spiritual resurrection from Sin in #Joh 5:21-27, bodily resurrection from the grave, #Joh 5:28,29) and #Joh 11:25f. The harshness of this proverb to the scribe probably is due to the fact that he was manifestly using his aged father as an excuse for not giving Christ active service. {But go thou and publish abroad the kingdom of God} (su de apelqwn diaggelle ten basileian tou qeou). The scribe's duty is put sharply (but do qou, su de). Christ called him to preach, and he was using pious phrases about his father as a pretext. Many a preacher has had to face a similar delicate problem of duty to father, mother, brothers, sisters and the call to preach. this was a clear case. Jesus will help any man called to preach to see his duty. Certainly Jesus does not advocate renunciation of family duties on the part of preachers.

    9:61 {And another also said} (eipen de kai heteros). A volunteer like the first. this third case is given by Luke alone, though the incident may also come from the same logia as the other two. heteros does not here mean one of a "different" sort as is sometimes true of this pronoun, but merely another like allos (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 749). {But first} (prwton de). He also had something that was to come "first." {To bid farewell to them that are at my house} (apotaxasqai tois eis ton oikon mou). In itself that was a good thing to do. this first aorist middle infinitive is from apotassw, an old verb, to detach, to separate, to assign as a detachment of soldiers. In the N.T. it only appears in the middle voice with the meaning common in late writers to bid adieu, to separate oneself from others. It is used in #Ac 18:18 of Paul taking leave of the believers in Corinth. See also #Mr 6:46; 2Co 2:13. It is thus a formal function and this man meant to go home and set things in order there and qen in due time to come and follow Jesus.

    9:62 {Having put his hand to the plough} (epibalwn ten ceira ep' arotron). Second aorist active participle of epiballw, an old and common verb, to place upon. Note repetition of preposition epi before arotron (plough). this agricultural proverb is as old as Hesiod. Pliny observes that the ploughman who does not bend attentively to his work goes crooked. It has always been the ambition of the ploughman to run a straight furrow. The Palestine _fellah_ had good success at it. {And looking back} (kai blepwn eis ta opisw). Looking to the things behind. To do that is fatal as any ploughman knows. The call to turn back is often urgent. {Fit} (euqetos). From eu and tiqemi=well-placed, suited for, adapted to. "The first case is that of inconsiderate impulse, the second that of conflicting duties, the third that of a divided mind" (Bruce).

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