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    20:1 {On one of the days} (en miai twn hemerwn). Luke's favorite way of indicating time. It was the last day of the temple teaching (Tuesday). #Lu 20:1-19 is to be compared with #Mr 11:27-12:12; Mt 21:23-46. {There came upon him} (epestesan). Second aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist of efistemi, old and common verb, stood up against him, with the notion of sudden appearance. These leaders (cf. #19:47) had determined to attack Jesus on this morning, both Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes), a formal delegation from the Sanhedrin.

    20:2 {Tell us} (eipon hemin). Luke adds these words to what Mark and Matthew have. Second aorist active imperative for the old form eipe and with ending -on of the first aorist active. Westcott and Hort punctuate the rest of the sentence as an indirect question after eipon, but the Revised Version puts a semicolon after "us" and retains the direct question. The Greek manuscripts have no punctuation.

    20:3 {Question} (logon). Literally, word. So in #Mr 11:29; Mt 21:24.

    20:5 {They reasoned with themselves} (sunelogisanto). First aorist middle of sullogizomai, to bring together accounts, an old word, only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have dielogizonto (imperfect middle of dialogizomai, a kindred verb, to reckon between one another, confer). this form (dielogizonto) in verse #14 below. {If we shall say} (ean eipwmen). Third-class condition with second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose we say! So in verse #6.

    20:6 {Will stone us} (kataliqasei). Late verb and here only in the N.T. Literally, will throw stones down on us, stone us down, overwhelm us with stones. {They be persuaded} (pepeismenos estin). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of peiqw, to persuade, a settled state of persuasion, "is persuaded" (no reason for use of "be" here). {That John was a prophet} (iwanen profeten einai). Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion.

    20:7 {That they knew not} (me eidenai). Accusative and infinitive in indirect assertion again with the negative me rather than ou.

    20:9 {Vineyard} (ampelwna). Late word from ampelos (vine), place of vines. So in #Mr 12:1; Mt 21:33. {Let it out} (exedeto). Second aorist middle of ekdidwmi, but with variable vowel e in place of o of the stem do (exedoto). Same form in Mark and Matthew. {For a long time} (cronous hikanous). Accusative of extent of time, considerable times or periods of time. Not in Mark and Matthew, though all three have apedemesen (went off from home). See on ¯Lu 7:6 for hikanos.

    20:10 {At the season} (kairwi). The definite season for the fruit like ho kairos twn karpwn (#Mt 21:34). That they should give (hina dwsousin). Future indicative with hina for purpose like the aorist subjunctive, though not so frequent.

    20:11 {He sent yet another} (proseqeto heteron pemyai). Literally, {he added to send another}. A clear Hebraism repeated in verse #12 and also in #19:11.

    20:12 {They wounded} (traumatisantes). First aorist active participle of traumatizw. An old verb, from trauma, a wound, but in the N.T. only here and #Ac 19:16.

    20:13 {What shall I do?} (ti poiesw;). Deliberative future indicative or aorist subjunctive (same form). this detail only in Luke. Note the variations in all three Gospels. All three have "will reverence" (entrapesontai) for which see Matthew and Mark. {It may be} (isws). Perhaps, from isos, equal. Old adverb, but only here in the N.T.

    20:14 {That the inheritance may be ours} (hina hemwn genetai he kleronomia). That the inheritance may become (genetai, second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai). Here #Mt 21:39 has scwmen "let us get, ingressive aorist active subjunctive." Cf. ecwmen, present subjunctive of the same verb ecw in #Ro 5:1; Mr 12:7 has "and it will be ours" (estai).

    20:16 {God forbid} (me genoito). Optative of wish about the future with me. Literally, {may it not happen}. No word "God" in the Greek. this was the pious protest of the defeated members of the Sanhedrin who began to see the turn of the parable against themselves.

    20:17 {He looked upon them} (embleyas autois). Not in Mark and Matthew. First aorist active participle of emblepw, to look on. It was a piercing glance. The scripture quoted is from #Ps 118:22 and is in #Mr 11:10; Mt 21:42, which see for the inverted attraction of the case liqon (stone) to that of the relative hon (which).

    20:18 {Shall be broken to pieces} (sunqlasqesetai). Future passive indicative of sunqlaw, a rather late compound, only here in the N.T. unless #Mt 21:44 is genuine. It means to shatter. {Will scatter him as dust} (likmesei). From likmaw, an old verb to winnow and qen to grind to powder. Only here in the N.T. unless in #Mt 21:44 is genuine, which see.

    20:19 {To lay hands on him} (epibalein ep' auton tas ceiras). Second aorist active infinitive of epiballw, an old verb and either transitively as here or intransitively as in #Mr 4:37. Vivid picture here where #Mr 12:12; Mt 21:46 has "to seize" (kratesai). {In that very hour} (en autei tei hwrai). Luke's favorite idiom, in the hour itself. Not in Mark or Matthew and shows that the Sanhedrin were angry enough to force the climax qen. {And they feared} (kai efobeqesan). Adversative use of kai = but they feared. Hence they refrained. {For they perceived} (egnwsan gar). The reason for their rage. Second aorist active indicative of ginwskw. {Against them} (pros autous). As in #Mr 12:12. The cap fitted them and they saw it.

    20:20 {They watched him} (parateresantes). First aorist active participle of paraterew, a common Greek verb to watch on the side or insidiously or with evil intent as in #Lu 6:7 (pareterounto) of the scribes and Pharisees. See on ¯Mr 3:2. There is no "him" in the Greek. They were watching their chance. {Spies} (enkaqetous). An old verbal adjective from enkaqiemi, to send down in or secretly. It means liers in wait who are suborned to spy out, one who is hired to trap one by crafty words. Only here in the N.T. {Feigned themselves} (hupokrinomenous heautous). Hypocritically professing to be "righteous" (dikaious). "They posed as scrupulous persons with a difficulty of conscience" (Plummer). {That they might take hold of his speech} (hina epilabwntai autou logou). Second aorist middle of epilambanw, an old verb for seizing hold with the hands and uses as here the genitive case. These spies are for the purpose of (hina) catching hold of the talk of Jesus if they can get a grip anywhere. this is their direct purpose and the ultimate purpose or result is also stated, "so as to deliver him up" (hwste paradounai auton). Second aorist active infinitive of paradidwmi, to hand over, to give from one's side to another. The trap is all set now and ready to be sprung by these "spies." {Of the governor} (tou hegemonos). The Sanhedrin knew that Pilate would have to condemn Jesus if he were put to death. So qen all their plans focus on this point as the goal. Luke alone mentions this item here.

    20:21 {Rightly} (orqws). Matthew (#Mt 22:16) notes that these "spies" were "disciples" (students) of the Pharisees and Mark (#Mr 12:13) adds that the Herodians are also involved in the plot. These bright theologues are full of palaver and flattery and openly endorse the teaching of Jesus as part of their scheme. {Acceptest not the person of any} (ou lambaneis proswpon). Dost not take the face (or personal appearance) as the test. It is a Hebraism from which the word pros"polempsia (#Jas 2:1) comes. Originally it meant to lift the face, to lift the countenance, to regard the face, to accept the face value. See #Mr 12:13-17; Mt 22:15-22 for discussion of details here. They both have blepeis here.

    20:22 {Tribute} (foron). Old word for the annual tax on land, houses, etc. Mark and Matthew have kenson, which see for this Latin word in Greek letters. The picture on the coin may have been that of Tiberius.

    20:23 {Perceived} (katanoesas). From katanoew, to put the mind down on. Mark has eidws, "knowing," and Matthew gnous, coming to know or grasping (second aorist active participle of ginwskw). {Craftiness} (panourgian). Old word for doing any deed. Matthew has "wickedness" (ponerian) and Mark "hypocrisy" (hupokrisin). Unscrupulous they certainly were. They would stoop to any trick and go the limit.

    20:26 {They were not able} (ouk iscusan). They did not have strength. An old verb iscuw from iscus (strength). They failed "to take hold (cf. verse #20) of the saying before the people." These "crack" students had made an ignominious failure and were not able to make a case for the surrender of Jesus to Pilate. He had slipped through their net with the utmost ease. {Held their peace} (esigesan). Ingressive aorist active of sigaw. They became silent as they went back with the "dry grins."

    20:27 {There is no resurrection} (anastasin me einai). Accusative and infinitive with negative me in indirect assertion. The Sadducees rally after the complete discomfiture of the Pharisees and Herodians. They had a stock conundrum with which they had often gotten a laugh on the Pharisees. So they volunteer to try it on Jesus. For discussion of details here see on ¯Mt 22:23-33; Mr 12:18-27. Only a few striking items remain for Luke.

    20:33 {Had her} (escon). Constative second aorist indicative of ecw including all seven seriatim. So #Mt 22:28; Mr 12:33 {To wife} (gunaika). As wife, accusative in apposition with "her."

    20:36 {Equal unto the angels} (isaggeloi). A rare and late word from isos, equal, and aggelos. Only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have "as angels" (hws aggeloi). Angels do not marry, there is no marriage in heaven. {Sons of God, being sons of the resurrection} (huioi qeou tes anastasews huioi ontes). this Hebraistic phrase, "sons of the resurrection" defines "sons of God" and is a direct answer to the Sadducees.

    20:37 {Even Moses} (kai mwuses). Moses was used by the Sadducees to support their denial of the resurrection. this passage (#Ex 3:6) Jesus skilfully uses as a proof of the resurrection. See discussion on ¯Mt 22:32; Mr 12:26f.

    20:39 {Certain of the scribes} (tines twn grammatewn). Pharisees who greatly enjoyed this use by Jesus of a portion of the Pentateuch against the position of the Sadducees. So they praise the reply of Jesus, hostile though they are to him.

    20:40 {They dare not any more} (ouketi etolmwn ouden). Double negative and imperfect active of tolmaw. The courage of Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians vanished.

    20:41 {How say they?} (pws legousin;). The Pharisees had rallied in glee and one of their number, a lawyer, had made a feeble contribution to the controversy which resulted in his agreement with Jesus and in praise from Jesus (#Mr 12:28-34; Mt 27:34-40). Luke does not give this incident which makes it plain that by "they say" (legousin) Jesus refers to the Pharisees (rabbis, lawyers), carrying on the discussion and turning the tables on them while the Pharisees are still gathered together (#Mt 22:41). The construction with legousin is the usual infinitive and the accusative in indirect discourse. By "the Christ" (ton criston) "the Messiah" is meant.

    20:42 {For David himself} (autos gar daueid). this language of Jesus clearly means that he treats David as the author of #Ps 110. The inspiration of this Psalm is expressly stated in #Mr 12:36; Mt 22:43 (which see) and the Messianic character of the Psalm in all three Synoptics who all quote the LXX practically alike. Modern criticism that denies the Davidic authorship of this Psalm has to say either that Jesus was ignorant of the fact about it or that he declined to disturb the current acceptation of the Davidic authorship. Certainly modern scholars are not agreed on the authorship of #Ps 110. Meanwhile one can certainly be excused for accepting the natural implication of the words of Jesus here, "David himself." {In the book of the Psalms} (en biblwi yalmwn). Compare #3:4 "in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet."

    20:44 {David therefore} (daueid oun). Without ei as in #Mt 22:45. On the basis of this definite piece of exegesis (oun, therefore) Jesus presses the problem (pws, how) for an explanation. The deity and the humanity of the Messiah in #Ps 110 are thus set forth, the very problems that disturbed the rabbis qen and that upset many critics today.

    20:45 {In the hearing of all the people} (akouontos pantos tou laou). Genitive absolute, "while all the people were listening" (present active participle). That is the time to speak. The details in this verse and verse #47 are precisely those given in #Mr 12:38f., which see for discussion of details. #Mt 23:1-39 has a very full and rich description of this last phase of the debate in the temple where Jesus drew a full-length portrait of the hypocrisy of the Pharisees and scribes in their presence. It was a solemn climax to this last public appearance of Christ in the temple when Jesus poured out the vials of his indignation as he had done before (#Mt 16:2; Lu 11:37-54; 12-1).


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