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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 21

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    21:1 {And he looked up} (anableyas de). He had taken his seat, after the debate was over and the Sanhedrin had slunk away in sheer defeat, "over against the treasury" (#Mr 12:41). The word for "treasury" (gazofulakion) is a compound of gaza (Persian word for royal treasury) and fulake guard or protection. It is common in the LXX, but in the N.T. only here and #Mr 12:41,43; Joh 8:20. Jesus was watching (#Mr 12:41) the rich put in their gifts as a slight diversion from the intense strain of the hours before.

    21:2 {Poor} (penicran). A rare word from penes (penomai, to work for one's living). Latin _penuria_ and Greek peinaw, to be hungry are kin to it. Here only in the N.T. #Mr 12:42 has ptwce, a more common word from ptwssw, to be frightened, to strike and hide from fear, to be in beggary. And Luke uses this adjective also of her in verse #3.

    21:3 {More than they all} (pleion pantwn). Ablative case after the comparative pleion.

    21:4 {All these did cast} (pantes houtoi ebalon). Constative second aorist active indicative covering the whole crowd except the widow. {Living} (bion). Livelihood as in #Mr 12:44, not zwen, principle of life.

    21:5 {As some spake} (tinwn legontwn). Genitive absolute. The disciples we know from #Mr 13:1; Mt 24:1. {How} (hoti). Literally, "that." {It was adorned} (kekosmetai). Perfect passive indicative, state of completion, stands adorned, tense retained in indirect discourse, though English has to change it. kosmew, old and common verb for orderly arrangement and adorning. {With goodly stones and offerings} (liqois kalois kai anaqemasin). Instrumental case. Some of these stones in the substructure were enormous. "The columns of the cloister or portico were monoliths of marble over forty feet high" (Plummer). Cf. Josephus, _War_, V.5. The word anaqema (here only in the N.T.) is not to be confused with anaqema from the same verb anatiqemi, but which came to mean a curse (#Ga 1:8; Ac 23:14). So anaqema came to mean devoted in a bad sense, anaqema in a good sense. "Thus _knave_, lad, becomes a _rascal; villain_, a _farmer_, becomes a _scoundrel; cunning_, _skilful_, becomes _crafty_" (Vincent). These offerings in the temple were very numerous and costly (2Macc. 3:2-7) like the golden vine of Herod with branches as tall as a man (Josephus, _Ant_. XV. ii.3).

    21:6 {As for these things} (tauta). Accusative of general reference. {One stone upon another} (liqos epi liqwi). Stone upon stone (locative). Here both #Mr 13:2; Mt 24:2 have epi liqon (accusative). Instead of ouk afeqesetai (future passive) they both have ou me afeqei (double negative with aorist passive subjunctive). It was a shock to the disciples to hear this after the triumphal entry.

    21:8 {That ye be not led astray} (me planeqete). First aorist passive subjunctive with me (lest). this verb planaw occurs here only in Luke though often in the rest of the N.T. (as #Mt 24:4,5,11,24, which see). Our word _planet_ is from this word. {The time is at hand} (ho kairos eggiken). Just as John the Baptist did of the kingdom (#Mt 3:2) and Jesus also (#Mr 1:15). {Go ye not after them} (me poreuqete opisw autwn). First aorist passive subjunctive with me. A needed warning today with all the false cries in the religious world.

    21:9 {Be not terrified} (me ptoeqete). First aorist passive subjunctive with me from ptoew an old verb to terrify, from ptoa, terror. In the N.T. only here and #Lu 24:37. {First} (prwton). It is so easy to forget this and to insist that the end is "immediately" in spite of Christ's explicit denial here. See #Mt 24:4-42; Mr 13:1-37 for discussion of details for #Lu 21:8-36, the great eschatological discourse of Jesus

    21:11 {Famines and pestilences} (loimoi kai limoi). Play on the two words pronounced just alike in the _Koin‚_ (itacism). {And terrors} (fobeqra te). The use of te ... te in this verse groups the two kinds of woes. this rare word fobeqra is only here in the N.T. It is from fobew, to frighten, and occurs only in the plural as here.

    21:12 {But before all these things} (pro de toutwn pantwn). In #Mr 13:8; Mt 24:8 these things are termed "the beginning of travail." That may be the idea here. Plummer insists that priority of time is the point, not magnitude. {Bringing you} (apagomenous). Present passive participle from apagw, an old verb to lead off or away. But here the participle is in the accusative plural, not the nominative like paradidontes (present active participle, delivering you up), agreeing with humas not expressed the object of paradidontes, "you being brought before or led off."A technical term in Athenian legal language" (Bruce).

    21:13 {It shall turn unto you} (apobesetai humin). Future middle of apobainw. It will come off, turn out for you (dative of advantage). {For a testimony} (eis marturion). To their loyalty to Christ. Besides, "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church."

    21:14 {Not to meditate beforehand} (me promeletain). The classical word for conning a speech beforehand. #Mr 13:11 has promerimnaw, a later word which shows previous anxiety rather than previous preparation. {How to answer} (apologeqenai). First aorist passive infinitive. It is the preparation for the speech of defence (apology) that Jesus here forbids, not the preparation of a sermon.

    21:15 {Your adversaries} (hoi antikeimenoi humin). Those who stand against, line up face to face with (note anti-). {To withstand or to gainsay} (antistenai e anteipein). Two second aorist active infinitives with anti- in composition again. But these "antis" will go down before the power of Christ.

    21:16 {Shall they cause to be put to death} (qanatwsousin). Future active of qanatow, to put to death or to make to die (causative). Either makes sense here. Old and common verb.

    21:17 {Not a hair of your head shall perish} (qrix ek tes kefales humwn ou me apoletai). Only in Luke. Second aorist middle subjunctive of apollumi with ou me (double negative). Jesus has just said that some they will put to death. Hence it is spiritual safety here promised such as Paul claimed about death in #Php 1:21.

    21:19 {Ye shall win} (ktesesqe). Future middle of ktaomai, to acquire. They will win their souls even if death does come.

    21:20 {Compassed with armies} (kukloumenen hupo stratopedwn). Present passive participle of kuklow, to circle, encircle, from kuklos, circle. Old verb, but only four times in N.T. The point of this warning is the present tense, being encircled. It will be too late after the city is surrounded. It is objected by some that Jesus, not to say Luke, could not have spoken (or written) these words before the Roman armies came. One may ask why not, if such a thing as predictive prophecy can exist and especially in the case of the Lord Jesus. The word stratopedwn (stratos, army, pedon, plain) is a military camp and qen an army in camp. Old word, but only here in the N.T. {qen know} (tote gnwte). Second aorist active imperative of ginwskw. Christians did flee from Jerusalem to Pella before it was too late as directed in #Lu 21:21; Mr 13:14f.; Mt 24:16f.

    21:22 {That may be fulfilled} (tou plesqenai). Articular infinitive passive to express purpose with accusative of general reference. The O.T. has many such warnings (#Ho 9:7; De 28:49-57, etc.).

    21:24 {Edge of the sword} (stomati macaires). Instrumental case of stomati which means "mouth" literally (#Ge 34:26). this verse like the close of verse #22 is only in Luke. Josephus (_War_, VI. 9.3) states that 1,100,000 Jews perished in the destruction of Jerusalem and 97,000 were taken captive. Surely this is an exaggeration and yet the number must have been large. {Shall be led captive} (aicmalwtisqesontai). Future passive of aicmalwtizw from aicme, spear and halwtos (haliskomai). Here alone in the literal sense in the N.T. {Shall be trodden under foot} (estai patoumene). Future passive periphrastic of patew, to tread, old verb. {Until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled} (acri hou plerwqwsin kairoi eqnwn). First aorist passive subjunctive with acri hou like hews hou. What this means is not clear except that Paul in #Ro 11:25 shows that the punishment of the Jews has a limit. The same idiom appears there also with acri hou and the aorist subjunctive.

    21:25 {Distress} (sunoce). From sunecw. In the N.T. only here and #2Co 2:4. Anguish. {In perplexity} (en aporiai). State of one who is aporos, who has lost his way (a privative and poros). Here only in the N.T. though an old and common word. {For the roaring of the sea} (ecous qalasses). Our word echo (Latin _echo_) is this word ecos, a reverberating sound. Sense of rumour in #Lu 4:37. {Billows} (salou). Old word salos for the swell of the sea. Here only in the N.T.

    21:26 {Men fainting} (apoyucontwn anqrwpwn). Genitive absolute of apoyucw, to expire, to breathe off or out. Old word. Here only in N.T. {Expectation} (prosdokias). Old word from prosdokaw, to look for or towards. In the N.T. only here and #Ac 12:11. {The world} (tei oikoumenei). Dative case, "the inhabited" (earth, gˆi).

    21:27 {And qen shall they see} (kai tote oyontai). As much as to say that it will be not till qen. Clearly the promise of the second coming of the Son of man in glory here (#Mr 13:26f.; Mt 24:30f.) is pictured as not one certain of immediate realization. The time element is left purposely vague.

    21:28 {Look up} (anakuyate). First aorist active imperative of anakuptw, to raise up. Here of the soul as in #Joh 8:7,10, but in #Lu 13:11 of the body. These the only N.T. examples of this common verb. {Redemption} (apolutrwsis). Act of redeeming from apolutrow. The final act at the second coming of Christ, a glorious hope.

    21:29 {The fig tree, and all the trees} (ten suken kai panta ta dendra). this parable of the fig-tree (#Mr 13:28-32; Mt 24:32-35) Luke applies to "all the trees." It is true about all of them, but the fig tree was very common in Palestine.

    21:30 {Shoot forth} (probalwsin). Second aorist active subjunctive of proballw, common verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Ac 19:33. {Summer} (qeros). Not harvest, but summer. Old word, but in the N.T. only here (#Mr 13:28; Mt 24:32).

    21:31 {Coming to pass} (ginomena). Present middle participle of ginomai and so descriptive of the process. {Nigh} (eggus). The consummation of the kingdom is here meant, not the beginning.

    21:32 { this generation} (he genea haute). Naturally people qen living. {Shall not pass away} (ou me parelqei). Second aorist active subjunctive of parercomai. Strongest possible negative with ou me. {Till all things be accomplished} (hews an panta genetai). Second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai with hews, common idiom. The words give a great deal of trouble to critics. Some apply them to the whole discourse including the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem, the second coming and the end of the world. Some of these argue that Jesus was simply mistaken in his eschatology, some that he has not been properly reported in the Gospels. Others apply them only to the destruction of Jerusalem which did take place in A.D. 70 before that generation passed away. It must be said for this view that it is not easy in this great eschatological discourse to tell clearly when Jesus is discussing the destruction of Jerusalem and when the second coming. Plummer offers this solution: "The reference, therefore, is to the destruction of Jerusalem regarded as the type of the end of the world."

    21:33 {My words shall not pass away} (hoi logoi mou ou me pareleusontai). Future middle indicative with ou me, a bit stronger statement than the subjunctive. It is noteworthy that Jesus utters these words just after the difficult prediction in verse #32.

    21:34 {Lest haply your hearts be overcharged} (me pote bareqwsin hai kardiai humwn). First aorist passive subjunctive of bare", an old verb to weigh down, depress, with me pote. {With surfeiting} (en krepalei). A rather late word, common in medical writers for the nausea that follows a debauch. Latin _crapula_, the giddiness caused by too much wine. Here only in the N.T. {Drunkenness} (meqei). From mequ (wine). Old word but in the N.T. only here and #Ro 13:13; Ga 5:21. {Cares of this life} (merimnais biwtikais). Anxieties of life. The adjective biwtikos is late and in the N.T. only here and #1Co 6:3f. {Come on you} (epistei). Second aorist active subjunctive of efistemi, ingressive aorist. Construed also with me pote. {Suddenly} (efnidios). Adjective in predicate agreeing with hemera (day). {As a snare} (hws pagis). Old word from pegnumi, to make fast a net or trap. Paul uses it several times of the devil's snares for preachers (#1Ti 3:7; 2Ti 2:26).

    21:36 {But watch ye} (agrupneite de). agrupnew is a late verb to be sleepless (a privative and hupnos, sleep). Keep awake and be ready is the pith of Christ's warning. {That ye may prevail to escape} (hina katiscusete ekfugein). First aorist active subjunctive with hina of purpose. The verb katiscuw means to have strength against (cf. #Mt 16:18). Common in later writers. ekfugein is second aorist active infinitive, to escape out. {To stand before the Son of man} (staqenai emprosqen tou huiou tou anqrwpou). That is the goal. There will be no dread of the Son qen if one is ready. staqenai is first aorist passive infinitive of histemi.

    21:37 {Every day} (tas hemeras). During the days, accusative of extent of time. {Every night} (tas nuktas). "During the nights," accusative of extent of time. {Lodged} (eulizeto). Imperfect middle, was lodging, aulizomai from aule (court).

    21:38 {Came early} (wrqrizen). Imperfect active of orqrizw from orqros, late form for orqreuw, to rise early. Only here in the N.T.

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