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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 21

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    CHAPTER XXI

    1-4. Compare Mark xii. 41-44.

    1. Treasury. See on Mark xii. 41.

    Rich. Standing last and emphatically in the sentence, "Saw them that were casting, etc. - rich men." Not the rich only were casting in. Compare Mark xii. 41.

    2. Poor. See on Matt. v. 3.

    Mites. See on Mark xii. 42.

    3. This poor widow. See on Mark xii. 43.

    4. Offerings of God. The best texts omit of God. Rev., more simply, unto the gifts.

    Penury (usterhmatov). Lit., lack. Rev., neatly, of her want.

    5-19. Compare Matt. xxiv. 1-14; Mark xiii. 1-13.

    5. Stones. See on Mark xiii. 1.

    Offerings (anaqhmasin). Only here in New Testament. From ajnatiqhmi, to set up. Hence of something set up in the temple as a votive offering. Such were the golden vines presented by Herod the Great, with bunches of grapes as large as a man, and mounted above the entrance to the holy place. The magnificent porch of the temple was adorned with many such dedicated gifts, such as a golden wreath which Sosius offered after he had taken Jerusalem in conjunction with Herod; and rich flagons which Augustus and his wife had given to the sanctuary. Gifts were bestowed by princes friendly to Israel, both on the temple and on provincial synagogues. The word ajnaqema, (Gal. i. 8, Rev.), is the same word, something devoted, and so devoted to evil and accursed. Luke uses the classical form. The other is the common or Hellenistic form. The two forms develop gradually a divergence in meaning; the one signifying devoted in a good, the other in a bad sense. The same process may be observed in other languages. Thus knave, lad, becomes a rascal villian, a farmer, becomes a scoundrel: cunning, skilful, becomes crafty.

    6. Behold (qewreite). See on ch. x. 18.

    Thrown down. See on Mark xiii. 2.

    8. Deceived. Rev., rightly, led astray. See on Matt. xxiv. 4.

    In my name. See on Matt. xviii. 5.

    9. Commotions (akatastasiav). From aj, not, and kaqisthmi, to establish. Hence disestablishments; unsettlements. Rev., tumults.

    Be not terrified (mh ptohqhte). Only here and ch. xxiv. 37.

    By and by (euqewv). Better as Rev. immediately.

    11. Earthquakes. See on Matt. xiii. 8.

    Famines and pestilences (limoi kai loimoi). Some texts reverse the order of the words. A paronomasia or combination of like-sounding words: limoi, loimoi. Especially common in Paul's epistles.

    Fearful sights (fobhtra). Only here in New Testament, and rare in classical Greek. In Septuagint, Isa. xix. 17. Not confined to sights, but fearful things. Rev., better, terrors. Used in medical language by Hippocrates, of fearful objects imagined by the sick.

    13. It shall turn (apobhsetai). Lit., turn out; issue.

    14. To answer. See on answer, 1 Pet. iii. 15.

    19. Possess ye (kthsesqe). Wrong. See on ch. xviii. 12. Rev. rightly, ye shall win.

    20-36. Compare Matt. xxiv. 15-42. Mark xiii. 14-37.

    22. Vengeance (ekdikhsewv). Of rendering full justice, or satisfaction. See on avenge, ch. xviii. 3.

    23. Distress (anagkh). Originally constraint, necessity; thence force or violence, and in the classical poets, distress, anguish.

    24. Edge (stomati). Lit., the mouth. So Wyc. Either in the sense of the foremost part, or picturing the sword as a devouring monster. In Hebrews xi. 33, 34, the word is used in both senses: "the mouths of lions;" "the edge of the sword."

    Led away captive. See on captives, ch. iv. 18.

    Trodden down. Denoting the oppression and contempt which shall follow conquest.

    25. Signs (shmeia). See on Matt. xxiv. 24.

    Distress (sunoch). Only here and 2 Cor. ii. 4. Kindred with sunecomenh, taken (ch. iv. 38), on which see note. The original idea of the word is being held in a tight grasp.

    With perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring. The A.V. follows the reading hjcoushv, the participle, roaring. The proper reading is hjcouv, the noun, the roaring. Render perplexity for the roaring of the sea, etc. 'Hcw, roaring, is properly a returned sound, an echo. Generally a ringing sound, as of the blows on an anvil.

    Waves (salou). Only here in New Testament. The radical notion of the word is unsteady motion, especially the rolling swell of the sea. Rev., better, billows.

    26. Failing (apoyucontwn). Only here in New Testament. The word originally means to leave off breathing; to swoon. Thus Homer, when Laertes recognizes Ulysses:

    "He threw Round his dear son his arms. The hardy chief, Ulysses, drew him fainting (apoyuconta) to his heart." Odyssey, xxiv., 346.

    So also Sophocles, of Hector dragged behind Achilles' chariot:

    "He breathed out his life (apeyuxen bion).

    Ajax, 1031.

    Matthew alone uses the simple verb, yucw, to breathe, or blow. See on wax cold, Matt. xxiv. 12. Luke uses four compounds of this simple verb, all of which are peculiar to him. Compare cool, ch. xvi. 24; refreshing, Acts iii. 19; gave up the ghost, Acts v. 5, 10.

    Expectation (prosdokiav). Only here and Acts xii. 11.

    The world. See on ch. ii. 1.

    Shall be shaken (saleuqhsontai). Compare Matt. xi. 7; Luke vi. 38; Acts iv. 31; Heb. xii. 26, 27. The root of the verb is the same as that of billows, ver 25.

    28. Look up. See on ch. xiii. 11. Graphic, as implying being previously bowed down with sorrow.

    Redemption (apolutrwsiv). See on lettest depart, ch. ii. 29.

    29. Parable. See on Matt. xxiv. 32.

    30. Ye see (blepontev). Lit., "looking, ye know," etc. Implying careful observation, with a view to determine the progress of the season.

    Know (ginwskete). Perceive would be better.

    31. Come to pass (ginomena). The present participle. Rev., more correctly, "coming to pass:" in process of fulfilment. Compare Mark xiii. 29.

    34. Overcharged (barhqwsin). Weighed down. Compare ch. ix. 32; 2 Corinthians v. 4.

    Surfeiting (kraipalh). Only here in New Testament. Derivation uncertain: akin to the Latin crapula, intoxication. Trench finds an equivalent in fulsomeness, in its original sense of fulness. In the medical writings it is used of drunken nausea or headache.

    Drunkenness (meqh). Compare are well drunk, John ii. 10. This and kindred words in the New Testament always refer to intoxication, or that which intoxicates. See note on John ii. 10.

    Cares (merimnaiv). See on Matt. vi. 25.

    Of this life (biwtikaiv). The rendering is too general; though it might be difficult to give a better. Biov, life, means life considered either as to its duration (1 Pet. iv. 3); the means of support (Mark xii. 44; Luke viii. 43; xxi. 4; 1 John iii. 17); or the manner of leading it (1 Tim. ii. 2). The meaning here is pertaining to the support or luxury of life; and so in the only other passages where it occurs, 1 Cor. vi. 3, 4. The parallel is Matthew vi. 31. Wyc., business of this life.

    Suddenly (aifnidiov). Only here and 1 Thess. v. 3.

    35. As a snare. Join with the previous sentence: "come suddenly as a snare." Compare entangle, Matt. xxii. 15.

    36. Watch. See on Mark xiii. 33.

    37. Abode (hulizeto). Only here and Matt. xxi. 17.

    38. Came early in the morning (wrqrizen). Only here in New Testament.

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