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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 22

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    CHAPTER XXII

    1-6. Compare Matt. xxvi. 17-19. Mark xiv. 12-16.

    1. Feast (eorth). Properly festival. See on Mark xiv. 1.

    Drew nigh. Imperfect: "was drawing nigh."

    2. Sought. Imperfect, were seeking, contemporaneously with the approach of the feast.

    Kill (anelwsin). Lit., to take up and carry off, and so to make way with.

    3. Satan. See on ch. xiii. 16.

    Iscariot. See on Matt. x. 5.

    4. Captains (strathgoiv). The leaders of the temple-guards. Compare Acts iv. 1.

    6. Promised (exwmologhsen). See on Matt. iii. 6; xi. 25. The idea is that of an open and fair consent or pledge.

    10. A man - pitcher. See on Mark xiv. 13.

    11. Guest-chamber. See on Mark xiv. 14.

    12. And he (kakeinov). See on Mark xiv. 15.

    Furnished. See on Mark xiv. 15. Wyc., strewed.

    14-18; 24-30. Compare Matt. xxvi. 20; Mark xiv. 17.

    14. The apostles. Both Matthew and Mark have the twelve.

    15. With desire I have desired. Expressing intense desire. Compare John iii. 29, rejoiceth with joy; Acts iv. 17, threaten with threatening.

    19-20. Compare Matt. xxvi. 26-29. Mark xiv. 22-25. 1 Corinthians xi. 23-25.

    19. Bread (arton). Better, a loaf.

    20. The cup. See on Mark xiv. 23.

    Testament (diaqhkh) - shed. See on Matt. xxvi. 28.

    21. Betrayeth (paradidontov). The present participle: is now engaged in betraying.

    With me. "He does not say with you: thus separating the traitor from the rest of the disciples, and showing that now he alone has to do with that wretch, as with an enemy" (Bengel).

    24. A strife (filoneikia). Properly, "an eager contention." Only here in New Testament.

    Greatest. Strictly, greater.

    26. Doth serve. See on minister, Matt. xx. 26.

    28. Continued (diamemenhkotev). Lit., "have remained through" (dia).

    29. I appoint (diatiqemai). Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution (dia). Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with dia.

    31. Hath desired (exhthsato). Only here in New Testament. It sometimes means to obtain by asking, or to beg off. So Xenophon, "Anabasis," i., 1, 3. The mother of Cyrus, who is charged with an attempt to kill his brother, begged him off (exaithsamenh). Rev., in margin, obtained you by asking. The result proved that Satan had obtained him for the time.

    Sift (siniasai). Only here in New Testament.

    Wheat (siton). A general term, grain.

    32. Prayed (edehqhn). See on prayers, ch. v. 33.

    Art converted (epistreyav). Converted is simply the Latinized rendering of the word to turn round (convertere). Rev. renders the aorist participle, denoting a definite act, by once: "when once thou hast turned again."

    Strengthen (sthrison). See on ch. xvi. 25, and 1 Pet. v. 10. Rev., stablish, which is much better. Strengthen may denote only a temporary effect. The word implies fixedness.

    34. Peter. The only instance of Christ's directly addressing him as Peter. He refers to him by that name, Mark xvi. 7.

    The cock. See on Matt. xxvi. 34.

    Deny. See on Mark xiv. 30.

    36. He that hath no sword, etc. But sword is not governed by hath. It is too far off in the sentence. The meaning is, he that hath not a purse or scrip (and is therefore penniless), let him sell his garment and buy a sword. So Wyc.

    37. Have an end (telov ecei). The phrase is synonymous with be accomplished telesqhnai, Rev., fulfilled). In classical Greek this latter word is often used of the fulfilment of an oracle: also of things which are settled beyond controversy. The two expressions here give the two meanings. The prophecy is fulfilled; the things concerning me are finally settled.

    39-46. Compare Matt. xxvi. 30, 36-46; Mark xiv. 26, 32-42.

    40. The place. See on Gethsemane, Matt. xxvi. 36.

    41. Was withdrawn (apespasqh). The Vulgate has avulsus est, "he was torn away," as by an inward urgency. Godet adopts this view, and so, apparently, Wyc., he was taken away. Meyer inclines to it; De Wette decidedly rejects it. Compare Acts xxi. 1.

    Prayed. Imperfect, began to pray.

    43. There appeared (wfqh). The word most commonly used in the New Testament of seeing visions. See Matt. xvii. 3; Mark ix. 4; Luke i. 11; xxii. 43; Acts ii. 17; vii. 35. The kindred noun ojptasia, wherever it occurs in the New Testament, means a vision. See Luke i. 22; xxiv. 23, etc.

    Strengthening (eniscuwn). Only here and Acts ix. 19. See on was not able, ch. xiv. 30; and cannot, ch. xvi. 3. Commonly intransitive; to prevail in or among. Used transitively only by Hippocrates and Luke.

    44. Being in an agony (genomenov en agwnia). There is in the aorist participle a suggestion of a growing intensity in the struggle, which is not conveyed by the simple being. Literally, though very awkwardly, it is, having become in an agony: having progressed from the first prayer (began to pray, ver. 41) into an intense struggle of prayer and sorrow. Wycliffe's rendering hints at this: and he, made in agony, prayed. Agony occurs only here. It is used by medical writers, and the fact of a sweat accompanying an agony is also mentioned by them.

    More earnestly (ektenesteron). See on fervently, 1 Pet. i. 22. Was (egeneto). More correctly, as Rev., became. See on genomenov, being, above.

    Great drops (qromboi). Only here in New Testament: gouts or clots. Very common in medical language. Aristotle mentions a bloody sweat arising from the blood being in poor condition; and Theophrastus mentions a physician who compared a species of sweat to blood.

    45. For sorrow. The mention of the cause of the drowsiness is characteristic.

    47-53. Compare Matt. xxvii. 47-56; Mark xiv. 43-52.

    47. Multitude - one of the twelve. See on Matt. xxvi. 47.

    To kiss. See on Matt. xxvi. 47.

    50. The servant. See on Matt. xxvi. 51.

    His right ear. Lit., his ear, the right one. See on Matt. xxvi. 51; and compare Mark xiv. 47. Both Matthew and Mark use diminutives.

    51. Suffer ye thus far. This is variously interpreted. I think the text requires that the words should be addressed to the disciples, and taken as the answer to the question, shall we smite, etc. The meaning then is, permit them to go so far as to seize me. The expression thus corresponds with Matt. xxvi. 52.

    Ear (wtiou). This time Luke uses the diminutive. Wyc., little ear.

    Healed. Only Luke records the healing.

    52. Thief (lhsthn). See on Matt. xxvi. 55; Luke x. 30; Mark xi. 17.

    54-62. Compare Matt. xxvi. 57, 58, 69-75; Mark xiv. 53, 54, 66-72.

    55. Kindled (periayantwn). Lit., kindled all round (peri): set in full blaze.

    Hall. Or court. See on Mark xiv. 54.

    56. By the fire (prov to fwv). See on Mark xiv. 54.

    63. Smote (derontev). Originally to flay; thence to cudgel. Compare our vulgarism, to tan or hide.

    66. The elders (presbuterion). More correctly, the assembly of the elders. So Rev.

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