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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 23

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    CHAPTER XXIII

    1-5. Compare Matt. xxvii. 1, 2; 11, 14; Mark xv. 1-5.

    2. We found. In a judicial sense: as the result of their examination before the council.

    5. Were the more fierce (episcuon). Only here in New Testament. The verb means, literally, to grow strong. See on ch. xiv. 30; xvi. 3. Here the sense is, they were more energetic and emphatic. Rev., urgent. Wyc., waxed stronger.

    Stirreth up (anaseiei). See on Mark xv. 11. The increased urgency is shown by the use of a stronger word than perverteth (ver. 2).

    6. Of Galilee. The best texts omit.

    7. Sent (anepemyen). Lit., sent him up (ana). Used of sending up to a higher court. Compare Acts xxv. 21, of sending Paul to Caesar. It also means to send back, as in ver. 11, and Philemon 11.

    8. Of a long time (ex ikanou). See on ch. vii. 6.

    Hoped (hlpizen). Imperfect; was hoping - all this long time.

    Miracle (shmeion). See on Matt. xi. 20; and compare Acts ii. 22, Rev. 9. Many (ikanoiv). Compare long, ver. 8.

    10. Vehemently (eutonwv). Only here and Acts xviii. 28, of the preaching of Apollos. Originally the word means well-strung; hence, in medical language, of a well-toned body.

    11. Gorgeous (lampran). Lit., bright or brilliant. Compare Acts x. 30; Apoc. xv. 6. Wyc. and Tynd., white. Mark has purple (porfuran), and Matthew scarlet (kokkinhn).

    Apparel (edqhta). The general term for raiment. Matthew specifies the garment (xxvii. 28). Mark has simply purple (xv. 17).

    13-25. Compare Matt. xxvii. 15-26; Mark xv. 6-15.

    14. Perverteth (apostrefonta). Another compound of strefw, to turn; diastrefonta is rendered by the same word in ver. 2. Probably the words are used without any intentional distinction of meaning.

    Diastrefonta implies more of the idea of distraction (compare Wyc., turning upside down); turning different ways; while ajpostrefonta emphasizes the turning away (apo) of the people from their civil and religious allegiance. So Wyc., turning away.

    Examined (anakrinav). Originally implying a thorough examination; ajna, up, from bottom to top. Technically, of a legal examination.

    16. Chastise (paideusav). Originally to bring up a child (paiv). Hence, to instruct, so Acts vii. 22, of Moses instructed in the wisdom of the Egyptians; and Acts xxii. 3, of Paul instructed in the law. To discipline or correct, as Heb. xii. 6, 7. The word is not synonymous with punish, since it always implies an infliction which contemplates the subject's amendment; and hence answers to chastise or chasten. So Heb. xii. 10; Apoc. iii. 19. In popular speech chastise or punish are often confounded. Chasten is from the Latin castus, "pure," "chaste;" and to chasten is, properly, to purify. This meaning underlies even the use of the word by Pilate, who was not likely to be nice in his choice of words. Instead of punishing him with death, he will chastise him, in order to teach him better. So Wyc., I shall deliver him amended.

    18. All together (pamplhqei). The whole multitude (tlhqov) of them. Only here in New Testament.

    Away (aire). Lit., take away. Compare Acts xxi. 36; xxii. 22.

    19. Who (ostiv). Classifying him. One of such a kind as that he had been imprisoned, etc.

    20. Spake (prosefwnhsen). Addressed. Compare Acts xxi. 40; xxii. 2. Always in the New Testament in the sense of to accost, whether an individual or a crowd.

    21. Shouted (epefwnoun). Imperfect. Kept shouting. Used by Luke only. Compare Acts xii. 22; xxii. 24.

    22. Said (eipen). Dropping the speech-making tone, and simply asking a question.

    23. They were instant (epekeinto). Instant, in the sense of urgent, pressing. See on ch. vii. 4. Compare Rom. xii. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 2; Luke vii. 4; Acts xxvi. 7. The verb means to lie upon, and answers to our vulgarism, to lay one's self down to work. Compare Aristophanes, "Knights," 253: kajpikeimenov boa, roar with all your might. Lit., roar, lying down to it.

    Their voices. Omit of the chief priests.

    Prevailed (katiscuon). Had power (iscuv) to bear down (kata) the remonstrances of Pilate. Only here and Matt. xvi. 18.

    24. Gave sentence (epekrinen). Pronounced the final sentence. Only here in New Testament.

    26-33. Compare Matt. xxvii. 31-34; Mark xv. 20-23.

    26. Laid hold on (epilabomenoi). Compare the peculiar word used by Matthew and Mark. See on Matt. v. 41.

    27-32. Peculiar to Luke. See Introduction, on the gospel of womanhood.

    30. Hills (bounoiv). Only here and ch. iii. 5.

    31. Tree (xulw). Originally wood, timber. In later Greek, a tree. Used of the cross by Peter, Acts v. 30; x. 39; and 1 Pet. ii. 24. Compare Galatians iii. 13.

    32. Two other. The possible omission of a comma before malefactors in the A.V. might make a very awkward and unpleasant statement. Better Rev., two others, malefactors.

    Put to death (anaireqhnai). Lit., to take up and carry away; so that the Greek idiom answers to our taken off. So Shakespeare:

    "The deep damnation of his taking off." MacBeth, i., 7.

    "Let her who would be rid of him, devise His speedy taking off." Lear, v., 1.

    33. Calvary (Kranion). The Greek word is the translation of the Hebrew Golgotha. See on Matt. xxvii. 33.

    35-43. Compare Matt. xxvii. 39-44; Mark xv. 29-32.

    35. Beholding. See on ch. x. 18.

    Scoffed. See on ch. xvi. 14.

    If he. The A.V. does not give the contemptuous emphasis on ou=tov, this fellow.

    36. Coming to him. Coming up close to the cross.

    Vinegar. See on Matt. xxvii. 34.

    38. Superstition. See on Mark xv. 26.

    39. Railed (eblasfhmei). Imperfect: kept up a railing.

    41. Receive. Are receiving would be better.

    Amiss (atopon). Lit., out of place, and so strange, eccentric, perverse; as in 2 Thess. iii. 2, where it is rendered unreasonable. The expression here answers nearly to our familiar phrase, "has done nothing out of the way." Compare Acts xxviii. 6; no harm.

    42. Into thy kingdom. Some texts read eijv, into, ejn, in. So Rev. In that case we must understand, "in thy kingly glory."

    43. In Paradise (paradeisw). Originally an enclosed park, or pleasure-ground. Xenophon uses it of the parks of the Persian kings and nobles. "There (at Celaenae) Cyrus had a palace and a great park (paradeisov), full of wild animals, which he hunted on horseback.... Through the midst of the park flows the river Maeander ("Anabasis," i., 2, 7). And again: "The Greeks encamped near a great and beautiful park, thickly grown with all kinds of trees" (ii. 4, 14.) In the Septuagint, Genesis ii. 8, of the garden of Eden. In the Jewish theology, the department of Hades where the blessed souls await the resurrection; and therefore equivalent to Abraham's bosom (ch. xvi. 22, 23). It occurs three times in the New Testament: here; 2 Cor. xii. 4; Apoc. ii. 7; and always of the abode of the blessed.

    "Where'er thou roam'st, one happy soul, we know, See at thy side in woe, Waits on thy triumph - even as all the blest With him and Thee shall rest.

    Each on his cross, by Thee we hang awhile, Watching thy patient smile, Till we have learn'd to say, "Tis justly done, Only in glory, Lord, thy sinful servant own.'" KEBLE, Christian Year.

    44-46. Compare Matt. xxvii. 45-50; Mark xv. 33-37.

    44. Sixth hour. Midday.

    Ninth hour. See on Matt. xxvii. 46.

    45. Veil. See on Matt. xxvii. 51.

    46. I commend (paratiqemai). See on ch. ix. 16.

    Gave up the ghost (exepneusen). Lit., breathed out (his life). Wyc., sent out the spirit. See on Matt. xxvii. 50.

    47-49. Compare Matt. xxvii. 51-56; Mark xv. 38-41.

    49. That followed (sunakoluqousai). Lit., followed with (sun). So Rev. See on Matt. xxvii. 55.

    50. Councillor. See on Mark xv. 43. Matt. calls him rich; Mark, honorable; Luke, good and just.

    51. Consented (sugkatateqeimenov). Only here in New Testament.

    Another of Luke's numerous compounds. the Greek student will be struck with the array of compounds, from ver. 49 to 56, inclusive. The verb means to put (tiqhmi), down (kata), along with (sun). Hence to put down the same vote or opinion with another: to agree with or assent to.

    53. Linen (sindoni). See on Mark xiv. 51; and compare Luke xvi. 19. Hewn in stone (laxeutw). Only here in New Testament, and not at all in classical Greek.

    56. Returned (upostreyasai). This word occurs thirty-two times in Luke, and only three times in the rest of the New Testament. It is a significant fact that, reckoning the aggregate space occupied by the four Gospels, nearly one-sixth of the whole amount is occupied with the account of the twenty-four hours beginning with the last supper and ending with the burial of Jesus. There is no day in all Bible history narrated with the fulness of that day. If we possessed the whole life of Christ, written with the same detail, the record would occupy one hundred and eighty volumes as large as the whole Bible.

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