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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ROMANS 4

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    4:1 {What qen shall we say?} (ti oun eroumen?). Paul is fond of this rhetorical question (#4:1; 6:1; 7:7; 8:31; 9:14,30). {Forefather} (propatora). Old word, only here in N.T. Accusative case in apposition with Abraam (accusative of general reference with the infinitive). {Hath found} (heurekenai). Westcott and Hort put heurˆkenai in the margin because B omits it, a needless precaution. It is the perfect active infinitive of heuriskw in indirect discourse after eroumen. The MSS. differ in the position of kata sarka.

    4:2 {The Scripture} (he grafe). #Ge 15:6. {Was justified by works} (ex ergwn edikaiwqe). Condition of first class, assumed as true for the sake of argument, though untrue in fact. The rabbis had a doctrine of the merits of Abraham who had a superfluity of credits to pass on to the Jews (#Lu 3:8). {But not towards God} (all' ou pros qeon). Abraham deserved all the respect from men that came to him, but his relation to God was a different matter. He had _there_ no ground of boasting at all.

    4:3 {It was reckoned unto him for righteousness} (elogisqe eis dikaiosunen). First aorist passive indicative of logizomai, old and common verb to set down accounts (literally or metaphorically). It was set down on the credit side of the ledger "for" (eis as often) righteousness. What was set down? His believing God (episteusen twi qewi).

    4:4 {But as of debt} (alla kata ofeilema). An illustration of the workman (ergazomen"i) who gets his wages due him, "not as of grace" (ou kata carin).

    4:5 {That justifieth the ungodly} (ton dikaiounta ton asebe). The impious, irreverent man. See #1:25. A forensic figure (Shedd). The man is taken as he is and pardoned. "The whole Pauline gospel could be summed up in this one word-- God who justifies the ungodly" (Denney).

    4:6 {Pronounceth blessing} (legei ton makarismon). old word from makarizw, to pronounce blessed (#Lu 1:48), felicitation, congratulation, in N.T. only here, verse #9; Ac 4:15.

    4:7 {Blessed} (makarioi). See on #Mt 5:3. {Are forgiven} (afeqesan). First aorist passive indicative of afiemi, without augment (apheithˆsan, regular form). Paul quotes #Ps 32:1f. and as from David. Paul thus confirms his interpretation of #Ge 15:6. {Iniquities} (anomiai). Violations of law whereas hamartiai (sins) include all kinds. {Are covered} (epekaluphthˆsan). First aorist passive of epikaluptw, old verb, to cover over (upon, epi) as a shroud. Only here in N.T.

    4:8 {To whom} (hwi). But the best MSS. read hou like the LXX and so Westcott and Hort, "whose Sin." {Will not reckon} (ou me logisetai). Strong negation by double negative and aorist middle subjunctive.

    4:9 {Is this blessing qen pronounced?} (ho makarismos oun houtos?). "Is this felicitation qen?" There is no verb in the Greek. Paul now proceeds to show that Abraham was said in #Ge 15:6 to be set right with God by faith _before_ he was circumcised.

    4:10 {When he was in circumcision} (en peritomei onti). Dative masculine singular of the present active participle of eimi; "to him being in a state of circumcision or in a state of uncircumcision?" A pertinent point that the average Jew had not noticed.

    4:11 {The sign of circumcision} (semeion peritomes). It is the genitive of apposition, circumcision being the sign. {A seal of the righteousness of the faith} (sfragida tes dikaiosunes tes pistews). Sphragis is old word for the seal placed on books (#Re 5:1), for a signet-ring (#Re 7:2), the stamp made by the seal (#2Ti 2:19), that by which anything is confirmed (#1Co 9:2) as here. The circumcision did not convey the righteousness, but only gave outward confirmation. It came by faith and "the faith which he had while in uncircumcision" (tˆs en tˆi akrobustiai), "the in the state of uncircumcision faith." Whatever parallel exists between baptism and circumcision as here stated by Paul argues for faith before baptism and for baptism as the sign and seal of the faith already had before baptism. {That he might be} (eis to einai auton). this idiom may be God's purpose (contemplated result) as in eis to logisthˆnai below, or even actual result (so that he was) as in #1:20. {Though they be in uncircumcision} (di' akrobustias). Simply, "of those who believe while in the condition of uncircumcision."

    4:12 {The father of circumcision} (patera peritomes). The accusative with eis to einai to be repeated from verse #11. Lightfoot takes it to mean, not "a father of a circumcised progeny," but "a father belonging to circumcision," a less natural interpretation. {But who also walk} (alla kai tois stoicousin). The use of tois here is hard to explain, for ou monon and alla kai both come after the preceding tois. All the MSS. have it thus. A primitive error in a copyist is suggested by Hort who would omit the second tois. Lightfoot regards it less seriously and would repeat the second tois in the English: "To those who are, I do not say of circumcision only, but also to those who walk." {In the steps} (tois ichnesin). Locative case. See on ¯2Co 12:18. stoicew is military term, to walk in file as in #Ga 5:25; Php 3:16.

    4:13 {That he should be the heir of the world} (to kleronomon auton einai kosmou). The articular infinitive (to einai) with the accusative of general reference in loose apposition with hˆ epaggelia (the promise). But where is that promise? Not just #Ge 12:7, but the whole chain of promises about his son, his descendants like the stars in heaven, the Messiah and the blessing to the world through him. In these verses (#13-17) Paul employs (Sanday and Headlam) the keywords of his gospel (faith, promise, grace) and arrays them against the current Jewish theology (law, works, merit).

    4:14 {Be heirs} (kleronomoi). No predicate in the Greek (eisin). See on ¯Ga 4:1. If legalists are heirs of the Messianic promise to Abraham (condition of first class, assumed as true for argument's sake), the faith is emptied of all meaning (keken"tai, perfect passive indicative of kenow) and the promise to Abraham is made permanently idle (katˆrgˆtai).

    4:15 {Worketh wrath} (orgen katergazetai). Because of disobedience to it. {Neither is there transgression} (oude parabasis). There is no responsibility for the violation of a non-existent law.

    4:16 {Of faith} (ek pistews). As the source. {According to grace} (kata carin). As the pattern. {To the end that} (eis to einai). Purpose again as in #11. {Sure} (bebaian). Stable, fast, firm. Old adjective from bainw, to walk. {Not to that only which is of the law} (ou twi ek tou nomou monon). Another instance where monon (see verse #12) seems in the wrong place. Normally the order would be, ou monon t"i ek tou nomou, alla kai ktl.

    4:17 {A father of many nations} (patera pollwn eqnwn). Quotation from #Ge 17:5. Only true in the sense of spiritual children as already explained, father of believers in God. {Before him whom he believed even God} (katenanti hou episteusen qeou). Incorporation of antecedent into the relative clause and attraction of the relative hwi into hou. See #Mr 11:2 for katenanti, "right in front of." {Calleth the things that are not as though they were} (kalountos ta mˆ onta h"s onta). "Summons the non-existing as existing." Abraham's body was old and decrepit. God rejuvenated him and Sarah (#Heb 11:19).

    4:18 {In hope believed against hope} (par' elpida ep' elpidi episteusen). "Past hope in (upon) hope he trusted." Graphic picture. {To the end that he might become} (eis to genesqai auton). Purpose clause again with eis to and the infinitive as in verses #11-16.

    4:19 {Without being weakened in faith} (mˆ asthenˆsas tˆi pistei). "Not becoming weak in faith." Ingressive first aorist active participle with negative me. {Now as good as dead} (ede nenekrwmenon). Perfect passive participle of nekrow, "now already dead." B omits ede. He was, he knew, too old to become father of a child. {About} (pou). The addition of pou (somewhere, about) "qualifies the exactness of the preceding numeral" (Vaughan). The first promise of a son to Abraham and Sarah came (#Ge 15:3f.) before the birth of Ishmael (86 when Ishmael was born). The second promise came when Abraham was 99 years old (#Ge 17:1), calling himself 100 (#Ge 17:17).

    4:20 {He wavered not through unbelief} (ou diekriqe tei apistiai). First aorist passive indicative of old and common verb diakrinw, to separate, to distinguish between, to decide between, to desert, to dispute, to be divided in one's own mind. this last sense occurs here as in #Mt 21:22; Mr 11:23; Ro 14:23; Jas 1:6. "He was not divided in his mind by unbelief" (instrumental case). {Waxed strong through faith} (enedunam"thˆ tˆi pistei). First aorist passive again of endunamow, late word to empower, to put power in, in LXX and Paul and #Ac 9:22.

    4:21 {Being fully assured} (pleroforeqeis). First aorist passive participle of pleroforew, from plˆrophoros and this from pleres and ferw, to bear or bring full (full measure), to settle fully. Late word, first in LXX but frequent in papyri in sense of finishing off or paying off. See on ¯Lu 1:1; Ro 14:5. {What he had promised} (ho epˆggeltai). Perfect middle indicative of epaggellomai, to promise, retained in indirect discourse according to usual Greek idiom. {He was able} (dunatos estin). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse. The verbal adjective dunatos with estin is here used in sense of the verb dunatai (#Lu 14:31; Ac 11:17).

    4:23 {That} (hoti). Either recitative or declarative hoti. It makes sense either way.

    4:24 {Him that raised up Jesus} (ton egeiranta iesoun). First aorist active articular participle of egeirw, to raise up. The fact of the Resurrection of Jesus is central in Paul's gospel (#1Co 15:4ff.).

    4:25 {For our justification} (dia ten dikaiwsin hemwn). The first clause (paredothˆ dia ta parapt"mata) is from #Isa 53:12. The first dia with parapt"mata is probably retrospective, though it will make sense as prospective (to make atonement for our transgressions). The second dia is quite clearly prospective with a view to our justification. Paul does not mean to separate the resurrection from the death of Christ in the work of atonement, but simply to show that the resurrection is at one with the death on the Cross in proof of Christ's claims.

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