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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - TITUS 2

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    2:1 {But speak thou} (su de lalei). In contrast to these Pharisaic Gnostics in Crete. {Befit} (prepei). Old verb to be becoming, seemly. See #1Ti 2:10; Eph 5:3. With dative case didaskaliai. {Sound} (hugiainousei). Healthful as in #1:13; 2:2; 1Ti 1:10, common word in the Pastorals.

    2:2 {Aged men} (presbutas). See #Phm 1:9 for this word. For discussion of family life see also #Co 3:18-4:1; Eph 5:22-6:9; 1Ti 5:1-6:2. For the adjectives here see #1Ti 3:2,8; for the substantives see #1Ti 6:11.

    2:3 {Aged women} (presbutidas). Old word, feminine of presbutˆs, only here in N.T. See presbuteras in #1Ti 5:2. {Reverent} (hieroprepeis). Old word (heiros, prepei). Only here in N.T. Same idea in #1Ti 2:10. Like people engaged in sacred duties (Lock). {In demeanour} (en katastemati). Late and rare word (inscriptions) from kaqistemi, demeanor, only here in N.T. {Not slanderers} (me diabolous). See #1Ti 3:11; 2Ti 3:3. {Nor enslaved to much wine} (mede oinwi poll"i dedoul"menas). Perfect passive participle of doulow, with dative case oinwi. See #1Ti 3:8. "It is proved by experience that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost impossible" (White). But God can do the "impossible." {Teachers of that which is good} (kalodidaskalous). Compound word found here alone, _bona docentes_ (teaching good and beautiful things). A sorely needed mission.

    2:4 {That they may train} (hina swfronizwsin). Purpose clause, hina and present active subjunctive of swfronizw, old verb (from swfrwn, sound in mind, saos, fren, as in this verse), to make sane, to restore to one's senses, to discipline, only here in N.T. {To love their husbands} (philandrous einai). Predicate accusative with einai of old adjective philandros (filos, aner, fond of one's husband), only here in N.T. aner means man, of course, as well as husband, but only husband here, not "fond of menw (other men than their own). {To love their children} (philoteknous). Another old compound, here only in N.T. this exhortation is still needed where some married women prefer poodle-dogs to children.

    2:5 {Workers at home} (oikourgous). So the oldest MSS. (from oikos, ergou) instead of oikourous, keepers at home (from koiso, ouros, keeper). Rare word, found in Soranus, a medical writer, Field says. Cf. #1Ti 5:13. "Keepers at home" are usually "workers at home." {Kind} (agathas). See #Ro 5:7. See #Col 3:18; Eph 5:22 for the same use of hupotassomai, to be in subjection. Note idiois (their own). See #1Ti 6:1 for the same negative purpose clause (hina me blasphˆmˆtai).

    2:6 {The younger men} (tous newterous). Just one item, besides "likewise" (hosautws as in #3; 1Ti 2,9), "to be soberminded" (s"phronein, old verb as in #Rom 12:3). It is possible to take "in all things" (peri panta) with s"phronein, though the editors take it with verse #7.

    2:7 {Shewing thyself} (seauton parecomenos). Present middle (redundant middle) participle of parecw with the reflexive pronoun seauton as if the active voice parech"n. The _Koin‚_ shows an increasing number of such constructions (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 811). See active in #1Ti 1:4. {An ensample} (tupon). For this word see #2Th 3:9; Php 3:17. {Uncorruptness} (aphthorian). Only example, from late adjective aphthoros (a privative and fqeirw).

    2:8 {Sound} (hugie, Attic usually hugia in accusative singular), elsewhere in Pastorals participle hugianwn (verse #1). {That cannot be condemned} (akatagnwston). Only N.T. example (verbal, a privative and katagn"stos) and in IV Macc. 4:47. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 200) quotes it from an inscription and the adverb from a papyrus. {He that is of the contrary part} (ho ex enantias). "The one on the opposite side" (your opponent). Cf. verse #9; 1Ti 5:14. {May be ashamed} (hina entrapei). Final clause with hina and second aorist passive subjunctive of entrepw, to turn, in middle and passive to turn one on himself and so be ashamed (to blush) as in #2Th 3:14; 1Co 4:14. this sense in the papyri. {Evil} (faulon). Old word, easy (easy morals), worthless; bad, as in #2Co 5:10.

    2:9 {Servants} (doulous). "Slaves." Supply "exhort" (parakalei). See #1Ti 6:1 for "masters" (despotais). {Well-pleasing} (euarestous). See on ¯2Co 5:9. {Not gainsaying} (me antilegontas). "Not answer back." See #Ro 10:21.

    2:10 {Not purloining} (me nosfizomenous). Present middle participle of nosfizw, old verb (from nosfi, apart), in middle to set apart for oneself, to embezzle, in N.T. only here and #Ac 5:2f. {Fidelity} (pistin). See #Ga 5:22; 1Ti 5:12 for pistis in the sense of faithfulness. Nowhere else in the N.T. do we have agathˆ with pistis as here, but an Oxyr. papyrus (iii. 494, 9) has this very phrase (pasan pistin endeiknumenˆi). Westcott and Hort put agapen in the margin. See #3:2. {That they may adorn} (hina kosm"Sin). Final clause with hina and present active subjunctive. See #1Ti 2:9 for kosmew. Paul shows slaves how they may "adorn" the teaching of God.

    2:11 {Hath appeared} (epefane). "Did appear," the first Epiphany (the Incarnation). Second aorist passive indicative of epifainw, old verb, in N.T. here, #3:4; Lu 1:79; Ac 27:20. {Bringing salvation} (swterios). Old adjective from swter (Savior), here alone in N.T. except to s"tˆrion (salvation, "the saving act") in #Lu 2:30; 3:6; Eph 6:17. {Instructing} (paideuousa). See #1Ti 1:20. {Ungodliness} (asebeian). See #Ro 1:18. {Worldly lusts} (tas kosmikas epithumias). Aristotle and Plutarch use kosmikos (from kosmos) about the universe as in #Heb 9:1 about the earthly. Here it has alone in N.T. the sense of evil "in this present age" as with kosmos in #1Jo 2:16. The three adverbs set off the opposite (soberly s"phron"s, righteously dikai"s, godly euseb"s).

    2:13 {Looking for} (prosdecomenoi). Present middle participle of prosdecomai, old verb, the one used of Simeon (#Lu 2:25) and others (#Lu 2:38) who were looking for the Messiah. {The blessed hope and appearing of the glory} (ten makarian elpida kai epifaneian tes doxes). The word epifaneia (used by the Greeks of the appearance of the gods, from epiphanˆs, epifainw) occurs in #2Ti 1:10 of the Incarnation of Christ, the first Epiphany (like the verb epephanˆ, #Tit 2:11), but here of the second Epiphany of Christ or the second coming as in #1Ti 6:14; 2Ti 4:1,8. In #2Th 2:8 both epifaneia and parousia (the usual word) occur together of the second coming. {Of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ} (tou megalou qeou kai swteros iesou cristou). this is the necessary meaning of the one article with qeou and swteros just as in #2Pe 1:1,11. See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 786. Westcott and Hort read cristou iesou.

    2:14 {Who gave himself for us} (hos edwken heauton huper hemwn). Paul's great doctrine (#Ga 1:4; 2:20; 1Ti 2:6). {That he might redeem us} (hina lutrwsetai). Final clause, hina and the aorist middle subjunctive of lutrow, old verb from lutron (ransom), in N.T. only here, #Lu 24:21; 1Pe 1:18. {Purify to himself} (katharisˆi heautwi). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of kaqarizw, for which verb see #Eph 5:26. {Lawlessness} (anomias). See #2Th 2:3. {A people for his own possession} (laon periousion). A late word (from perieimi, to be over and above, in papyri as well as periousia), only in LXX and here, apparently made by the LXX, one's possession, and so God's chosen people. See #1Pe 2:9 (laos eis peripoiesin). {Zealous of good works} (zˆl"tˆn kal"n ergwn). "A zealot for good works." Substantive for which see #1Co 14:12; Ga 1:14. Objective genitive ergwn.

    2:15 {With all authority} (meta pases epitages). See #1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8. Assertion of authority is sometimes necessary. {Let no man despise thee} (medeis sou perifroneitw). Present active imperative in prohibition of periphrone", old verb, only here in N.T., to think around (on all sides). Literally, "let no man think around thee" (and so despise thee). In #1Ti 4:12 it is kataphroneit" (think down on), a stronger word of scorn, but this one implies the possibility of one making mental circles around one and so "out-thinking" him. The best way for the modern minister to command respect for his "authority" is to do thinking that will deserve it.

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