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    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - TITUS 3

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    3:1 {To be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient} (arcais exousiais hupotassesqai peiqarcein). Remarkable double asyndeton, no kai (and) between the two substantives or the two verbs. Peitharchein (to obey), old verb (from peiqomai, arce), in N.T. only here and #Ac 27:21. {To be ready unto every good work} (pros pan ergon agaqon hetoimous einai). Pauline phrase (#2Co 9:8; 2Ti 2:21; 3:17), here adjective hetoimos (#2Co 9:5), there verb.

    3:2 {To speak evil} (blasfemein). See #Col 3:8; 1Ti 6:4. {Not to be contentious} (amacous einai). "To be non-fighters" (#1Ti 3:3), originally "invincible." {Gentle} (epieikeis). See #1Ti 3:3. {Meekness} (prauteta). Praotˆta. See #Col 3:12.

    3:3 {Aforetime} (pote). "Once" in our unconverted state as in #Eph 2:3. {Foolish} (anoetoi). See #Ro 1:14,21. {Disobedient} (apeitheis). See #Ro 1:30. {Deceived} (planwmenoi). Present passive participle of planaw though the middle is possible. {Divers lusts} (hedonais poikilais). "Pleasures" (hˆdonais from hedomai, old word, in N.T. only here, #Lu 8:14; Jas 4:1,3; 2Pe 2:13). poikilais (old word) is many-colored as in #Mr 1:34; Jas 1:2; 2Ti 3:6, etc. {Living} (diagontes). See #1Ti 3:6 (supply bion). {In malice} (en kakiai). See #Ro 1:29. {Envy} (phthon"i). See #Ro 1:29. {Hateful} (stugˆtoi). Late passive verbal from stuge", to hate. In Philo, only here in N.T. {Hating one another} (misountes allelous). Active sense and natural result of being "hateful."

    3:4 {The kindness} (he crestotes). See #Ro 2:4 for this very word used of God as here. {His love toward man} (he filanqrwpia). "The philanthrophy of God our Savior." Old word from filanqrwpos, for love of mankind, in N.T. only here and #Ac 28:2. {Appeared} (epefane). See #2:11 and here as there the Incarnation of Christ. See #1Ti 1:1 for swter with qeos (God).

    3:5 {Done} (not in the Greek, only the article twn), "not as a result of works those in righteousness which we did." Same idea as in #Ro 3:20f. {According to his mercy he saved us} (kata to autou eleos es"sen). See #Ps 109:26; 1Pe 1:3; Eph 2:4. Effective aorist active indicative of swzw. {Through the washing of regeneration} (dia loutrou palingenesias). Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (#Mt 19:28 with which compare apokatastasia in #Ac 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For loutron, see #Eph 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in #Ro 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it. {And renewing of the Holy Spirit} (kai anakain"se"s pneumatos hagiou). "And renewal by the Holy Spirit" (subjective genitive). For the late word anakainwsis, see #Ro 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men.

    3:6 {Which} (hou). Genitive case by attraction from ho (grammatical gender) to the case of pneumatos hagiou. We do not have grammatical gender (only natural) in English. Hence here we should say "whom," even if it does not go smoothly with execheen (he poured out, second aorist active indicative of ekcew). The reference is to the great Pentecost (#Ac 2:33) as foretold by Joel (#Joe 2:28). {Richly} (plousiws). qen and to each one in his own experience. See #Ro 10:12; 1Ti 6:17.

    3:7 {Being justified by his grace} (dikaiwqentes tei ekeinou cariti). First aorist passive participle of dikaiow and instrumental case of caris as in #Ro 3:24; 5:1. {That we might be made heirs} (hina kleronomoi geneqwmen). Purpose with hina and first aorist passive of ginomai. See #Ro 4:13; 8:17.

    3:8 {The saying} (ho logos). In verses #4-7. {I will} (boulomai). See #1Ti 2:8. {That thou affirm confidently} (se diabebaiousthai). Indirect command. For the verb see #1Ti 1:7. {That they may be careful} (hina frontizwsin). Sub-final use of hina with present active subjunctive of phrontiz", old verb, only here in N.T. {To maintain good works} (kalwn ergwn pro‹stasqai). Present middle infinitive of proistemi, intransitive use, to stand before, to take the lead in, to care for. Paul is anxious that "believers" may take the lead in good works.

    3:9 {Fightings about the law} (macas nomikas). "Legal battles." See #1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 2:23. Wordy fights about Mosaic and Pharisaic and Gnostic regulations. {Shun} (periistaso). Present middle imperative of periistemi, intransitive, step around, stand aside (#2Ti 2:16). Common in this sense in the literary _Koin‚_. {Unprofitable} (anwfeleis). Old compound adjective (a privative and ofelos), in N.T. only here and #Heb 7:18.

    3:10 {Heretical} (hairetikon). Old adjective from hairesis (haireomai, to choose), a choosing of a party (sect, #Ac 5:17) or of teaching (#2Pe 2:1). Possibly a schism had been started here in Crete. {Refuse} (paraitou). Present middle imperative of paraitew, to ask from, to beg off from. See same form in #1Ti 4:7; 5:11. Possibly an allusion here to Christ's directions in #Mt 18:15-17.

    3:11 {Is perverted} (exestraptai). Perfect passive indicative of ekstreph", old word to turn inside out, to twist, to pervert. Only here in N.T. {Self-condemned} (autokatakritos). Only known example of this double compound verbal adjective (autos, kata, krinw).

    3:12 {When I shall send} (hotan pempsw). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the first aorist active subjunctive (or future indicative) of pempw (same form). {Artemas} (Arteman). Perhaps abbreviation of Artemidorus. Nothing more is known of him. {Or Tychicus} (e Tuchikon). Paul's well-known disciple (#Col 4:7; Eph 6:21; 2Ti 4:12). {To Nicopolis} (eis Nikopolin). Probably in Epirus, a good place for work in Dalmatia (#2Ti 4:10). {I have determined} (kekrika). Perfect active indicative. I have decided. {To winter there} (ekei paraceimasai). First aorist active infinitive of paraceimazw, a literary _Koin‚_ word for which see #Ac 27:12; 1Co 16:6.

    3:13 {Zenas the lawyer} (Zenan ton nomikon). Possibly abbreviation of Zenodorus and may be one of the bearers of the epistle with Apollos. Probably an expert in the Mosaic law as the word means in the Gospels. A converted Jewish lawyer. The Latin term is _jurisconsultum_ for nomikon. {Apollos} (apollwn). Paul's friend (#Ac 18:24-19:1; 1Co 1:12ff.). {Set forward} (propempson). First aorist active imperative of propempw, old verb, to send on ahead (#1Co 16:6,11; Ro 15:24). {That nothing be wanting unto them} (hina meden autois leipei). Purpose with hina and present (or second aorist lipˆi, some MSS.) subjunctive of leipw, old verb to leave, to remain, to lack. With dative case here (autois).

    3:14 {Our people} (hoi hemeteroi). "Our folks." The Cretan converts, not just Paul's friends. {Let learn} (manqanetwsan). Present active imperative, keep on learning how. {To maintain} (pro‹stasqai). See verse #8. {For necessary uses} (eis anagkaias creias). "For necessary wants." No idlers wanted. See #1Th 4:12; 2Th 3:10f. {Unfruitful} (akarpoi). See #1Co 14:14; Eph 5:11.

    3:15 {That love us} (tous filountas hemas). Paul craved the love of his friends as opposed to #2:8.

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