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    1 SAMUEL 14

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    1 Jonathan goes and miraculously smites the Philistine's garrison. 15 A divine terror makes them beat themselves. 17 Saul, not staying the priest's answer, sets on them. 21 The captivated Hebrews, and the hidden Israelites, join against them. 24 Saul's unadvised adjuration hinders the victory. 31 He restrains the people from eating blood. 35 He builds an altar. 37 Jonathan, taken by lot, is save by the people. 47 Saul's victories, strength, and family. VERSE 1 - A.M. 2917. B.C. 1087. An. Ex. Is. 404. it came to pass upon a day. or, there was a day. Jonathan. * :39-45; 13:2,22; 18:1-4 2Sa 1:4,5,25,26 - he told not. * 1Sa 25:19 Jud 6:27; 14:6 Mic 7:5 VERSE 2 - in the uttermost. * 1Sa 13:15,16 Isa 10:28,29 - a pomegranate. The word {rimmon,} in Arabic {romman,} whence the Portuguese {romaa,} denotes the pomegranate, both tree and fruit; called by naturalists {malus punica} or {malo-granatum.} It is, according to the Linnean system, a genus of the {icosandria monogynia} class of plants; and is a low tree, growing very common in Palestine, and other parts of the East. It has several small angular boughs, very thick and bushy, covered with a reddish bark, and some of them armed with sharp thorns. They are garnished with small, narrow, spear-shaped leaves, like those of the myrtle, but not so sharp, of a green color, inclining to red. Its blossoms are large, beautiful, of an elegant red color, inclining to purple, composed of several stalks resembling a rose, in the hollow of the cup: this cup is oblong, hard, purple, having a figure somewhat like that of a bell. It is chiefly valued for its fruit, which is exceedingly beautiful, of the form and size of a large apple, with a reddish rind, and red within; being full of small kernels, with red grains, replenished with a generous liquor, of which, Sir John Chardin informs us, they still make considerable quantities of wine in the East, particularly in Persia. But as the pomegranate tree, from its low growth, is but little adapted for pitching a tent under, it is probable that Rimmon here is the name of the rock mentioned in Jud 45 20:45. VERSE 3 - Ahiah. * 1Sa 22:9-12,20 - called Ahimelech. I-chabod's. * 1Sa 4:21 - wearing. * 1Sa 2:28 Ex 28:26-32 VERSE 4 - the passages. * 1Sa 13:23 VERSE 5 - forefront. Heb. tooth. * :4 - Bozez. i.e., shining. Seneh. i.e., a bush or tooth. VERSE 6 - Come. This action of Jonathan's was totally contrary to the laws of war; no military operation should be undertaken without the knowledge and command of the general. But it is highly probable, that this gallant man was led to undertake the hazardous enterprise by an immediate divine impulse; and by the same influence was kept from informing the soldiers, and even from consulting his father, who might have opposed his design. - uncircumcised. * 1Sa 17:26,36 Ge 17:7-11 Jud 15:18 2Sa 1:20 Jer 9:23,26 * Eph 2:11,12 Php 3:3 - it may be. * 2Sa 16:12 2Ki 19:4 Am 5:15 Zep 2:3 - for there is no restraint. Where there is a promise of defense and support, the weakest, in the face of the strongest enemy, may rely upon it with the utmost confidence. * De 32:30 Jud 7:4-7 2Ch 14:11 Ps 115:1-3 Zec 4:6 Mt 19:26 * Ro 8:31 VERSE 7 - Do all. * 1Sa 10:7 2Sa 7:3 Ps 46:7 Zec 8:23 VERSE 8 - we will pass. * Jud 7:9-14 VERSE 9 - they. * Ge 24:13,14 Jud 6:36-40 - Tarry. Heb. Be still. VERSE 10 - this shall be a sign. * 1Sa 10:7 Ge 24:14 Jud 7:11 Isa 7:11-14 VERSE 11 - out of the holes. * :22; 13:6 Jud 6:2 VERSE 12 - Come up to us. Meaning, that they would cause them to repent of their audacity. This was the favorable sign which Jonathan had requested. * :10; 17:43,44 2Sa 2:14-17 2Ki 14:8 - Come up after me. * Ge 24:26,27,42,48 Jud 4:14; 7:15 2Sa 5:24 VERSE 13 - climbed up. * Ps 18:29 Heb 11:34 - fell. * Le 26:7,8 De 28:7; 32:30 Jos 23:10 Ro 8:31 VERSE 14 - an half acre of land. or, half a furrow of an acre of land. The original is obscure and variously understood; but it is probably a proverbial expression for a small space. * :14 VERSE 15 - there was trembling. * Jos 2:9 Jud 7:21 2Ki 7:6,7 Job 18:11 Ps 14:5 - the spoilers. * 1Sa 13:17,23 - the earth quaked. * Ex 19:18 Mt 24:6; 27:50,51 - very great trembling. Heb. trembling of God. * Ge 35:5 Le 26:36,37 2Sa 5:24 Da 5:6 God will in some way or other direct the steps of those who acknowledge him in all their ways, and seek unto him for direction with full purpose of heart. Sometimes we find most comfort in that which is least our own doing, and into which we have been led by the unexpected, but well observed, turns of Providence. VERSE 16 - melted away. * Ps 58:7; 68:2 - beating down. * :20 Jud 7:22 2Ch 20:22-25 Isa 19:2 VERSE 17 VERSE 18 - Bring hither. The Septuagint reads [ .] "Bring hither the ephod; for he bore the ephod on that day before Israel:" which Houbigant and others think is the true reading. Finding that his son Jonathan and his armor-bearer were absent, Saul wished to consult the high-priest; but the tumult increasing, he says to him, "Withdraw thine hand:" i.e., desist form consulting the ephod on the present occasion, and immediately hastened to make the best use he could of this astonishing victory. * 1Sa 4:3-5; 30:8 Nu 27:21 Jud 20:18,23,27,28 2Sa 11:11; 15:24-26 - For the ark. * 1Sa 5:2; 7:1 VERSE 19 - noise. or, tumult. Withdraw. * :24; 13:11 Jos 9:14 Ps 106:13 Isa 28:16 VERSE 20 - assembled themselves. Heb. were cried together. every man's. * :16 Jud 7:22 2Ch 20:23 Isa 9:19-21; 19:2 VERSE 21 - the Hebrews. Probably such as they held in bondage, or who were their servants. Instead of (h„ivrim,} "the Hebrews," the LXX. evidently read {haƒvdim,} for they have [ ,] "the slaves;" but this reading is not countenanced by any other version, nor by any MS. * 1Sa 29:4 Jud 7:23 VERSE 22 - hid themselves. * 1Sa 13:6; 31:7 - the battle. The LXX. and Vulgate add here, [ ,] {Et erant cum Saul, quasi decem millia virorum.} "And [all the people who were, LXX.] there were with Saul about ten thousand men;" but this is supported by no other authority. VERSE 23 - the Lord. * Ex 14:30 Jud 2:18 2Ki 14:27 Ps 44:6-8 Ho 1:7 - Beth-aven. * 1Sa 13:5 VERSE 24 - Cursed. * :27-30 Le 27:29 Nu 21:2 De 27:15-26 Jos 6:17-19,26 Jud 11:30 * Jud 11:31; 21:1-5 Pr 11:9 Ro 10:2 1Co 16:22 - I may be. * Jud 5:2; 1:28 Ps 18:47 VERSE 25 - all they. * De 9:28 Mt 3:5 - honey. This was wild honey, which to this day abounds in Judea; and bursting from the comb, runs down the hollow trees, rocks, etc. * Ex 3:8 Nu 13:27 Mt 3:4 VERSE 26 - the people. * Ec 9:2 VERSE 27 - his eyes. * :29; 30:12 Pr 25:26 VERSE 28 - Cursed. See on ver. * :24,43 - faint. or, weary. VERSE 29 - My father. * 1Ki 18:18 - see. It is well known, that hunger and fatigue produce faintness and dim the sight; and on taking a little food, this affection is immediately removed. VERSE 30 - had there. * Ec 9:18 VERSE 31 - from Michmash. The distance, Calmet states to be three or four leagues. - Aijalon. * Jos 10:12; 19:42 VERSE 32 - flew. * 1Sa 15:19 - the people. The people having abstained from food the whole of the day, and being now faint through hunger and fatigue, they flew upon the cattle, and not taking time to bleed them properly, they eagerly devoured the flesh with the blood, directly contrary to the law--another bad effect of Saul's rash adjuration. - did eat. * Ge 9:4 Le 3:17; 7:26,27; 17:10-14; 19:26 De 12:16,23,24 * Eze 33:25 Ac 15:20,29 VERSE 33 - transgressed. or, dealt treacherously. * Mt 7:5 Ro 2:1 VERSE 34 - with him. Heb. in his hand. * :34 VERSE 35 - built. It is probable that Saul converted the great stone, on which the cattle had been slaughtered, into an altar, on which sacrifices were offered, before the people attempted to proceed any further. This we are told was the first he had built. Samuel, as a prophet and priest, had hitherto erected the altars, but Saul seems to have thought he had sufficient authority to erect one himself, without the prophet, as he had once offered sacrifice without him. * 1Sa 7:9,17 Jud 21:4 Ho 8:14 2Ti 3:5 - the same, etc. Heb. that altar he began to build unto the Lord. VERSE 36 - Let us go. * Jos 10:9-14,19 Jer 6:5 - let us not leave. * 1Sa 11:11 Jos 11:14 - Then said the priest. It is evident that Ahiah, who had before been interrupted by Saul's impatience, doubted of the propriety of pursuing the Philistines that night, and properly counselled them to enquire of the Lord. * Nu 27:21 Ps 73:28 Isa 48:1,2; 58:2 Mal 2:7 Jas 8 4:8 VERSE 37 - Shall I go. * 1Sa 23:4,9-12; 30:7,8 Jud 1:1; 20:18,28 2Sa 5:19,23 1Ki 22:5,15 - he answered. * 1Sa 28:6 Eze 14:3-5; 20:3 VERSE 38 - Draw ye near. * 1Sa 10:19,20 Jos 7:14-26 - chief. Heb. corners. * Nu 24:17 Jud 20:2 2Sa 18:3 Ps 47:9 Zec 10:4 Mt 21:42 Eph 2:20 VERSE 39 * :24,44; 19:6; 20:31; 22:16; 28:10 2Sa 12:5 Ec 9:2 VERSE 40 - Do what seemeth. * :7,36 2Sa 15:15 VERSE 41 - Therefore. Both the Septuagint and Vulgate add much to this verse: [ .] {Et dixit Saul ad Dominum Deum Israel; Domine Deus Israel da indicium: quid est quod non responderis servo tuo hodie? Si in me, aut in Jonatha filio meo est iniquitas haec, da ostensionem: aut si haec iniquitas est in populo tuo, da sanctitatem, etc.} "And Saul said [to the Lord God of Israel, Vulg.] Lord God of Israel [give a sign, Vulg.] Why is it that thou has not answered thy servant to-day? If the iniquity be in me, or in my son Jonathan, [O Lord God of Israel, LXX.] make it manifest; and if thou say thus, give to thy people Israel, give mercy," etc., [but Vulg. Or, if this iniquity be in thy people, give sanctification," etc.] - Give a perfect lot. or, Shew the innocent. * Pr 16:33 Ac 1:24 - And Saul. * 1Sa 10:20,21 Jos 7:16-18 Jon 1:7 - escaped. Heb. went forth. VERSE 42 VERSE 43 - Tell me. * Jos 7:19 Jon 1:7-10 - I did but. * :27 VERSE 44 - God. * 1Sa 25:22 Ru 1:17 2Sa 3:9; 19:13 - thou shalt. See on ver. * :39 Ge 38:24 2Sa 12:5,31 Pr 25:16 VERSE 45 - who hath. * :23; 19:5 Ne 9:27 - there shall not. The people judged rightly, that the guilt was contracted by Saul, and not by Jonathan; and therefore they rescued him from the hands of his rash and severe father. * 2Sa 14:11 1Ki 1:52 Mt 10:30 Lu 21:18 Ac 27:34 - he hath. * 2Ch 19:11 Isa 13:3 Ac 14:27; 15:12; 21:19 Ro 15:18 1Co 3:9 * 2Co 6:1 Php 2:12,13 Re 17:14; 19:14 - the people. * Isa 29:20,21 VERSE 46 VERSE 47 - Saul. * 1Sa 13:1 - fought. * 2Ki 14:27 - Ammon. * 1Sa 11:11; 12:2 - Zobah. * 2Sa 10:6 1Ki 11:23 VERSE 48 - gathered an host. or, wrought mightily. smote. * 1Sa 15:3-7 Ex 17:14 De 25:19 VERSE 49 - Jonathan. * 1Sa 31:2 1Ch 8:33; 9:39 - name of the first-born. * 1Sa 18:7-21; 25:44 2Sa 3:13-16; 6:20-23 VERSE 50 - the name of the captain. * 1Sa 17:55 2Sa 2:8; 3:27 - Abner. Heb. Abiner. VERSE 51 - Kish. * 1Sa 9:1,21 VERSE 52 - when Saul. * 1Sa 8:1,11 GOTO NEXT CHAPTER - TREASURY OF SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE INDEX

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