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    1. Forbear (stegontev). Lit. no longer forbearing. See on 1 Corinthians ix. 12; LXX, Sir. viii. 17. For Class. parall. Soph. O. C. 15; Elec. 1118; Eurip. Hippol. 844; Ion 1412. He means that his longing for some personal communication from the Thessalonians became intolerable.

    To be left - alone (kataleifqhnai - monoi). Implying, as we sent (ver. 2) and I sent (ver. 5), the previous presence of Timothy with him at Athens.

    2. Our brother. Comp. 2 Cor. i. 1; Col. i. 1; Philemon 1; Rom. xvi. 23; 1 Cor. i. 1; xvi. 12.

    Minister (diakonon). See on Matt. xx. 26; Mark ix. 35. Not in the official sense of deacon which occurs only in the Pastorals. Diakonov minister and diakonia ministry or service are common expressions of service to Christ or to men. Paul habitually uses them in this way. See Acts i. 25; vi. 4. Diakonoi is used of ministers of Satan, 2 Corinthians xi. 15, and diakonov of the civil magistrate, Romons xiii. 4. See Introduction to the Pastoral Epistles. 23 Fellow laborer. Omit from text. 24 To establish (sthrixai). See on Luke xxii. 32; Introd. to Catholic Epistles, Vol. 1, p. 625; 1 Pet. v. 10; 2 Pet. i. 12.

    3. Moved (sainesqai). N.T.o o LXX. In Class., as early as Homer, of dogs; to wag the tail, fawn (Hom. Od. x. 217; xvi. 6). Hence of persons, to fawn or cringe. The word is apparently used here in the original sense, to be shaken. 25 We are appointed (keimeqa). As Luke ii. 34 (see note); Philip. i. 17. Comp. Acts xiv. 22, in which occur four of the words used here. For the thought, see Matt. v. 10; x. 17; xvi. 24; 1 Pet. ii. 21 ff.; iv. 12; 2 Timothy iii. 12.

    5. The tempter (o peirazwn). Only here and Matt. iv. 3. LXX. See on Matt. vi. 13.

    In vain (eiv kenon). The phrase only in Paul. See 2 Cor. vi. 1; Gal. ii. 2; Philip. ii. 16. The force of the preposition is fairly represented by to in the phrase to no purpose. LXX has eijv kenon, eijv to kenon, and eijv kena.

    6. Now (arti). See on John xiii. 33. Const. with we were comforted (ver. 7), not with came.

    Good remembrance (mneian agaqhn). Better kindly remembrance. Comp. Rom. v. 7 (see note); vii. 12; Tit. ii. 6; 1 Pet. ii. 18. See on ch. i. 3.

    7. Affliction (anagkh). Rev. distress. The derivation from agxein to press tightly, to choke (Lightfoot, Ellicott) is doubtful. In the sense of urgency, distress, seldom in Class. See 1 Cor. vii. 26; 2 Corinthians vi. 4; xii. 10; Luke xxi. 23.

    8. Stand fast (sthkete). The sense of firm standing is derived from the context, and does not inhere in the word. In Mark iii. 31; xi. 25, it means simply to stand. Comp. Philip. iv. 1. It does not occur earlier than N.T.

    10. Exceedingly (uperekperissou). Comp. Eph. iii. 20. Paul is fond of compounds with uJper above. Of the 28 N.T. words compounded with uJper, 22 are found in Paul, and 20 of them only there.

    Perfect (katartisai). Primarily, to adjust, fit together; so mend, Matt. iv. 21. Of the creation of the world, Heb. xi. 3. See on Matt. xxi. 16; Luke vi. 40; 1 Pet. v. 10; Rom. ix. 22.

    11. Direct (kateuqunai). Lit. make straight. Only in Paul and Luke. See on Luke i. 79, and comp. 2 Thess. iii. 5. Frequent in LXX.

    13. With all his saints (meta pantwn twn agiwn autou). Saints is often explained as angels; but the meaning is the holy and glorified people of God. OiJ agioi is uniformly used of these in N.T. and never of angels unless joined with aggeloi. See Luke ix. 26; Mark viii. 38; Acts x. 22. It is doubtful if oiJ agioi is used of angels in LXX. Zech. xiv. 5, which is confidently cited as an instance, is quoted at the conclusion of the Didache (xvi. 7), clearly with the sense of glorified believers. %Agioi aggeloi appears Tob. xi. 14; xii. 15; Job v. 1. Angels has no connection with anything in this Epistle, but glorified believers is closely connected with the matter which was troubling the Thessalonians. See ch. iv. 13. This does not exclude the attendance of angels on the Lord's coming (see Mark viii. 38; Luke ix. 26), but when Paul speaks of such attendance, as 2 Thessalonians i. 7, he says, with the angels (aggelwn) of his power.


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