XXV Their disobedience to the prophets reproved, ver. 1-7. The seventy years of captivity foretold, ver. 8-11. and after that the destruction of Babylon, ver. 12-14. By a cup of wine is foreshewn the destruction of all nations, ver. 15-33. The howling of the shepherds, ver. 34-38.
Verse 9. Nebuchadnezzar - In this work shall be my servant; though you will not be my servants in obeying my commands.
Verse 10. Moreover - Nay, I will not only deprive you of your mirth, but of those things that are necessary for you, as necessary as bread and light, the millstone shall not move, you shall not have the light so much as of a candle.
Verse 12. Accomplished - Counted from the time that the Jews were carried away in the time of Jeconiah or Jehoiakim, 2 Kings xxiv, 15, 16. Desolations - This was fulfilled by Darius, the king of Persia, Dan. iv, 31, of these seventy Nebuchadnezzar reigned thirty six, 2 Kings xxv, 27. Evil-merodach thirty two, and Belshazzar at least two, Dan. viii, 1.
Verse 15. The cup - God made Jeremiah to see the appearance of such a cup in a vision.
Verse 20. Of Uz - Some part of Arabia Petraea, near to Idumaea. Of the Philistines - Uzzah, Ekron, Ashdod, and Askelon, were four of their cities, the fifth which was Gath is not here named. For before this time it was destroyed, either by Psammeticus, father to Pharaoh Necho, or by Tartan, captain general to Sargon, king of Assyria, of whom read, Isaiah xx, 1, that he took Ashdod, which may be the reason that here mention is made of no more than the remnant of Ashdod.
Verse 22. Beyond the sea - Probably those parts of Syria that coasted upon the mid-land sea.
Verse 23. Tema - Tema descended from Ishmael, Gen. xxv, 15, his posterity inhabited in Arabia, Isaiah xxi, 13, 14, where they are joined with those of Dedan. Buz - Buz was one of the posterity of Nahor, Gen. xxii, 21. These were people mixed with the Saracens or Arabians.
Verse 25. Zimri - Those descended from Zimran, Abraham's son by Keturah, Gen. xxv, 2. Elam - The Persians. The Medes - The Medes came from Madai the son of Japhet.
Verse 26. The north - All under the government of the Chaldeans. Of Sheshach - And the king of Babylon, who was last of all to drink of this cup of the Lord's fury.
Verse 34. Shepherds - Shepherds and the principal of the flock, in this place mean civil rulers. A pleasant vessel - Like a crystal glass, or some delicate vessel, which breaks in pieces and cannot again be set together.
Verse 38. Because - The effects of this rising up of God out of his covert is the desolation of the land through the fierceness of the enemy, caused by the fierce anger of God.