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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    PSALMS 141

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    PSALM CXLI

    The psalmist prays that his devotions may be accepted, 1, 2. That he may be enabled so to watch that he do not offend with his tongue; and that he may be preserved from wickedness, 3, 4. His willingness to receive reproof, 5. He complains of disasters, 6, 7. His trust in God, and prayer against his enemies, 8-10.

    NOTES ON PSALM CXLI

    This Psalms is generally attributed to David, and considered to have been composed during his persecution by Saul. Some suppose that he made it at the time that he formed the resolution to go to Achish, king of Gath; see 1 Sam. xxvi. It is generally thought to be an evening prayer, and has long been used as such in the service of the Greek Church. It is in several places very obscure.

    Verse 1. "Lord, I cry unto thee " - Many of David's Psalms begin with complaints; but they are not those of habitual plaint and peevishness. He was in frequent troubles and difficulties, and he always sought help in God. He ever appears in earnest; at no time is there any evidence that the devotion of David was formal. He prayed, meditated, supplicated, groaned, cried, and even roared, as he tells us, for the disquietude of his soul. He had speedy answers; for he had much faith, and was always in earnest.

    Verse 2. "As incense " - Incense was offered every morning and evening before the Lord, on the golden altar, before the veil of the sanctuary. Exod. xxix. 39, and Num. xxviii. 4.

    "As the evening sacrifice. " - This was a burnt-offering, accompanied with flour and salt. But it does not appear that David refers to any sacrifice, for he uses not jbz zebach, which is almost universally used for a slaughtered animal; but hjnm minchah, which is generally taken for a gratitude- offering or unbloody sacrifice. The literal translation of the passage is, "Let my prayer be established for incense before thy faces; and the lifting up of my hands for the evening oblation." The psalmist appears to have been at this time at a distance from the sanctuary, and therefore could not perform the Divine worship in the way prescribed by the law.

    What could he do? Why, as he could not worship according to the letter of the law, he will worship God according to the spirit; then prayer is accepted in the place of incense; and the lifting up of his hands, in gratitude and self-dedication to God, is accepted in the place of the evening minchah or oblation. Who can deplore the necessity that obliged the psalmist to worship God in this way?

    Verse 3. "Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth " - While there are so many spies on my actions and words, I have need to be doubly guarded, that my enemies may have no advantage against me. Some think the prayer is against impatience; but if he were now going to Gath, it is more natural to suppose that he was praying to be preserved from dishonouring the truth, and from making sinful concessions in a heathen land; and at a court where, from his circumstances, it was natural to suppose he might be tempted to apostasy by the heathen party. The following verse seems to support this opinion.

    Verse 4. "Let me eat not of their dainties. " - This may refer either to eating things forbidden by the law; or to the partaking in banquets or feasts in honour of idols.

    Verse 5. "Let the righteous smite me " - This verse is extremely difficult in the original. The following translation, in which the Syriac, Vulgate, Septuagint, AEthiopic, and Arabic nearly agree, appears to me to be the best: "Let the righteous chastise me in mercy, and instruct me: but let not the oil of the wicked anoint my head. It shall not adorn ( yny yani, from hwn navah) my head; for still my prayer shall be against their wicked works." The oil of the wicked may here mean his smooth flattering speeches; and the psalmist intimates that he would rather suffer the cutting reproof of the righteous than the oily talk of the flatterer. If this were the case, how few are there now-a-days of his mind! On referring to Bishop Horsley, I find his translation is something similar to my own: - Let the just one smite me, let the pious remove me.

    Let not the ointment of the impious anoint my head.

    But still I will intrude in their calamities.

    Verse 6. "When their judges are overthrown in stony places " - [ls ydyb biyedey sela, "In the hands of the rock." Does this rock signify a strong or fortified place; and its hands the garrison which have occupied it, by whom these judges were overthrown? If we knew the occasion on which this Psalm was made, we might be the better able to understand the allusions in the text.

    "They shall hear my words; for they are sweet. " - Some think there is here an allusion to David's generous treatment of Saul in the cave of En-gedi, and afterwards at the hill of Hachilah, in this verse, which might be translated: "Their judges have been dismissed in the rocky places; and have heard my words, that they were sweet." Or perhaps there may be a reference to the death of Saul and his sons, and the very disastrous defeat of the Israelites at Gilboa. If so, the seventh verse will lose its chief difficulty, Our bones are scattered at the grave's mouth; but if we take them as referring to the slaughter of the priests at Nob, then, in stead of translating lwać ypl lephi sheol, at the grave's mouth, we may translate at the command of Saul; and then the verse will point out the manner in which those servants of the Lord were massacred; Doeg cut them in pieces; hewed them down as one cleaveth wood. Some understand all this of the cruel usage of the captives in Babylon. I could add other conjectures, and contend for my own; but they are all too vague to form a just ground for decided opinion.

    Verse 8. "But mine eyes are unto thee " - In all times, in all places, on all occasions, I will cleave unto the Lord, and put my whole confidence in him.

    Verse 10. "Let the wicked fall into their own nets " - This is generally the case; those who lay snares for others fall into them themselves. Harm watch, harm catch, says the old adage. How many cases have occurred where the spring guns that have been set for thieves have shot some of the family! I have known some dismal cases of this kind, where some of the most amiable lives have been sacrificed to this accursed machine.

    "Whilst-I withal escape. " - They alone are guilty; they alone spread the nets and gins; I am innocent, and God will cause me to escape.

    ANALYSIS OF THE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIRST PSALM

    "The contents and sum of the Psalm are the following: " - I. His prayer, ver. 1, 2.

    II. That God would restrain his tongue, and compose his mind, that through anger or impatience he offend not, ver. 3, 4.

    III. He prays that if he must be reproved, it be by the just, not the unjust man, ver. 5; whose judgment he declares, ver. 5, 6, and will not have any society with him.

    IV. He shows the malice of the wicked to good men, ver. 6, 7.

    V. He puts his trust in God, and prays to be delivered from snares, ver. 8-10.

    I. 1. "Lord, I cry unto thee," &c. Speedily hear my prayer, which is fervently and affectionately addressed to thee.

    2. "Let my prayer be set forth before thee," &c. Which was offered with the sacrifice. Why does David pray that his prayer might be accepted as the evening rather than the morning sacrifice? Perhaps the evening sacrifice might be more noble, as a figure of Christ's sacrifice on the cross, which was in the evening.

    II. His second petition is, that God would restrain his tongue, that he might know when to speak and when to be silent. The metaphor is taken from the watch and gate of a city, which, to be safely kept, no one must be suffered to go in or out that ought not. The gate will not be sufficient without the watch; for it will be always shut, or ever open.

    His third petition is for his heart, because it is deceitful above all things.

    Man is weak without the grace of God.

    1. "Incline not my heart," &c. Suffer it not to be bent, or set on any evil thing.

    2. "Incline not my heart to practices," &c. To do iniquity, being invited by their example.

    3. "Let me not eat," &c. Partake with them in their feasts, doctrines, feigned sanctity, power, riches, or dignities.

    III. His fourth petition is, that if reproved, it may be in the kindness of friendship, not revenge or bitterness.

    1. "Let the righteous smite me," &c. Smite with a reproof.

    2. "It shall be a kindness," &c. I shall account it an act of charity, and I will love him for it.

    3. "And let him reprove me," &c. An excellent oil, to heal my wounds of sin.

    IV. His next petition he prefaces thus: "Let my prayer," &c. "When their judges are overthrown," &c., refers to the judicature: the chief seats, authorities, &c., are swallowed up, as men are by the sea; as the ship is dashed against the rock, and broken to pieces.

    And this sense the following verse will justify: "Our bones are scattered," &c. They beset me and my company so closely, that we despair of life; and our bones must be scattered here and there in the wilderness, except thou, O Lord, succour us.

    V. Therefore he presents his last petition, which has two parts. 1. "But mine eyes are unto thee," &c. 2. "Leave not my soul destitute." 1. For his own safety: "Leave not my soul," &c. Let me not fall into their hands.

    2. Which prayer is grounded on his confidence in God: "Mine eyes are unto thee," &c. I depend on and look to thee alone for deliverance.

    3. "Keep me from the snares," &c. From their frauds and ambushes.

    Lastly, he imprecates confusion on the heads of his enemies.

    1. "Let the wicked fall," &c.

    2. "Whilst that I withal escape." Pass by or through them unhurt.

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