Verse 10. "Thine Holy One " - This is in the plural number, ūydysj chasideycha, thy Holy Ones; but none of the versions translate it in the plural; and as it is in the singular number, ūdysj chasidecha, in several ancient editions, among which is the Complutensian Polyglot, and no less than two hundred and sixty-four of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS., and in the quotation by St. Peter, in Acts ii. 27; xiii. 35, we may take it for granted that the present reading is a corruption; or that ūydysj is an emphatic singular.
As to leaving the soul In hell, it can only mean permitting the life of the Messiah to continue under the power of death; for lwa sheol signifies a pit, a ditch, the grave, or state of the dead. See the notes on the parallel places, Acts ii. 25, &c.
"See corruption. " - All human beings see corruption, because born in sin, and liable to the curse. The human body of Jesus Christ, as being without sin, saw no corruption.
Verse 11. "Thou wilt show me the path of life " - I first shall find the way out of the regions of death, to die no more. Thus Christ was the first fruits of them that slept. Several had before risen from the dead, but they died again. Jesus rose from the dead, and is alive for evermore. Jesus Christ's resurrection from the dead was the first entrance out of the grave to eternal life or lives, µyyj chaiyim, for the word is in the plural, and with great propriety too, as this resurrection implies the life of the body, and the life of the rational soul also.
"In thy presence " - ūynp paneycha, thy faces. Every holy soul has, throughout eternity, the beatific vision, i.e., "it sees God as he is," because it is like him; 1 John iii. 2. It drinks in beatification from the presence of the Eternal TRINITY.
"Thy right hand " - The place of honour and dignity; repeatedly used in this sense in the Scriptures.
Pleasures for evermore. ] jxn netzach, onwardly; perpetually, continually, well expressed by our translation, ever and more; an eternal progression. Think of duration in the most extended and unlimited manner, and there is still more; more to be suffered in hell, and more to be enjoyed in heaven. Great God! grant that my readers may have this beatific sight; this eternal progression in unadulterated, unchangeable, and unlimited happiness! Hear this prayer for His sake, who found out the path of life, and who by his blood purchased an entrance into the holiest! Amen and Amen.
For the application of the whole Psalm to David, see the analysis at the end, which is a little altered from David's Harp Strung and Tuned.
The remains of this Psalmin the old Psalter are worthy to be inserted: -
Ver. 7. Benedicam Dominum qui tribuit michi intellectum, &e.
Trans. "I sal blis the Lord that gaf til me undirstandyng; and over that til the nyght, suyled me my neres." Par. That es I sal luf the fader that hafs gyfen undyrstandyng til my servauntes, thurgh the qwilk the herytage of heven may be sene and welded; and aver that undyrstandyng, in the qwilk I saw, sais Crist, al sothefast thynges and haly. Of that I sal lof him that my nerys that es the Jewis of qwas kynd I toke flesch, that es my kyn snybbed me in wranges and temptaciounis, and passiouns, til the nyght, that es al the dede thai missaid hym, als so oure nerys; that es our fleschely delytes makes us worthy snybbyng til our dede; for perfytely may we noght be with outen syn, qwyles we lyf.
Ver. 8. Providebam Dominum in conspectu meo, &c.
Trans. "I pervaide God ay in my syght; for he es at the ryght hand til me, that I be nout styrred." Par. And in al thys anguys I for gatt nout God: bot I pervayde hym ay in my syght; that es, I comande o mang passand thynges: I toke nout my nee fra hym that ay es; bot I fested it in hym, so that he was ay in my sight, and he es nout fyled in synnes that assyduely with the ee of his thoght, byhaldes God, for he es at the ryght hand of me: that I be noght styred; that es, he helps me in desyre of endless gudes, that I last stabil in hym, and for thi nane il thyng may haf mayster of me.
Ver. 9. Propter hoc, elatum, est cor meum, et exultavit lingua mea, &c.
Trans. "Thar fore gladded es my hert, and my toung joyed over that, and my flesch sal rest in hope." Par. This es ful joy that in hert es resayved, and with toung schewed, and over that joy in hert and mouth, my flesch sal rest in hope of rysyng.
Ver. 10. Quoniam non derelinques in Inferno animam meam, &c.
Trans. "For thow sal noght lefe my Saule in hell, ne thu sal noght gyf thi Halow to se corrupcion." Par. That es at say, the Saule that I haf als veray man, sal noght be left in hell; and my body that thu haloued, sal noght rote. Here men may knaw that this es goddes word; for other mens bodis rotes.
Ver. 11. Notas michi fecisti vias vite, &c.
Trans. "Knawen thu maked til me, the wayes of lyf: thou sal fil me of joy with thi face, delytynges in thi ryghth and in til the end." Par. Knawen thu maked thurgh me till myne, the wayes of lyf, that es the wayes of mekenes and charite, that men came til heven thurgh mekenes, fra qwethyn thai fel thurgh Pryde: and thow sal ful fil me; that es, my servaundes, of joy with thi face; that es, in the syght of the, apertly; so that thai desyre nothing over, qwen thai af sene the, face til face, and ay til than delytynges til tham in way of this lyf. In thi ryght hand; that es thi favoure, and thi mercy the qwilk delytyngs ledys tham intil the ende, that es, in til perfectioun of endeles Blisfulhede.
I have given the whole of the translation and comment of this Psalm from this ancient Psalter, as a curious specimen of the doctrine and language of our northern neighbours in the thirteenth or fourteenth century.
ANALYSIS OF THE SIXTEENTH PSALM
Michtatn David: David's precious jewel, or Psalm of gold; literally to be understood of David, but primarily and principally of Christ, Acts ii., whom he calls dysj chased, God's Holy One, ver. 10. And foretells his passion, resurrection, and ascension, ver. 9-11.
This Psalm has two parts: i. Petition, ver. 1. ii. Thanksgiving, ver. 7.
I. The petition begins the Psalm. It is for preservation: "Preserve me, O God." Keep me to the kingdom both temporal and eternal that thou hast promised. Guard me; guide me; keep me. To induce the Lord to do this, he produces his reasons: - 1. His confidence: "For in thee I trust." This is a powerful plea, for to trust God is the highest honour we can do him; it acknowledges him as Sovereign.
2. His relation: "O my soul, thou hast said unto the Lord, Thou art my God." 3. For this I would show myself thankful, and return the best of my best. But what can I give, save ta sa ek twn swn, "thy own things from thy own property?" My goods or goodness, my beneficence or bounty, is nothing unto thee. Sacrifice thou needest not, Psa. l. 8, nor art delighted in them: but mercy thou requirest, Hosea, vi. 6.
4. Then I will seek out thy receivers: "Thy saints that are in the earth." The family of the saints were the object of David's bounty, and his delight. But my liberality and charity shall extend to the saints that are in the earth, and unto such as are excellent; "in whom is all my delight." 5. But as for the wicked men and idolaters, I have no delight in them.
These he points out by two characteristics: - 1. They "hasten after another god," or endow another god. They spare no cost, but are lavish in endowing their gods: "Israel, part with thy jewels," &c.
2. They offer their children to Molech: "Their drink- offerings of BLOOD will I not offer." On these accounts: - 1. "Their sorrows shall be multiplied." They shall be grievously punished.
2. I will not participate with them: "Their offerings I will not offer." 3. They are objects of my detestation: "I will not take up their names into my lips." 6. He gives another reason why he should show himself so thallkflll to God and bountiful to his saints-God's great bounty and liberality to him.
1. That God had given him a satisfactory portion: "The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, and of my cup." 2. That God defended him in it: "Thou maintainest my lot." 3. That it was a fair portion: "The lines are fallen to me in pleasant places," &c.
II. The second part of this Psalms is David's THANKSGIVING. It begins with, "I will bless the Lord," ver. 7, not only for the temporal blessings mentioned before, but for the following spiritual blessings: - 1. For the illumination of his mind; that I may understand the thing that is right: "The Lord hath given me counsel." 2. For the sanctifying influence on his heart: "My reins instruct me in the night seasons." When he was most retired he seemed to hear a voice within him, saying, "This is the way; walk in it." 3. For his confidence and watchfulness: "I have set the Lord always before me." I do not forget my God; and he does not forget me.
4. For the consciousness he had of the Divine presence. "The Lord is at my right hand;" always ready to help and support me.
5. For his power to preserve: "I shall not be moved." Satan may stand at my right hand to resist and trouble me; Zech. iii. 1; but God is on my right hand to assist and comfort me; therefore, "I shall not be moved." While David prays and trusts, God supports; and while God supports, Satan cannot conquer.
6. For his inward happiness: "Therefore, my heart is glad." Wicked men rejoice in appearance; but David rejoiced in heart. He was all happy.
His heart, glory, flesh, spirit, soul, body-all were overjoyed; and the reason was the prospect of his resurrection.
1. "My flesh shall rest or dwell in hope." 1. In this world, as in an inn; 2. In the grave. as in a repository; 3. In heaven, as in an endless mansion.
2. "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell." Thou wilt not suffer death to have a final triumph; my flesh shall revive.
3. "Neither wilt thou suffer thy HOLY ONE to see corruption," meaning the Messiah, who should descend from his family. Christ's resurrection is the cause and pledge of ours.
7. He is thankful for the promise of a future life, which is here illustrated: - 1. From the quantity: "Fulness of joy." 2. From the quality: "Pleasures." 3. From the honour: "At thy right hand." 4. From the perpetuity: "For evermore." 5. From the cause: "Thy presence." The sight of God, the beatific vision. "Thou wilt show me the path of life: in thy presence is fullness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore." For the application of the whole Psalm to Christ alone, see the preceding notes.
David implores the succour of God against his enemies; and professes his integrity and determination to live to God's glory, 1. He prays for support, and expresses strong confidence in God, 5-9; describes the malice and cruelty of his enemies, and prays against them, 10-14; receives a strong persuasion of support and final victory, 15.