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    Pa'nta hoo'sper en mega'loo tini' kai' koinoo' tamiei'oo tee' bi'bloo too'n psalmoo'n tetheesau'ristai Basil 1. Position of the Psalter among the Hagiographa, and More Especially among the Poetical Books The Psalter is everywhere regarded as an essential part of the Kethubim or Hagiographa; but its position among these varies. It seems to follow from Luke 24:44 that it opened the Kethubim in the earliest period of the Christina era. (Note: Also from 2 Macc. 2:13, where ta' tou' Daui'd appears to be the designation of the ktwbym according to their beginning; and from Philo, De vita contempl. (opp. II 475 ed.

    Mangey), where he makes the following distinction no'mous kai' lo'gia thespisthe'nta dia' profeetoo'n kai' hu'mnous kai' ta' a'lla ohi's epistee'mee kai' euse'beia sunau'xontai kai' teleiou'ntai.)

    The order of the books in the Hebrew MSS of the German class, upon which our printed editions in general use are based, is actually this:

    Psalms, Proverbs, Job, and the five Megilloth. But the Masora and the MSS of the Spanish class begin the Kethubim with the Chronicles which they awkwardly separate from Ezra and Nehemiah, and then range the Psalms, Job, Proverbs and the five Megilloth next. (Note: In all the Masoretic lists the twenty four books are arranged in the following order: 1) br'shyt; 2) shmwt w'lh; 3) wyqr' ; 4) wydbr (also bmdbr ); 5) hdbrym 'lh; 6) yhwsh`; 7) shwpTym; 8) shmw'l; 9) mlkym; 10) ysh`yh; 11) yrmyh; 12) ychzq'l; 13) `sr try; 14) hymym dbry ; 15) thlwt; 16) 'ywb; 17) mshly; 18) rwt; 19) hshyrym shyr; 20) qhlt; 21) qynwt ('ykh ); 22) 'chshwrwsh (mglh); 23) dny'l; 24) `zr'. The Masoretic abbreviation for the three pre-eminently poetical books is accordingly, not '''mt but (in agreement with their Talmudic order) t'''m (as also in Chajug'), vid., Elia Levita, Masoreth ha-Masoreth p. 19. 73 (ed. Ven. 1538) ed.

    Ginsburg, 1867, p. 120, 248.)

    And according to the Talmud (Baba Bathra 14b) the following is the right order: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs; the Book of Ruth precedes the Psalter as its prologue, for Ruth is the ancestor of him to whom the sacred lyric owes its richest and most flourishing era. It is undoubtedly the most natural order that the Psalter should open the division of the Kethubim, and for this reason: that, according to the stock which forms the basis of it, it represents the time of David, and then afterwards in like manner the Proverbs and Job represent the Chokma-literature of the age of Solomon.

    But it is at once evident that it could have no other place but among the Kethubim.

    The codex of the giving of the Law, which is the foundation of the old covenant and of the nationality of Israel, as also of all its subsequent literature, occupies the first place in the canon. Under the collective title of nby'ym, a series of historical writings of a prophetic character, which trace the history of Israel from the occupation of Canaan to the first gleam of light in the gloomy retributive condition of the Babylonish Exile (Prophetae priores) is first attached to these five books of the Thra; and then a series of strictly prophetical writings by the prophets themselves which extend to the time of Darius Nothus, and indeed to the time of Nehemiah's second sojourn in Jerusalem under this Persian king (Prophetae posteriores). Regarded chronologically, the first series would better correspond to the second if the historical books of the Persian period (Chronicles with Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther) were joined to it; but for a very good reason this has not been done.

    The Israelitish literature has marked out two sharply defined and distinct methods of writing history, viz., the annalistic and the prophetic. The socalled Elohistic and so-called Jehovistic form of historical writing in the Pentateuch might serve as general types of these. The historical books of the Persian period are, however, of the annalistic, not of the prophetic character (although the Chronicles have taken up and incorporated many remnants of the prophetic form of historical writing, and the Books of the Kings, vice vers, many remnants of the annalistic): they could not therefore stand among the Prophetae priores. But with the Book of Ruth it is different. This short book is so like the end of the Book of the Judges (ch. 17-21), that it might very well stand between Judges and Samuel; and it did originally stand after the Book of the Judges, just as the Lamentations of Jeremiah stood after his prophecies.

    It is only on liturgical grounds that they have both been placed with the so-called Megilloth (Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, as they are arranged in our ordinary copies according to the calendar of the festivals). All the remaining books could manifestly only be classed under the third division of the canon, which (as could hardly have been otherwise in connection with twrh and nby'ym) has been entitled, in the most general way, ktwbym-a title which, as the grandson of Ben-Sira renders it in his prologue to Ecclesiasticus, means simply ta' a'lla pa'tria bibli'a , or ta' loipa' too'n bibli'oon , and nothing more. For if it were intended to mean writings, written hqdsh brwch-as the third degree of inspiration which is combined with the greatest spontaneity of spirit, is styled according to the synagogue notion of inspiration-then the words hqdsh brwch would and ought to stand with it. 2. Names of the Psalter At the close of the seventy-second Psalm (v. 20) we find the subscription: "Are ended the prayers of David, the Son of Jesse." The whole of the preceding Psalms are here comprehended under the name t|pilowt .

    This strikes one as strange, because with the exception of Ps 17 (and further on Ps 86; 90; 102; 142) they are all inscribed otherwise; and because in part, as e.g., Ps 1 and 2, they contain no supplicatory address to God and have therefore not the form of prayers. Nevertheless the collective name Tephilloth is suitable to all Psalms. The essence of prayer is a direct and undiverted looking towards God, and the absorption of the mind in the thought of Him. Of this nature of prayer all Psalms partake; even the didactic and laudatory, though containing no supplicatory address-like Hannah's song of praise which is introduced with wttpll (1 Sam 2:1). The title inscribed on the Psalter is t|hiliym (ceeper ) for which tiliym (apocopated tily) is also commonly used, as Hippolytus (ed. de Lagarde p. 188) testifies: Hebrai'oi perie'grapsan tee'n bi'blon Se'fra thelei'm. (Note: In Eusebius, vi. 25: Se'feer Thillee'n; Jerome (in the Preface to his translation of the Psalms juxta Hebraicam veritatem) points it still differently: SEPHAR THALLIM quod interpretatur volumen hymnorum. Accordingly at the end of the Psalterium ex Hebraeo, Cod. 19 in the Convent Library of St. Gall we find the subscription:

    Sephar Tallim Quod interpretatur volumen Ymnorum explicit.)

    This name may also seem strange, for the Psalms for the most part are hardly hymns in the proper sense: the majority are elegiac or didactic; and only a solitary one, Ps 145, is directly inscribed thlh. But even this collective name of the Psalms is admissible, for they all partake of the nature of the hymn, to wit the purpose of the hymn, the glorifying of God. The narrative Psalms praise the magnalia Dei, the plaintive likewise praise Him, since they are directed to Him as the only helper, and close with grateful confidence that He will hear and answer. The verb hileel includes both the Magnificat and the De profundis.

    The language of the Masora gives the preference to the feminine form of the name, instead of thlym, and throughout calls the Psalter thlwt cpr (e.g., on 2 Sam 22:5). (Note: It is an erroneous opinion of Buxtorf in his Tiberias and also of Jewish Masoretes, that the Masora calls the Psalter hlyl' (hallla).

    It is only the so-called Hallel, Ps 113-119, that bears this name, for in the Masora on 2 Sam 22:5; Ps 116:3a is called dhlyl' hbrw (the similar passage in the Hallel) in relation to 18:5a.)

    In the Syriac it is styled ketobo demazmre, in the Koran zabr (not as Golius and Freytag point it, zubr), which in the usage of the Arabic language signifies nothing more than "writing" (synon. kitb: vid., on Ps 3:1), but is perhaps a corruption of mizmor from which a plural mezmir is formed, by a change of vowels, in Jewish-Oriental MSS. In the Old Testament writings a plural of mizamor does not occur. Also in the postbiblical usage mizmorm or mizmoroth is found only in solitary instances as the name for the Psalms. In Hellenistic Greek the corresponding word psalmoi' (from psa'llein = zimeer) is the more common; the Psalm collection is called bi'blos psalmoo'n (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20) or psaltee'rion, the name of the instrument (psanteern in the Book of Daniel) (Note: Na'bla-say Eusebius and others of the Greek Fathers-par' Hebrai'ois le'getai to' psaltee'rion ho' dee' mo'non too'n mousikoo'n orga'noon ortho'taton kai' mee' sunergou'menon eis ee'chon ek too'n katoota'too meroo'n all' a'noothen e'choon to'n hupeechou'nta chalko'n. Augustine describes this instrument still more clearly in Ps. 42 and elsewhere: Psalterium istud organum dicitur quod de superiore parte habet testudinem, illud scilicet tympanum et concavum lignum cui chordae innitentes resonant, cithara vero id ipsum lignum cavum et sonorum ex inferiore parte habet. In the cithern the strings pass over the sound-board, in the harp and lyre the vibrating body runs round the strings which are left free (without a bridge) and is either curved or angular as in the case of the harp, or encompasses the strings as in the lyre. Harps with an upper sounding body (whether of metal or wood, viz., lignum concavum i.e., with a hollow and hence sonorous wood, which protects the strings like a testudo and serves as tympanum) are found both on Egyptian and on Assyrian monuments.

    By the psalterium described by Augustine, Casiodorus and Isidorus understand the trigonum, which is in the form of an inverted sharpcornered triangle; but it cannot be this that is intended because the horizontal strings of this instrument are surrounded by a three-sided sounding body, so that it must be a triangular lyre. Moreover there is also a trigon belonging to the Macedonian era which is formed like a harp (vid., Weiss' Kostmkunde, Fig. 347) and this further tends to support our view.) being transferred metaphorically to the songs that are sung with its accompaniment. Psalms are songs for the lyre, and therefore lyric poems in the strictest sense. 3. The History of Psalm Composition Before we can seek to obtain a clear idea of the origin of the Psalmcollection we must take a general survey of the course of the development of psalm writing. The lyric is the earliest kind of poetry in general, and the Hebrew poetry, the oldest example of the poetry of antiquity that has come down to us, is therefore essentially lyric. Neither the Epos nor the Drama, but only the Mashal, has branched off from it and attained an independent form. Even prophecy, which is distinguished from psalmody by a higher impulse which the mind of the writer receives from the power of the divine mind, shares with the latter the common designation of nikaa' (1 Chron 24:1-3), and the psalm-singer, mshrr, is also as such called chozeh (1 Chron 25:5; 2 Chron 29:30; 35:15, cf. 1 Chron 15:19 and freq.); for just as the sacred lyric often rises to the height of prophet vision, so the prophetic epic of the future, because it is not entirely freed from the subjectivity of the prophet, frequently passes into the strain of the psalm.

    The time of Moses was the period of Israel's birth as a nation and also of its national lyric. The Israelites brought instruments with them out of Egypt and these were the accompaniments of their first song (Ex 15)-the oldest hymn, which re-echoes through all hymns of the following ages and also through the Psalter (comp. v. 2 with Ps 118:14; v. 3 with Ps 24:8; v. 4, 14:27 with Ps 136:15; v. 8 with Ps 78:13, v. 11 with Ps 77:14; 86:8; 89:7f.; v. 13, 17 with Ps 78:54, and other parallels of a similar kind). If we add to these, Ps 90 and Deut 32, we then have the prototypes of all Psalms, the hymnic, elegiac, and prophetico-didactic. All three classes of songs are still wanting in the strophic symmetry which characterises the later art. But even Deborah's song of victory, arranged in hexastichs-a song of triumph composed eight centuries before Pindar and far outstripping him-exhibits to us the strophic art approximating to its perfect development. It has been thought strange that the very beginnings of the poesy of Israel are so perfect, but the history of Israel, and also the history of its literature, comes under a different law from that of a constant development from a lower to a higher grade. The redemptive period of Moses, unique in its way, influences as a creative beginning, every future development. There is a constant progression, but of such a kind as only to develope that which had begun in the Mosaic age with all the primal force and fulness of a divine creation. We see, however, how closely the stages of this progress are linked together, from the fact that Hannah the singer of the Old Testament Magnificat, was the mother of him who anointed, as King, the sweet singer of Israel, on whose tongue was the word of the Lord.

    In David the sacred lyric attained its full maturity. Many things combined to make the time of David its golden age. Samuel had laid the foundation of this both by his energetic reforms in general, and by founding the schools of the prophets in particular, in which under his guidance (1 Sam 19:19f.), in conjunction with the awakening and fostering of the prophetic gift, music and song were taught. Through these coenobia, whence sprang a spiritual awakening hitherto unknown in Israel, David also passed. Here his poetic talent, if not awakened, was however cultivated. He was a musician and poet born. Even as a Bethlehemite shepherd he played upon the harp, and with his natural gift he combined a heart deeply imbued with religious feeling. But the Psalter contains as few traces of David's Psalms before his anointing (vid., on Ps 8; 144) as the New Testament does of the writings of the Apostles before the time of Pentecost. It was only from the time when the Spirit of Jahve came upon him at his anointing as king of Israel, and raised him to the dignity of his calling in connection with the covenant of redemption, that he sang Psalms, which have become an integral part of the canon.

    They are the fruit not only of his high gifts and the inspiration of the Spirit of God (2 Sam 23:2), but also of his own experience and of the experience of his people interwoven with his own. David's path from his anointing onwards, lay through affliction to glory. Song however, as a Hindu proverb says, is the offspring of suffering, the loka springs from the oka. His life was marked by vicissitudes which at one time prompted him to elegiac strains, at another to praise and thanksgiving; at the same time he was the founder of the kingship of promise, a prophecy of the future Christ, and his life, thus typically moulded, could not express itself otherwise than in typical or even consciously prophetic language. Raised to the throne, he did not forget the harp which had been his companion and solace when he fled before Saul, but rewarded it with all honour. He appointed 4000 Levites, the fourth division of the whole Levitical order, as singers and musicians in connection with the service in the tabernacle on Zion and partly in Gibeon, the place of the Mosaic tabernacle. These he divided into 24 classes under the Precentors, Asaph, Heman, and Ethan = Jeduthun (1 Chron 25 comp. 15:17ff.), and multiplied the instruments, particularly the stringed instruments, by his own invention (1 Chron 23:5; Neh 12:36) (Note: I tended, says David in the Greek Psalter, at the close of Ps, my father's sheep, my hands made pipes (o'rganon = `wgb) and my fingers put together (or: tuned) harps (psaltee'rion = nbl ) cf. Numeri Rabba c. xv. (f. 264a) and the Targum on Amos 6:5.).

    In David's time there were three places of sacrifice: on Zion beside the ark (2 Sam 6:17f.), in Gibeon beside the Mosaic tabernacle (1 Chron 16:39f.) and later, on the threshing-floor of Ornan, afterwards the Temple-hill (1 Chron 21:28-30). Thus others also were stimulated in many ways to consecrate their offerings to the God of Israel. Beside the 73 Psalms bearing the inscription ldwd-Psalms the direct Davidic authorship of which is attested, at least in the case of some fifty, by their creative originality, their impassioned and predominantly plaintive strain, their graceful flow and movement, their ancient but clear language, which becomes harsh and obscure only when describing the dissolute conduct of the ungodly-the collection contains the following which are named after contemporary singers appointed by David: 12 l'cp (Ps 50; 78:1-83:18), of which the contents and spirit are chiefly prophetic, and 12 by the Levite family of singers, the bny-qrh (Ps 42-49; 84:1-85:13; 87:1-88:18, including Ps 43), bearing a predominantly regal and priestly impress.

    Both the Psalms of the Ezrahite, Ps 88 by Heman and 89 by Ethan, belong to the time of Solomon whose name, with the exception of Ps 72, is borne only by Ps 127. Under Solomon psalm-poesy began to decline; all the existing productions of the mind of that age bear the mark of thoughtful contemplation rather than of direct conception, for restless eagerness had yielded to enjoyable contentment, national concentration to cosmopolitan expansion. It was the age of the Chokma, which brought the apophthegm to its artistic perfection, and also produced a species of drama. Solomon himself is the perfecter of the Mashal, that form of poetic composition belonging strictly to the Chokma, Certainly according to 1 Kings 5:12 Hebr.; 4:32, Engl. he was also the author of 1005 songs, but in the canon we only find two Psalms by him and the dramatic Song of Songs. This may perhaps be explained by the fact that he spake of trees from the cedar to the hyssop, that his poems, mostly of a worldly character, pertained rather to the realm of nature than to the kingdom of grace.

    Only twice after this did psalm-poesy rise to any height and then only for a short period: viz., under Jehoshaphat and under Hezekiah. Under both these kings the glorious services of the Temple rose from the desecration and decay into which they had fallen to the full splendour of their ancient glory. Moreover there were two great and marvellous deliverances which aroused the spirit of poesy during the reigns of these kings: under Jehoshaphat, the overthrow of the neighbouring nations when they had banded together for the exstirpation of Judah, predicted by Jahaziel, the Asaphite; under Hezekiah the overthrow of Sennacherib's host foretold by Isaiah. These kings also rendered great service to the cause of social progress. Jehoshaphat by an institution designed to raise the educational status of the people, which reminds one of the Carlovingian missi (2 Chron 17:7-9); Hezekiah, whom one may regard as the Pisistratus of Israelitish literature, by the establishment of a commission charged with collecting the relics of the early literature (Prov 25:1); he also revived the ancient sacred music and restored the Psalms of David and Asaph to their liturgical use (2 Chron 29:25ff.). And he was himself a poet, as his mktb (mktm?) (Isa 38) shows, though certainly a reproductive rather than a creative poet. Both from the time of Jehoshaphat and from the time of Hezekiah we possess in the Psalter not a few Psalms, chiefly Asaphic and Korahitic, which, although bearing no historical heading, unmistakeably confront us with the peculiar circumstances of those times. (Note: With regard to the time of Jehoshaphat even Nic. Nonne has acknowledge this in his Diss. de Tzippor et Deror (Bremen 1741, 4to.) which has reference to Ps 84:4.)

    With the exception of these two periods of revival the latter part of the regal period produced scarcely any psalm writers, but is all the more rich in prophets. When the lyric became mute, prophecy raised its trumpet voice in order to revive the religious life of the nation, which previously had expressed itself in psalms. In the writings of the prophets, which represent the lei'mma cha'ritos in Israel, we do indeed find even psalms, as Jonah ch. 2, Isa 12; Hab 3:1, but these are more imitations of the ancient congregational hymns than original compositions. It was not until after the Exile that a time of new creations set in.

    As the Reformation gave birth to the German church-hymn, and the Thirty years' war, without which perhaps there might have been no Paul Gerhardt, called it into life afresh, so the Davidic age gave birth to psalmpoesy and the Exile brought back to life again that which had become dead.

    The divine chastisement did not fail to produce the effect designed. Even though it should not admit of proof, that many of the Psalms have had portions added to them, from which it would be manifest how constantly they were then used as forms of supplication, still it is placed beyond all doubt, that the Psalter contains many psalms belonging to the time of the Exile, as e.g., Ps 102. Still far more new psalms were composed after the Return. When those who returned from exile, among whom were many Asaphites, (Note: In Barhebraeus on Job and in his Chronikon several traditions are referred to "Asaph the Hebrew priest, the brother of Ezra the writer of the Scriptures.") again felt themselves to be a nation, and after the restoration of the Temple to be also a church, the harps which in Babylon hung upon the willows, were tuned afresh and a rich new flow of song was the fruit of this reawakened first love.

    But this did not continue long. A sanctity founded on good works and the service of the letter took the place of that outward, coarse idolatry from which the people, now returned to their fatherland, had been weaned while undergoing punishment in the land of the stranger. Nevertheless in the era of the Seleucidae the oppressed and injured national feeling revived under the Maccabees in its old life and vigour. Prophecy had then long been dumb, a fact lamented in many passages in the 1st Book of the Maccabees.

    It cannot be maintained that psalm-poesy flourished again at that time.

    Hitzig has recently endeavoured to bring forward positive proof, that it is Maccabean psalms, which form the proper groundwork of the Psalter. He regards the Maccabean prince Alexander Jannaeus as the writer of Ps 1 and 2, refers Ps 44 to 1 Macc. 5:56-62, and maintains both in his Commentary of 1835-36 and in the later edition of 1863-65 that from Ps 73 onwards there is not a single pre-Maccabean psalm in the collection and that, from that point, the Psalter mirrors the prominent events of the time of the Maccabees in chronological order. Hitzig has been followed by von Lengerke and Olshausen. They both mark the reign of John Hyrcanus (B.C. 135-107) as the time when the latest psalms were composed and when the collection as we now have it was made: whereas Hitzig going somewhat deeper ascribes Ps 1-2; 150 with others, and the arrangement of the whole, to Hyrcanus' son, Alexander Jannaeus.

    On the other hand both the existence and possibility of Maccabean psalms is disputed not only by Hengstenberg, Hvernick, and Keil but also by Gesenius, Hassler, Ewald, Thenius, Bttcher, and Dillmann. For our own part we admit the possibility. It has been said that the ardent enthusiasm of the Maccabean period was more human than divine, more nationally patriotic than theocratically national in its character, but the Book of Daniel exhibits to us, in a prophetic representation of that period, a holy people of the Most High contending with the god-opposing power in the world, and claims for this contest the highest significance in relation to the history of redemption. The history of the canon, also, does not exclude the possibility of there being Maccabean psalms. For although the chronicler by 1 Chron 16:36 brings us to the safe conclusion that in his day the Psalter (comp. ta' tou' Daui'd , 2 Macc. 2:13) (Note: In the early phraseology of the Eastern and Western churches the Psalter is simply called David, e.g., in Chrysostom: ekmatho'ntes ho'lon to'n Dabi'd, and at the close of the Aethiopic Psalter: "David is ended.") was already a whole divided into five books (vid., on Ps 96; 105:1- 106:48): it might nevertheless, after having been completely arranged still remain open for later insertions (just as the hyshr cpr cited in the Book of Joshua and 2 Sam 1, was an anthology which had grown together in the course of time).

    When Judas Maccabaeus, by gathering together the national literature, followed in the footsteps of Nehemiah (2 Macc. 2:14: hoosau'toos de' kai' Iou'das ta' deiskorpisme'na dia' to'n po'lemon to'n gegono'ta heemi'n episunee'gage pa'nta kai' e'sti par' heemi'n), we might perhaps suppose that the Psalter was at that time enriched by some additions. And when Jewish tradition assigns to the so-called Great Synagogue (hgdwlh knct) a share in the compilation of the canon, this is not unfavourable to the supposition of Maccabean psalms, since this sunagoogee' mega'lee was still in existence under the domination of the Seleucidae (1 Macc. 14:28).

    It is utterly at variance with historical fact to maintain that the Maccabean period was altogether incapable of producing psalms worthy of incorporation in the canon. Although the Maccabean period had no prophets, it is nevertheless to be supposed that many possessed the gift of poesy, and that the Spirit of faith, which is essentially one and the same with the Spirit of prophecy, might sanctify this gift and cause it to bear fruit. An actual proof of this is furnished by the so-called Psalter of Solomon (Psaltee'rion Salomoo'ntos in distinction from the canonical Psalter of David) (Note: First made known by De la Cerda in his Adversaria sacra (1626) and afterwards incorporated by Fabricius in his Codex Pseudepigraphus V. T. pp. 914ff. (1713).) consisting of 18 psalms, which certainly come far behind the originality and artistic beauty of the canonical Psalms; but they show at the same time, that the feelings of believers, even throughout the whole time of the Maccabees, found utterance in expressive spiritual songs.

    Maccabean psalms are therefore not an absolute impossibility-no doubt they were many; and that some of them were incorporated in the Psalter, cannot be denied priori. But still the history of the canon does not favour this supposition. And the circumstance of the LXX version of the Psalms (according to which citations are made even in the first Book of the Maccabees) inscribing several Psalms Aggai'ou kai' Zachari'ou, while however it does not assign the date of the later period to any, is against it.

    And if Maccabean psalms be supposed to exist in the Psalter they can at any rate only be few, because they must have been inserted in a collection which was already arranged. And since the Maccabean movement, though beginning with lofty aspirations, gravitated, in its onward course, towards things carnal, we can no longer expect to find psalms relating to it, or at least none belonging to the period after Judas Maccabaeus; and from all that we know of the character and disposition of Alexander Jannaeus it is morally impossible that this despot should be the author of the first and second Psalms and should have closed the collection. 4. Origin of the Collection The Psalter, as we now have it, consists of five books. (Note: The Karaite Jerocham (about 950 A.D.) says mglwt (rolls) instead of cprym.)

    Tou'to' se mee' pare'lthoi oo' filo'loge-says Hippolytus, whose words are afterwards quoted by Epiphanius-ho'ti kai' to' psaltee'rion eis pe'nte diei'lon bibli'a ohi Hebrai'oi hoo'ste ei'nai kai' auto' a'llon penta'teuchon.

    This accords with the Midrash on Ps 1:1: Moses gave the Israelites the five books of the Thra and corresponding to these (kngdm) David gave them the book of Psalms which consists of five books (cprym chmshh bw shysh thlym cpr). The division of the Psalter into five parts makes it the copy and echo of the Thra, which it also resembles in this particular: that as in the Thra Elohistic and Jehovistic sections alternate, so here a group of Elohistic Psalms (42-84) is surrounded on both sides by groups of Jehovistic (1-41, 85-150). The five books are as follow:-1-41, 42-72, 83- 89, 90-106, 107-150. (Note: The Karaite Jefeth ben Eli calls them 'shry cpr, k'yl c' etc.)

    Each of the first four books closes with a doxology, which one might erroneously regard as a part of the preceding Psalm (Ps 41:14; 72:18f., 89:53; 106:48), and the place of the fifth doxology is occupied by Ps as a full toned finale to the whole (like the relation of Ps 139 to the so-called Songs of degrees). These doxologies very much resemble the language of the liturgical Beracha of the second Temple. The w|'aameen 'aameen coupled with w (cf. on the contrary Num 5:22 and also Neh 8:6) is exclusively peculiar to them in Old Testament writings. Even in the time of the writer of the Chronicles the Psalter was a whole divided into five parts, which were indicated by these landmarks. We infer this from Chron 16:36. The chronicler in the free manner which characterises Thucydides of Livy in reporting a speech, there reproduces David's festal hymn that resounded in Israel after the bringing home of the ark; and he does it in such a way that after he has once fallen into the track of Ps 106, he also puts into the mouth of David the beracha which follows that Ps.

    From this we see that the Psalter was already divided into books at that period; the closing doxologies had already become thoroughly grafted upon the body of the Psalms after which they stand. The chronicler however wrote under the pontificate of Johanan, the son of Eliashib, the predecessor of Jaddua, towards the end of the Persian supremacy, but a considerable time before the commencement of the Grecian.

    Next to this application of the beracha of the Fourth book by the chronicler, Ps 72:20 is a significant mark for determining the history of the origin of the Psalter. The words: "are ended the prayers of David the son of Jesse," are without doubt the subscription to the oldest psalmcollection, which preceded the present psalm- pentateuch. The collector certainly has removed this subscription from its original place close after 72:17, by the interpolation of the beracha 72:18f., but left it, as the same time, untouched. The collectors and those who worked up the older documents within the range of the Biblical literature appear to have been extremely conscientious in this respect and they thereby make it easier for us to gain an insight into the origin of their work-as, e.g., the composer of the Books of Samuel gives intact the list of officers from a later document 2 Sam 8:16-18 (which closed with that, so far as we at present have it in its incorporated state), as well as the list from an older document (2 Sam 20:23-26); or, as not merely the author of the Book of Kings in the middle of the Exile, but also the chronicler towards the end of the Persian period, have transferred unaltered, to their pages, the statement that the staves of the ark are to be found in the rings of the ark "to this day," which has its origin in some annalistic document (1 Kings 8:8; 2 Chron 5:9).

    But unfortunately that subscription, which has been so faithfully preserved, furnishes us less help than we could wish. We only gather from it that the present collection was preceded by a primary collection of very much more limited compass which formed its basis and that this closed with the Salomonic Ps 72; for the collector would surely not have placed the subscription, referring only to the prayers of David, after this Psalm if he had not found it there already. And from this point it becomes natural to suppose that Solomon himself, prompted perhaps by the liturgical requirements of the new Temple, compiled this primary collection, and by the addition of Ps 72 may have caused it to be understood that he was the originator of the collection.

    But to the question whether the primary collection also contained only Davidic songs properly so called or whether the subscribed designation dwd thlwt is only intended a potiori, the answer is entirely wanting. If we adopt the latter supposition, one is at a loss to understand for what reason only Ps 50 of the Psalms of Asaph was inserted in it. For this psalm is really one of the old Asaphic psalms and might therefore have been an integral part of the primary collection. On the other hand it is altogether impossible for all the Korahitic psalms 42-49 to have belonged to it, for some of them, and most undoubtedly 47 and 48 were composed in the time of Jehoshaphat, the most remarkable event of which, as the chronicler narrates, was foretold by an Asaphite and celebrated by Korahitic singers.

    It is therefore, apart from other psalms which bring us down to the Assyrian period (as 66, 67) and the time of Jeremiah (as 71) and bear in themselves traces of the time of the Exile (as Ps 69:35ff.), absolutely impossible that the primary collection should have consisted of Ps 2-72, or rather (since Ps 2 appears as though it ought to be assigned to the later time of the kings, perhaps the time of Isaiah) of Ps 3-72. And if we leave the later insertions out of consideration, there is no arrangement left for the Psalms of David and his contemporaries, which should in any way bear the impress of the Davidic and Salomonic mind. Even the old Jewish teachers were struck by this, and in the Midrash on Ps 3 we are told, that when Joshua ben Levi was endeavouring to put the Ps. in order, a voice from heaven cried out to him: arouse not the slumberer ('t-hyshn 'ltpychy) i.e., do not disturb David in his grave! Why Ps 3 follows directly upon Ps 2, or as it is expressed in the Midrash 'bshlwm prsht follows wmgwg gwg prsht, may certainly be more satisfactorily explained than is done there: but to speak generally the mode of the arrangement of the first two books of the Psalms is of a similar nature to that of the last three, viz., that which in my Symbolae ad Psalmos illustrandos isagogicae (1846) is shown to run through the entire Psalter, more according to external than internal points of contact. (Note: The right view has been long since perceived by Eusebius, who in his exposition of Ps 63 (LXX 62), among other things expresses himself thus: egoo' de' heegou'mai tee's too'n eggegramme'noon dianoi'as he'neken efexee's allee'loon tou's psalmou's kei'sthai kata' to' plei'ston ohu'toos en polloi's epiteeree'sas kai' ehuroo'n dio' kai' sunee'fthai autou's hoosanei' sugge'neian e'chontas kai' akolouthi'an pro's allee'lous e'nthen mee' kata' tou's chro'nous emfe'resthai alla' kata' tee'n tee's dianoi'as akolouthi'an (in Montfaucon's Collectio Nova, t. i. p. 300). This akolouthi'a dianoi'as is however not always central and deep. The attempts of Luther (Walch, iv. col. 646ff.) and especially of Solomon Gesner, to prove a link of internal progress in the Psalter are not convincing.)

    On the other side it cannot be denied that the groundwork of the collection that formed the basis of the present Psalter must lie within the limits of Ps 3-72, for nowhere else do old Davidic psalms stand so closely and numerously together as here. The Third book (Ps 73-89) exhibits a marked difference in this respect. We may therefore suppose that the chief bulk of the oldest hymn book of the Israelitish church is contained in Ps 3-72. But we must at the same time admit, that its contents have been dispersed and newly arranged in later redactions and more especially in the last of all; and yet, amidst these changes the connection of the subscription, 72:20, with the psalm of Solomon was preserved. The two groups 3-72, 73-89, although not preserved in the original arrangement, and augmented by several kinds of interpolations, at least represent the first two stages of the growth of the Psalter. The primary collection may be Salomonic. The after portion of the second group was, at the earliest, added in the time of Jehoshaphat, at which time probably the book of the Proverbs of Solomon was also compiled.

    But with a greater probability of being in the right we incline to assign them to the time of Hezekiah, not merely because some of the psalms among them seem as though they ought to be referred to the overthrow of Assyria under Hezekiah rather than to the overthrow of the allied neighbouring nations under Jehoshaphat, but chiefly because just in the same manner "the men of Hezekiah" appended an after gleaning to the older Salomonic book of Proverbs (Prov 25:1), and because of Hezekiah it is recorded, that he brought the Psalms of David and of Asaph (the bulk of which are contained in the Third book of the Psalms) into use again (2 Chron 29:30). In the time of Ezra and Nehemiah the collection was next extended by the songs composed during and (which are still more numerous) after the Exile. But a gleaning of old songs also had been reserved for this time.

    A Psalm of Moses was placed first, in order to give a pleasing relief to the beginning of the new psalter by this glance back into the earliest time. And to the 56 Davidic psalms of the first three books, there are seventeen more added here in the last two. They are certainly not all directly Davidic, but partly the result of the writer throwing himself into David's temper of mind and circumstances. One chief store of such older psalms were perhaps the historical works of an annalistic or even prophetic character, rescued from the age before the Exile. It is from such sources that the historical notes prefixed to the Davidic hymns (and also to one in the Fifth book: Ps 142) come. On the whole there is unmistakeably an advance from the earliest to the latest; and we may say, with Ewald, that in Ps 1-41 the real bulk of the Davidic and, in general, of the older songs, is contained, in Ps 42-89 predominantly songs of the middle period, in Ps the large mass of later and very late songs.

    But moreover it is with the Psalm-collection as with the collection of the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel: the chronological order and the arrangement according to the matter are at variance; and in many places the former is intentionally and significantly disregarded in favour of the latter.

    We have often already referred to one chief point of view of this arrangement according to matter, viz., the imitation of the Thra; it was perhaps this which led to the opening of the Fourth book, which corresponds to the Book of Numbers, with a psalm of Moses of this character. 5. Arrangement and Inscriptions Among the Fathers, Gregory of Nyssa has attempted to show that the Psalter in its five books leads upward as by five steps to moral perfection, aei' pro's to' hupseelo'teron tee'n psuchee'n hupertithei's hoos a'n epi' to' akro'taton efi'keetai too'n agathoo'n; (Note: Opp. ed. Paris, (1638) t. i. p. 288.) and down to the most recent times attempts have been made to trace in the five books a gradation of principal thoughts, which influence and run through the whole collection. (Note: Thus especially Sthelin, Zur Einleitung in die Psalmen, 1859, 4to.)

    We fear that in this direction, investigation has set before itself an unattainable end. Nevertheless, as we shall see, the collection bears the impress of one ordering mind. For its opening is formed by a didacticprophetic couplet of psalms (Ps 1-2), introductory to the whole Psalter and therefore in the earliest times regarded as one psalm, which opens and closes with 'shry; and its close is formed by four psalms (Ps 146-149) which begin and end with hllw-yh. We do not include Ps for this psalm takes the place of the beracha of the Fifth book, exactly as the recurring verse Isa. \1\48:22 is repeated in 57:21 with fuller emphasis, but is omitted at the close of the third part of this address of Isaiah to the exiles, its place being occupied by a terrifying description of the hopeless end of the wicked. The opening of the Psalter celebrates the blessedness of those who walk according to the will of God in redemption, which has been revealed in the law and in history; the close of the Psalter calls upon all creatures to praise this God of redemption, as it were on the ground of the completion of this great work. Bede has already called attention to the fact that the Psalter from Ps 146 ends in a complete strain of praise; the end of the Psalter soars upward to a happy climax. The assumption that there was an evident predilection for attempting to make the number complete, as Ewald supposes, cannot be established; the reckoning 147 (according to a Haggadah book mentioned in Jer. Sabbath xvi., parallel with the years of Jacob's life), and the reckoning 149, which frequently occurs both in Karaitic and Rabbinic MSS, have also been adopted; the numbering of the whole and of particular psalms varies. (Note: The LXX, like our Hebrew text, reckons 150 psalms, but with variations in separate instances, by making 9 and 10, and 114 and 115 into one, and in place of these, dividing 116 and 147 each into two. The combination of 9 and 10, of 114 and 115 into one has also been adopted by others; 134 and 135, but especially 1 and 2, appear here and there as one psalm. Kimchi reckons 149 by making Ps and 115 into one. The ancient Syriac version combines Ps 114 and 115 as one, but reckons 150 by dividing Ps 147.)

    There are in the Psalter 73 psalms bearing the inscription ldwd, viz., (reckoning exactly) 37 in book 1; 18 in book 2; 1 in book 3; 2 in book 4; in book 5. The redaction has designed the pleasing effect of closing the collection with an imposing group of Davidic psalms, just as it begins with the bulk of the Davidic psalms. And the Hallelujahs which begin with Ps 146 (after the 15 Davidic psalms) are the preludes of the closing doxology.

    The Korahitic and Asaphic psalms are found exclusively in the Second and Third books. There are 12 Asaphic psalms: 50, 73-83, and also Korahitic: 42, 43, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, 88, assuming that Ps 43 is to be regarded as an independent twin psalm to 42 and that Ps 88 is to be reckoned among the Korahitic psalms. In both of these divisions we find psalms belonging to the time of the Exile and to the time after the Exile (74, 79, 85). The fact of their being found exclusively in the Second and Third books cannot therefore be explained on purely chronological grounds. Korahitic psalms, followed by an Asaphic, open the Second book; Asaphic psalms, followed by four Korahitic, open the Third book.

    The way in which Davidic psalms are interspersed clearly sets before us the principle by which the arrangement according to the matter, which the collector has chosen, is governed. It is the principle of homogeneousness, which is the old Semitic mode of arranging things: for in the alphabet, the hand and the hollow of the hand, water and fish, the eye and the mouth, the back and front of the head have been placed together. In like manner also the psalms follow one another according to their relationship as manifested by prominent external and internal marks. The Asaphic psalm, Ps 50, is followed by the Davidic psalm, 51, because they both similarly disparage the material animal sacrifice, as compared with that which is personal and spiritual. And the Davidic psalm 86 is inserted between the Korahitic psalms 85 and 87, because it is related both to Ps 85:8 by the prayer: "Show me Thy way, O Jahve" and "give Thy conquering strength unto Thy servant," and to Ps 87 by the prospect of the conversion of the heathen to the God of Israel. This phenomenon, that psalms with similar prominent thoughts, or even with only markedly similar passage, especially at the beginning and the end, are thus strung together, may be observed throughout the whole collection. Thus e.g., Ps 56 with the inscription, "after (the melody): the mute dove among strangers," is placed after Ps 55 on account of the occurrence of the words: "Oh that I had wings like a dove!" etc., in that psalm; thus Ps 34 and 35 stand together as being the only psalms in which "the Angel of Jahve" occurs; and just so Ps 9 and 10 which coincide in the expression btsrh `twt.

    Closely connected with this principle of arrangement is the circumstance that the Elohimic psalms (i.e., those which, according to a peculiar style of composition as I have shown in my Symbolae, not from the caprice of an editor, (Note: This is Ewald's view (which is also supported by Riehm in Stud. u. Kirt. 1857 S. 168). A closer insight into the characteristic peculiarity of the Elohim-psalms, which is manifest in other respects also, proves it to be superficial and erroneous.) almost exclusively call God 'lhym, and beside this make use of such compound names of God as tsb'wt yhwh, tsb'wt 'lhym yhwh and the like) are placed together without any intermixture of Jehovic psalms. In Ps 1-41 the divine name yhwh predominates; it occurs 272 times and 'lhym only 15 times, and for the most part under circumstances where yhwh was not admissible. With Ps 42 the Elohimic style begins; the last psalm of this kind is the Korahitic psalm 84, which for this very reason is placed after the Elohimic psalms of Asaph. In the Ps yhwh again becomes prominent, with such exclusiveness, that in the Psalms of the Fourth and Fifth books yhwh occurs 339 times (not 239 as in Symbolae p. 5), and 'lhym of the true God only once (144:9). Among the psalms of David 18 are Elohimic, among the Korahitic 9, and the Asaphic are all Elohimic. Including one psalm of Solomon and four anonymous psalms, there are 44 in all (reckoning Ps 42 and 43 as two). They form the middle portion of the Psalter, and have on their right 41 and on their left 65 Jahve-psalms.

    Community in species of composition also belongs to the manifold grounds on which the order according to the subject-matter is determined.

    Thus the mas|kiyl (42-43, 44, 45, 52-55) and mik|taam (56- 60) stand together among the Elohim-psalms. In like manner we have in the last two books the hamatsalowt shiyr (120-134) and, divided into groups, those beginning with howduw (105-107) and those beginning and ending with hal|luwyaah (111-117, 146-150)-whence it follows that these titles to the psalms are older than the final redaction of the collection.

    It could not possibly be otherwise than that the inscriptions of the psalms, after the harmless position which the monographs of Sonntag (1687), Celsius (1718), Irhof (1728) take with regard to them, should at length become a subject for criticism; but the custom which has gained ground since the last decade of the past century of rejecting what has been historically handed down, has at present grown into a despicable habit of forming a decision too hastily, which in any other department of literature where the judgment is not so prejudiced by the drift of the enquiry, would be regarded as folly. Instances like Hab 3:1 and 2 Sam 1:18, comp. Ps 60:1, show that David and other psalm-writers might have appended their names to their psalms and the definition of their purport. And the great antiquity of these and similar inscriptions also follows from the fact that the LXX found them already in existence and did not understand them; that they also cannot be explained from the Books of the Chronicles (including the Book of Ezra, which belongs to these) in which much is said about music, and appear in these books, like much besides, as an old treasure of the language revived, so that the key to the understanding of them must have been lost very early, as also appears from the fact that in the last two books of the Psalter they are of more rare, and in the first three of more frequent occurrence. 6. The Strophe-System of the Psalms The early Hebrew poetry has neither rhyme nor metre, both of which (first rhyme and then afterwards metre) were first adopted by Jewish poesy in the seventh century after Christ. True, attempts at rhyme are not wanting in the poetry and prophecy of the Old Testament, especially in the tephilla style, Ps 106:4-7 cf. Jer 3:21-25, where the earnestness of the prayer naturally causes the heaping up of similar flexional endings; but this assonance, in the transition state towards rhyme proper, had not yet assumed such an established form as is found in Syriac. (Note: Vid., Zingerle in the Deutsch. Morgenlnd. Zeitschrift. X. 110ff.)

    It is also just as difficult to point out verses of four lines only, which have a uniform or mixed metre running through them. Notwithstanding, Augustine, Ep. cxiii ad Memorium, is perfectly warranted in saying of the Psalms: certis eos constare numeris credo illis qui eam linguam probe callent, and it is not a mere fancy when Philo, Josephus, Eusebius, Jerome and others have detected in the Old Testament songs, and especially in the Psalms, something resembling the Greek and Latin metres. For the Hebrew poetry indeed had a certain syllabic measure, since-apart from the audible Sheb and the Chateph, both of which represent the primitive shorteningsall syllables with a full vowel are intermediate, and in ascending become long, in descending short, or in other words, in one position are strongly accented, in another more or less slurred over.

    Hence the most manifold rhythms arise, e.g., the anapaestic wenashlcha mimennu abothmo (Ps 2:3) or the dactylic z jedabber elmo beapp (2:5). The poetic discourse is freer in its movement than the Syriac poetry with its constant ascending (_ _' ) or descending spondees (_' _); it represents all kinds of syllabic movements and thus obtains the appearance of a lively mixture of the Greek and Latin metres. But it is only an appearance-for the forms of verse, which conform to the laws of quantity, are altogether foreign to early Hebrew poetry, as also to the oldest poetry; and these rhythms which vary according to the emotions are not metres, for, as Augustine says in his work De Musica, "Omne metrum rhythmus, non omnis rhythmus etiam metrum est." Yet there is not a single instance of a definite rhythm running through the whole in a shorter or longer poem, but the rhythms always vary according to the thoughts and feelings; as e.g., the evening song Ps 4 towards the end rises to the anapaestic measure: ki-att Jahawe lebadd, in order then quietly to subside in the iambic: labetach tshibeni. (Note: Bellermann's Versuch ber die Metrik der Hebrer (1813) is comparatively the best on this subject even down to the present time; for Saalschtz (Von der Form der hebr. Poesie, 1825, and elsewhere) proceeds on the erroneous assumption that the present system of accentuation does not indicate the actual strong toned syllable of the words-by following the pronunciation of the German and Polish Jews he perceives, almost throughout, a spondaeo-dactylic rhythm (e.g., Judg 14:18 lle charshtem beeglthi). But the traditional accentuation is proved to be a faithful continuation of the ancient proper pronunciation of the Hebrew; the trochaic pronunciation is more Syrian, and the tendency to draw the accent from the final syllable to the penult, regardless of the conditions originally governing it, is a phenomenon which belongs only to the alter period of the language (vid., Hupfeld in the Deutsch. Morgenl. Zeitschr. vi. 187).)

    With this alternation of rise and fall, long and short syllables, harmonizing in lively passages with the subject, there is combined, in Hebrew poetry, and expressiveness of accent which is hardly to be found anywhere else to such an extent. Thus e.g., Ps 2:5a sounds like pealing thunder, and 5b corresponds to it as the flashing lightning. And there are a number of dull toned Psalms as 17, 49, 58, 59, 73, in which the description drags heavily on and is hard to be understood, and in which more particularly the suffixes in mo are heaped up, because the indignant mood of the writer impresses itself upon the style and makes itself heard in the very sound of the words. The non plus ultra of such poetry, whose very tones heighten the expression, is the cycle of the prophecies of Jeremiah ch. 24-27.

    Under the point of view of rhythm the so-called parallelismus membrorum has also been rightly placed: that fundamental law of the higher, especially poetic, style for which this appropriate name as been coined, not very long since. (Note: Abenezra calls it kaapuwl duplicatum, and Kimchi shownowt b|milowt `in|yaan kepel, duplicatio sententiae verbis variatis; both regard it as an elegant form of expression (tschwt drk).

    Even the punctuation does not proceed from a real understanding of the rhythmical relation of the members of the verse to one another, and when it divides every verse that is marked off by Silluk wherever it is possible into two parts, it must not be inferred that this rhythmical relation is actually always one consisting of two members merely, although (as Hupfeld has shown in his admirable treatise on the twofold law of the rhythm and accent, in the D. M. Z. 1852), wherever it exists it always consists of at least two members.)

    The relation of the two parallel members does not really differ from that of the two halves on either side of the principal caesura of the hexameter and pentameter; and this is particularly manifest in the double long line of the caesural schema (more correctly: the diaeretic schema) e.g., Ps 48:6,7:

    They beheld, straightway they marvelled, bewildered they took to flight.

    Trembling took hold upon them there anguish, as a woman in travail. Here the one thought is expanded in the same verse in two parallel members.

    But from the fact of the rhythmical organization being carried out without reference to the logical requirements of the sentence, as in the same psalm vv. 4, 8: Elohim in her palaces was known as a refuge. With an east wind Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish, we see that the rhythm is not called into existence as a necessity of such expansion of the thought, but vice vers this mode of expanding the thought results from the requirements of the rhythm.

    Here is neither synonymous or identical (tautological), nor antithetical, nor synthetical parallelism, but merely that which De Wette calls rhythmical, merely the rhythmical rise and fall, the diastole and systole, which poetry is otherwise (without binding itself) wont to accomplish by two different kinds of ascending and descending logical organization. The ascending and descending rhythm does not usually exist within the compass of one line, but it is distributed over two lines which bear the relation to one another of rhythmical antecedent and consequent, of proodo's and epoodo's.

    This distich is the simplest ground-form of the strophe, which is visible in the earliest song, handed down to us, Gen 4:23f. The whole Ps 119 is composed in such distichs, which is the usual form of the apophthegm; the acrostic letter stands there at the head of each distich, just as at the head of each line in the likewise distichic pair, Ps 111-112. The tristich is an outgrowth from the distich, the ascending rhythm being prolonged through two liens and the fall commencing only in the third, e.g., 25:7 (the ch of this alphabetical Psalm): Have not the sins of my youth and my transgressions in remembrance, According to Thy mercy remember Thou me For Thy goodness' sake, O Jahve!

    This at least is the natural origin of the tristich, which moreover in connection with a most varied logical organization still has the inalienable peculiarity, that the full fall is reserved until the third line, e.g., in the first two strophes of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, where each line is a long line in two parts consisting of rise and fall, the principal fall, however, after the caesura of the third long line, closes the strophe: Ah! how doth the city sit solitary,otherwise full of people!

    She is become as a widow,the great one among nations, The princess among provinces,she is become tributary.

    By night she weepeth soreand her tears are upon her cheeks; There is not one to comfort herof all her lovers, All her friends have betrayed her,they are become her enemies.

    If we now further enquire, whether Hebrew poesy goes beyond these simplest beginnings of the strophe-formation and even extends the network of the rhythmical period, by combining the two and three line strophe with ascending and descending rhythm into greater strophic wholes rounded off into themselves, the alphabetical Ps 37 furnishes us with a safe answer to the question, for this is almost entirely tetrastichic, e.g., About evil-doers fret not thyself, About the workers of iniquity be thou not envious.

    For as grass they shall soon be cut down, And as the green herb they shall wither, but it admits of the compass of the strophe increasing even to the pentastich, (v. 25, 26) since the unmistakeable landmarks of the order, the letters, allow a freer movement: Now I, who once was young, am become old, Yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken And his seed begging bread.

    He ever giveth and lendeth And his seed is blessed.

    From this point the sure guidance of the alphabetical Psalms (Note: Even the older critics now and then supposed that we were to make these Ps. the starting point of our enquiries. For instance, Serpilius says: "It may perhaps strike some one whether an opinion as to some of the modes of the Davidic species of verse and poetry might not be formed from his, so-to-speak, alphabetical psalms.") fails us in investigating the Hebrew strophe-system. But in our further confirmatory investigations we will take with us from these Psalms, the important conclusion that the verse bounded by Sph pask, the placing of which harmonizes with the accentuation first mentioned in the post- Talmudic tractate Sofrim, (Note: Even if, and this is what Hupfeld and Riehm (Luth. Zeitschr. 1866, S. 300) advance, the Old Testament books were divided into verses, pcwqym, even before the time of the Masoretes, still the division into verses, as we now have it and especially that of the three poetical books, is Masoretic.) is by no means (as, since Kster, 1831, it has been almost universally supposed) the original form of the strophe but that strophes are a whole consisting of an equal or symmetrical number of stichs. (Note: It was these stichs, of which the Talmud (B. Kiddushin 30 a) counts eight more in the Psalter than in the Thra, viz., 5896, which were originally called pcwqym. Also in Augustine we find versus thus used like sti'chos. With him the words Populus ejus et oves pascuae ejus are one versus. There is no Hebrew MS which could have formed the basis of the arrangement of the Psalms in stichs; those which we possess only break the Masoretic verse, (if the space of the line admits of it) for ease of writing into the two halves, without even regarding the general injunction in c. xiv. of the tractate Sofrim and that of Ben-Bileam in his Horajoth ha-Kore, that the breaks are to be regulated by the beginnings of the verses and the two great pausal accents. Nowhere in the MSS, which divide and break up the words most capriciously, is there to be seen any trace of the recognition of those old pcwqym being preserved. These were not merely lines determined by the space, as were chiefly also the sti'choi or e'pee according to the number of which, the compass of Greek works was recorded, but liens determined by the sense, koo'la (Suidas: koo'lon ho apeertisme'neen e'nnoian e'choon sti'chos), as Jerome wrote his Latin translation of the Old Testament after the model of the Greek and Roman orators (e.g., the MSS of Demosthenes), per cola et commata i.e., in lines breaking off according to the sense.)

    Hupfeld (Ps. iv. 450) has objected against this, that "this is diametrically opposed to the nature of rhythm = parallelism, which cannot stand on one leg, but needs two, that the distich is therefore the rhythmical unit."

    But does it therefore follow, that a strophe is to be measured according to the number of distichs? The distich is itself only the smallest strophe, viz., one consisting of two lines. And it is even forbidden to measure a greater strophe by the number of distichs, because the rhythmical unit, of which the distich is the ground-form, can just as well be tristichic, and consequently these so-called rhythmical units form neither according to time nor space parts of equal value. But this applies still less to the Masoretic verses. True, we have shown in our larger Commentary on the Psalms, ii. 522f., in agreement with Hupfeld, and in opposition to Ewald, that the accentuation proceeds upon the law of dichotomy. But the Masoretic division of the verses is not only obliged sometimes to give up the law of dichotomy, because the verse (as e.g., Ps 18:2; 25:1; 92:9), does not admit of being properly divided into two parts; and it subjects not only verses of three members (as e.g., 1:1; 2:2) in which the third member is embellishingly or synthetically related to the other two-both are phenomena which in themselves furnish proof in favour of the relative independence of the lines of the verse-but also verses of four members where the sense requires it (as 1:3; 18:16) and where it does not require it (as 22:15; 40:6), to the law of dichotomy.

    And these Masoretic verses of such various compass are to be the constituent parts according to which strophes of a like cipher shall be measured! A strophe only becomes a strophe by virtue of its symmetrical relation to others, to the ear it must have the same time, to the eye the same form and it must consequently represent the same number of lines (clauses). The fact of these clauses, according to the special characteristic of Hebrew poetry, moving on with that rising and falling movement which we call parallelism until they come to the close of the strophe where it gently falls to rest, is a thing sui generis, and, within the province of the strophe, somewhat of a substitute for metre; but the strophe itself is a section which comes to thorough repose by this species of rhythmical movement. So far, then, from placing the rhythm on one leg only, we give it its two: but measure the strophe not by the two feet of the Masoretic verses or even couplets of verses, but by the equal, or symmetrically alternating number of the members present, which consist mostly of two feet, often enough however of three, and sometimes even of four feet.

    Whether and how a psalm is laid out in strophes, is shown by seeing first of all what its pauses are, where the flow of thoughts and feelings falls in order to rise anew, and then by trying whether these pauses have a like or symmetrically correspondent number of stichs (e.g., 6. 6. 6. 6 or 6. 7. 6. 7) or, if their compass is too great for them to be at once regarded as one strophe, whether they cannot be divided into smaller wholes of an equal or symmetrical number of stichs. For the peculiarity of the Hebrew strophe does not consist in a run of definite metres closely united to form one harmonious whole (for instance, like the Sapphic strophe, which the four membered verses, Isa 16:9-10, with their short closing lines corresponding to the Adonic verse, strikingly resemble), but in a closed train of thought which is unrolled after the distichic and tristichic ground-form of the rhythmical period.

    The strophe-schemata, which are thus evolved, are very diverse. We find not only that all the strophes of a poem are of the same compass (e.g., 4. 4. 4. 4), but also that the poem is made up of symmetrical relations formed of strophes of different compass. The condition laid down by some, (Note: For instance Meier in his Geschichte der poetischen Nationalliteratur der Hebrer, S. 67, who maintains that strophes of unequal length are opposed to the simplest laws of the lyric song and melody. But the demands which melody imposes on the formation of the verse and the strophe were not so stringent among the ancients as now, and moreover-is not the sonnet a lyric poem?) that only a poem that consists of strophes of equal length can be regarded as strophic, is refuted not only by the Syriac (Note: Vid., Zingerle in the Dm. M. Z. x. 123, 124.) but also by the post-biblical Jewish poetry. (Note: Vid., Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters, S. 92-94.)

    We find the following variations: strophes of the same compass followed by those of different compass (e.g., 4. 4. 6. 6); as in the chiasmus, the outer and inner strophes of the same compass (e.g., 4. 6. 6. 4); the first and third, the second and fourth corresponding to one another (e.g., 4. 6. 4. 6); the mingling of the strophes repeated antistrophically, i.e., in the inverted order (e.g., 4. 6. 7. 7. 6. 4); strophes of equal compass surrounding one of much greater compass (e.g., 4. 4. 10. 4. 4), what Kster calls the pyramidal schema; strophes of equal compass followed by a short closing stanza (e.g., 3. 3. 2); a longer strophe forming the base of the whole (e.g., 5. 3. 3. 7), and these are far from being all the different figures, which the Old Testament songs and more especially the Psalms present to us, when we arrange their contents in stichs.

    With regard to the compass of the strophe, we may expect to find it consisting of as many as twelve lines according to the Syrian and the synagogue poetry. The line usually consists of three words, or at least only of three larger words; in this respect the Hebrew exhibits a capacity for short but emphatic expressions, which are inadmissible in German or English. This measure is often not uniformly preserved throughout a considerable length, not only in the Psalms but also in the Book of Job.

    For there is far more reason for saying that the strophe lies at the basis of the arrangement of the Book of Job, than for G. Hermanjn's observation of strophic arrangement in the Bucolic writers and Kchly's in the older portions of Homer. 7. Temple Music and Psalmody The Thra contains no directions respecting the use of song and music in divine worship except the commands concerning the ritualistic use of silver trumpets to be blown by the priests (Numb. ch. 10). David is really the creator of liturgical music, and to his arrangements, as we see from the Chronicles, every thing was afterwards referred, and in times when it had fallen into disuse, restored. So long as David lived, the superintendence of the liturgical music was in his hands (1 Chron 25:2). The instrument by means of which the three choir-masters (Heman, Asaph, and Ethan- Jeduthun) directed the choir was the cymbals (m|tsil|tayim or tsel|ts|liym) (Note: Talmudic ts|laatsal . The usual Levitic orchestra of the temple of Herod consisted of 2 Nabla players, 9 Cithern players and one who struck the Zelazal, viz., Ben-Arza (Erachin 10 a, etc.; Tamid vii. 3), who also had the oversight of the duchan (Tosiphta to Shekalim ii).) which served instead of wands for beating time; the harps (n|baaliym ) represented the soprano, and the bass (the male voice in opposition to the female) was represented by the citherns an octave lower (1 Chron 15:17-21), which, to infer from the word l|natseeach used there, were used at the practice of the pieces by the m|natseeach appointed. In a Psalm where celaah is appended (vid., on Ps 3), the stringed instruments (which celaah higaayown 9:17 definitely expresses), and the instruments generally, are to join in (Note: Comp. Mattheson's "Erlutertes Selah" 1745: Selah is a word marking a prelude, interlude, or after-piece with instruments, a sign indicating the places where the instruments play alone, in short a socalled ritornello.) in such a way as to give intensity to that which is being sung. To these instruments, besides those mentioned in Ps; 2 Sam 6:5, belonged also the flute, the liturgical use of which (vid., on Ps 5:1) in the time of the first as of the second Temple is undoubted: it formed the peculiar musical accompaniment of the hallel (vid., Ps 113) and of the nightly torch-light festival on the semi-festival days of the Feast of Tabernacles (Succa 15 a).

    The trumpets (chatsots|rowt ) were blown exclusively by the priests to whom no part was assigned in the singing (as probably also the horn showpaar 81:4; 98:6; 150:3), and according to 2 Chron 5:12f. (where the number of the two Mosaic trumpets appears to be raised to 120) took their turn unisono with the singing and the music of the Levites.

    At the dedication of Solomon's Temple the Levites sing and play and the priests sound trumpets neg|daam , 2 Chron 7:6, and at the inauguration of the purified Temple under Hezekiah the music of the Levites and priests sound in concert until all the burnt offerings are laid upon the altar fire, and then (probably as the wine is being poured on) began (without any further thought of the priests) the song of the Levites,2 Chron 29:26-30.

    In the second Temple it was otherwise: the sounding of the trumpets by the priests and the Levitical song with its accompanying music alternated, they were not simultaneous. The congregation did not usually sing with the choir, but only uttered their Amen; nevertheless they joined in the Hallel and in some psalms after the first clause with its repetition, after the second with hallelujah (Maimonides, Hilchoth Megilla, 3). 1 Chron 16:36 points to a similar arrangement in the time of the first Temple. Just so does Jer 33:11 in reference to the "Give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good." Antiphonal singing in the part of the congregation is also to be inferred from Ezra 3:10f. The Psalter itself is moreover acquainted with an allotment of the `lmwt, comp. mshrrwt Ezra 2:65 (whose treble was represented by the Levite boys in the second Temple, vid., on Ps 46:1) in choral worship and speaks of a praising of God "in full choirs," 26:12; 68:27.

    And responsive singing is of ancient date in Israel: even Miriam with the women answered the men (lhm Ex 15:21) in alternating song, and Nehemiah (Neh 12:27ff.) at the dedication of the city walls placed the Levites in two great companies which are there called twdwt, in the midst of the procession moving towards the Temple. In the time of the second Temple each day of the week had its psalm. The psalm for Sunday was 24, for Monday 48, Tuesday 82, Wednesday 94, Thursday 81, Friday 93, the Sabbath 92. This arrangement is at least as old as the time of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae, for the statements of the Talmud are supported by the inscriptions of Ps 24; 48; 94; 93 in the LXX, and as respects the connection of the daily psalms with the drink-offering, by Sir. 50:14-16. The psalms for the days of the week were sung, to wit, at the time of the drink-offering (necek| ) which was joined with the morning Tamd: (Note: According to the maxim hyyn `l 'l' shyrh 'wmr 'yn, "no one singeth except over the wine.") two priests, who stood on the right and left of the player upon the cymbal (Zelazal) by whom the signal was given, sounded the trumpets at the nine pauses (prqym), into which it was divided when sung by the Levites, and the people bowed down and worshipped. (Note: B. Rosh ha-Shana, 31a. Tamd vii. 3, comp. the introduction to Ps 24; 92 and 94.)

    The Levites standing upon the suggestus (duwbaan)-i.e., upon a broad staircase consisting of a few steps, which led up from the court of the laity to that of the priests-who were both singers and musicians, and consequently played only on stringed instruments and instruments of percussion, not wind-instruments, were at least twelve in number, with citherns, 2 harps, and one cymbal: on certain days the flute was added to this number. (Note: According to B. Erachin 10a the following were the customary accompaniments of the daily service: 1) 21 trumpet blasts, to as many as 48; (2) 2 nablas, to 6 at most; 2 flutes (chlylyn), to 12 at most. Blowing the flute is called striking the flute, hechaaliyl hikaah.

    On 12 days of the year the flute was played before the altar: on the 14th of Nisan at the slaying of the Passover (at which the Hallel was sung), on the 14th of Ijar at the slaying of the little Passover, on the 1st and 7th days of the Passover and on the eight days of the Feast of Tabernacles. The mouth-piece ('abuwb according to the explanation of Maimonides) was not of metal but a reed (comp. Arab. anbb, the blade of the reed), because it sounds more melodious. And it was never more than one flute (ychydy 'bwb, playing a solo), which continued at the end of a strain and closed it, because this produces the finest close (chiluwq). On the 12 days mentioned, the Hallel was sung with flute accompaniment. On other days, the Psalm appointed for the day was accompanied by nablas, cymbals and citherns. This passage of the treatise Erachin also tells who were the flute-players. On the fluteplaying at the festival of water-drawing, vid., my Geschichte der jdischen Poesie S. 195. In the Temple of Herod, according to Erachin 10b, there was also an organ. This was however not a waterorgan (hdrwlyc, hydraulis), but a wind-organ (mag|reepaah) with a hundred different tones (zmr myny), whose thunder-like sound, according to Jerome (Opp. ed. Mart. v. 191), was heard ab Jerusalem usque ad montem Oliveti et amplius, vid., Saalschtz, Archol. i. 281- 284.)

    The usual suggestus on the steps at the side of the altar was changed for another only in a few cases; for it is noticed as something special that the singers had a different position at the festival of water-drawing during the Feast of Tabernacles (vid., introduction to Ps 120-134), and that the fluteplayers who accompanied the Hallel stood before the altar, hmzkch lpny (Erachin 10a). The treble was taken by the Levite youths, who stood below the suggestus at the feet of the Levites (vid., on Ps 46). The daily hqrbn shyr (i.e., the week-day psalm which concluded the morning sacrifice) was sung in nine (or perhaps more correctly 3) (Note: This is the view of Maimonides, who distributes the 9 trumpetblasts by which the morning sacrifice, according to Succa 53b, was accompanied, over the 3 pauses of the song. The hymn Haaznu, Deut 32, which is called hlwym shyrt par excellence, was sung at the Sabbath Musaph-sacrifice-each Sabbath a division of the hymn, which was divided into six parts-so that it began anew on every seventh Sabbath, vid., J. Megilla, sect. iii, ad fin.) pauses, and the pauses were indicated by the trumpet-blasts of the priests (vid., on Ps 38; 81:4). Beside the seven Psalms which were sung week by week, there were others appointed for the services of the festivals and intervening days (vid., on Ps 81), and in Biccurim 3, 4 we read that when a procession bearing the firstfruits accompanied by flute playing had reached the hill on which the Temple stood and the firstfruits had been brought up in baskets, at the entrance of the offerers into the Azara, Ps was struck up by the Levites. This singing was distinct from the mode of delivering the Tefilla (vid., on Ps 44 ad fin.) and the benediction of the priests (vid., on Ps 67), both of which were unaccompanied by music.

    Distinct also, as it seems, from the mode of delivering the Hallel, which was more as a recitative, than sung (Pesachim 64a, hhll 't qaar|'uw). It was probably similar to the Arabic, which delights in shrieking, long-winded, trilling, and especially also nasal tones. For it is related of one of the chief singers that in order to multiply the tones, he placed his thumb in his mouth and his fore finger hnymyn byw (between the hairs, i.e., according to Rashi: on the furrow of the upper lip against the partition of the nostrils), and thus (by forming mouth and nose into a trumpet) produced sounds, before the volume of which the priests started back in astonishment. (Note: Vid., B. Joma 38b and J. Shekalim v. 3, comp. Canticum Rabba on Canticles Ps 3:6.)

    This mode of psalm-singing in the Temple of Herod was no longer the original mode, and if the present accentuation of the Psalms represents the fixed form of the Temple song, it nevertheless does not convey to us any impression of that before the Exile. It does, however, neither the one nor the other.

    The accents are only musical, and indirectly interpunctional, signs for the chanting pronunciation of the synagogue. And moreover we no longer possess the key to the accents of the three metrical (i.e., consisting of symmetrical stichs and strophes) books as musical signs. For the so-called Sarkatables (which give the value of the accents as notes, beginning with Zarka, zrq'), e.g., at the end of the second edition of Ngelsbach's Gramm., relate only to the reading of the pentateuchal and prophetic pericopeconsequently to the system of prose accents. In the German synagogue there is no tradition concerning the value of the so-called metrical accents as notes, for the Psalms were not recited according to the accents; but for all the Psalms, there are only two different modes, at least in the German ritual, viz., 1) the customary one according to which verse after verse is recited by the leader and the congregation, as e.g., Ps 95-99; 29 every Friday evening; and 2) that peculiar to Ps 119 in which the first seven verses of the eight are recited alternately by the leader and the congregation, but the eighth as a concluding verse is always closed by the congregation with a cadence.

    This psalmody does not always follow the accents. We can only by supposition approximately determine how the Psalms were to be recited according to them. For we still possess at least a few statements of Ben- Asher, Shemtob and Moses Provenzalo (in his grammatical didactic poem qdmwn b|sheem) concerning the intonation of single metrical accents.

    Pazzer and Shalsheleth have a like intonation, which rises with a trill; though Shalsheleth is more prolonged, about a third longer than that of the prose books. Legarme (in form Mahpach or Azla followed by Psik) has a clear high pitch, before Zinnor, however, a deeper and more broken tone; Rebia magnum a soft tone tending to repose. By Silluk the tone first rises and then diminishes. The tone of Mercha is according to its name andante and sinking into the depths; the tone of Tarcha corresponds to adagio.

    Further hints cannot be traced: though we may infer with respect to Ole we-jored (Mercha mahpachatum) and Athnach, that their intonation ought to form a cadence, as that Rebia parvum and Zinnor (Zarka) had an intonation hurrying on to the following distinctive accent. Further, if we place Dechi (Tiphcha initiale) and Rebia gereshatum beside the remaining six servi among the notes, we may indeed produce a sarka-table of the metrical accentuation, although we cannot guarantee its exact agreement with the original manner of singing.

    Following Gerbert (De musica sacra) and Martini (Storia della musica), the view is at present very general that in the eight Gregorian tones together with the extra tone (tonus peregrinus), (Note: Vid., Friedr. Hommel's Psalter nach der deutschen Uebersetzung D. M. Luthers fr den Gesang eingerichtet, 1859. The Psalms are there arranged in stichs, rightly assuming it to be the original mode and the most appropriate, that antiphonal song ought to alternate not according to the verses, as at the present day in the Romish and English church, but according to the two members of the verse.) used only for Ps 113 (= 114-115 in the Hebrew numeration), we have a remnant of the ancient Temple song; and this in itself is by no means improbable in connection with the Jewish nationality of the primitive church and its gradual severance at the first from the Temple and synagogue. In the convents of Bethlehem, which St. Paula founded, psalms were sung at six hours of prayer from early morn till midnight, and she herself was so well versed in Hebrew, ut Psalmos hebraice caneret et sermonem absque ulla Latinae linguae proprietate personaret (Ep. 108 ad Eustoch. c. 26). This points to a connection between the church and synagogue psalm-melodies in the mos orientalium partium, the oriental psalmody, which was introduced by Ambrose into the Milanese church.

    Nevertheless, at the same time the Jewish element has undergone scarcely any change; it has been developed under the influence of the Greek style, but is, notwithstanding, still recognizable. (Note: Vid., Saalschtz, Geschichte und Wrdigung der Musik bei den Hebrern, 1829, S. 121, and Otto Strauss, Geschichtliche Betrachtung ber den Psalter als Gesang- und Gebetbuch, 1859.)

    Pethachja of Ratisbon, the Jewish traveller in the 12th century, when in Bagdad, the ancient seat of the Geonim (g'wnym), heard the Psalms sung in a manner altogether peculiar; (Note: Vid., Literaturblatt des Orients, 4th years, col. 541.) and Benjamin of Tudela, in the same century, became acquainted in Bagdad with a skilful singer of the Psalms used in divine worship. Saadia on Ps 6:1, infers from `l-hshmynyt that there were eight different melodies (Arab. 'l-hn). And eight ngynyt are also mentioned elsewhere; (Note: Steinschneider, Jewish Literature p. 336f.) perhaps not without reference to those eight church-tones, which are also found among the Armenians. (Note: Petermann, Ueber die Musik der Armenier in the Deutsche Morgenl. Zeitschrift v. 368f.)

    Moreover the two modes of using the accents in chanting, which are attested in the ancient service-books, (Note: Zunz, Synagogale Poesie, S. 115.) may perhaps be not altogether unconnected with the distinction between the festival and the simpler ferial manner in the Gregorian style of churchmusic. 8. Translations of the Psalms The earliest translation of the Psalms is the Greek Alexandrine version.

    When the grandson of the son of Sirach came to Egypt in the year B.C., not only the Law and the Prophets, but also the Hagiographa were already translated into the Greek; of course therefore also the Psalms, by which the Hagiographa are directly named in Luke 24:44. The story of the LXX (LXXII) translators, in its original form, refers only to the Thra; the translations of the other books are later and by different authors. All these translators used a text consisting only of consonants, and these moreover were here and there more or less indistinct; this text had numerous glosses, and was certainly not yet, as later, settled on the Masoretic basis. This they translated literally, in ignorance of the higher exegetical and artistic functions of the translator, and frequently the translation itself is obscure.

    From Philo, Josephus and the New Testament we see that we possess the text of this translation substantially in its original form, so that criticism, which since the middle of the last century has acquired many hitherto unknown helps, (Note: To this period belong 1) the Psalterium Veronense published by Blanchini 1740, the Greek text in Roman characters with the Italic at the side belonging to the 5th or 6th century (vid., Tischendorf's edition of the LXX, 1856, Prolegg. p. lviii.f.); 2) the Psalterium Turicense purpureum described by Breitinger 1748, Greek Text likewise of the 5th or 6th century (vid., ibid. p. lix.f.); 3) Palmorum Fragmenta papyraccea Londinensia (in the British Museum), Ps. 10:2-18:6; 20:14-34:6, of the 4th century, given in Tischendorf's Monumenta Sacra Inedita. Nova Collectio t. i.; 4) Fragmenta Psalmorum Tischendorfiana Ps 141(2):7-8, 142(3):1-3, 144(5):7-13, of the 5th or 4th century in the Monumenta t. ii. There still remain unused to the present time 1) the Psalterium Graeco- Latinum of the library at St. Gall, Cod. 17 in 4to, Greek text in uncial characters with the Latin at the side; 2) Psalterium Gallico-Romano- Hebraico-Graecum of the year 909, Cod. 230 in the public library at Bamberg (vid., a description of this MS by Schnfelder in the Serapeum, 1865, No. 21) written by Solomon, abbot of St. Gall and bishop of Constance (d. 920), and brought to Bamberg by the emperor Henry II (d. 1024), who had received it as a gift when in St. Gall; as regards the criticism of the text of the LXX it is of like importance with the Veronense which it resembles.) more especially also in the province of the Psalms, will not need to reverse its judgment of the character of the work. Nevertheless, this translation, as being the oldest key to the understanding of the language of the Old Testament writings, as being the oldest mirror of the Old Testament text, which is not to be excepted from modest critical investigation, and as an important check upon the interpretation of Scripture handed down in the Talmud, in the Midrash, and in that portion of the national literature in general, not originating in Egypt-is invaluable.

    In one other respect this version claims a still greater significance. Next to the Book of Isaiah, no book is so frequently cited in the New Testament as the Psalter. The Epistle to the Hebrews has grown up entirely from the roots of the language of the Old Testament psalms. The Apocalypse, the only book which does not admit of being referred back to any earlier formula as its basis, is nevertheless not without references to the Psalter:

    Ps 2 in particular has a significant part in the moulding of the apocalyptic conceptions and language. These New Testament citations, with few exceptions (as John 13:18), are based upon the LXX, even where this translation (as e.g., Ps 19:5; 51:6; 116:10), only in a general way, correctly reproduces the original text. The explanation of this New Testament use of the LXX is to be found in the high esteem in which this translation was held among the Jewish people: it was accounted, not only by the Hellenistic, but also by the Palestinian Jews, as a providential and almost miraculous production; and this esteem was justified by the fact, that, although altogether of unequal birth with the canonical writings, it nevertheless occupies a position in the history of divine revelation which forms a distinct epoch.

    For it was the first opportunity afforded to the gentile world of becoming acquainted with the Old Testament revelation, and thus the first introduction of Japheth into the tents of Shem. At the same time therewith, a distinct breaking down of the barriers of the Old Testament particularism was effected. The Alexandrine translation was, therefore, an event which prepared the way for that Christianity, in which the appointment of the religion of Israel to be the religion of the world is perfected. This version, at the outset, created for Christianity the language which it was to use; for the New Testament Scriptures are written in the popular Greek dialect (koinee' ) with an Alexandrine colouring. And in a general way we may say that Alexandrinism moulded the forms beforehand, which Christianity was afterwards to fill up with the substance of the gospel. As the way of Jesus Christ lay by Egypt (Matt 2:15), so the way of Christianity also lay by Egypt, and Alexandria in particular.

    Equally worthy of respect on account of its antiquity and independence, though not of the same importance as the LXX from a religio-historical point of view, is the Targum or Chaldee version of the Psalms: a version which only in a few passages assumed the form of a paraphrase with reference to Midrash interpretations. The date of its composition is uncertain. But as there was a written Targum to the Book of Job (Note: Vid., Tosefta to Sabb. xvi. Jer. Sabb. xiv. 1, Bab. Sabb. 115a, Sofrim v., 15.) even during the time of the Temple, there was also a Targum of the Psalms, though bearing in itself traces of manifold revisions, which probably had its origin during the duration of the Temple. In distinction from the Targums of Onkelos to the Pentateuch and of Jonathan to the minor Prophets the Targum of the Psalms belongs to the so-called Jerusalem group, (Note: Vid., Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel, S. 166f.) for the Aramaic idiom in which it is written-while, as the Jerusalem Talmud shows, it is always distinguished in no small degree from the Palestinian popular dialect as being the language of the literature-abounds in the same manner as the former in Greek words (as 'an|g|liyn a'ggeloi, 'ak|cad|riyn exe'drai, qiyriym ku'rios ), and like it also closely approximates, in sound and formation, to the Syriac. From this translation which excels the LXX in grammatical accuracy and has at its basis a more settled and stricter text, we learn the meaning of the Psalms as understood in the synagogue, as the interpretation became fixed, under the influence of early tradition, in the first centuries of the Christian era. The text of the Targum itself is at the present day in a very neglected condition. The most correct texts are to be found in Buxtorf and Norzi's Bibles. Critical observations on the Targums of the Hagiographa are given in the treatise 'wr `wTh by Benzion Berkowitz (Wilna, 1843).

    The third most important translation of the Psalms is the Peshto, the old version of the Syrian church, which was made not later than in the second century. Its author translated from the original text, which he had without the vowel points, and perhaps also in a rather incorrect form: as is seen from such errors as Ps 17:15 ('mwntk instead of tmwntk), 83:12 (w'bdmy sdmw dele eos et perde eos instead of ndybmw sytmw), 139:16 (gmly retributionem meam instead of glmy). In other errors he is influenced by the LXX, as 56:9 (bngdk LXX enoo'pio'n sou instead of bn'dk), he follows this version in such departures from the better text sometimes not without additional reason, as 90:5 (generationes eorum annus erunt, i.e., yhyw shnh zr`wtyw, LXX ta' exoudenoo'mata autoo'n e'tee e'sontai), 110:3 (populus tuus gloriosus, i.e., nid|buwt `mk in the sense of ndybh, Job 30:15, nobility, rank, LXX meta' sou' hee archee' ).

    The fact that he had the LXX before him beside the original text is manifest, and cannot be done away by the supposition that the text of the Peshto has been greatly distorted out of the later Hexaplarian translation; although even this is probable, for the LXX won such universal respect in the church that the Syrians were almost ashamed of their ancient version, which disagreed with it in many points, and it was this very circumstance which gave rise in the year 617 A.D. to the preparation of a new Syriac translation from the Hexaplarian LXX-text. It is not however merely between the Peshto and the LXX, but also between the Peshto and the Targum, that a not accidental mutual relation exists, which becomes at once apparent in Ps 1 (e.g., in the translation of ltsym by mmyqny and of twrt by nmwc') and hardly admits of explanation by the use of the Christian Peshto on the part of Jewish Targumist. (Note: Although more recently we are told, Hai Gaon (in Babylonia) when he came upon a difficult passage in his Academical lectures on the Psalms enquired of the patriarch of the Eastern church how he interpreted it, vid., Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, p. 125f.)

    It may be more readily supposed that the old Syriac translator of the Psalms, of whom we are now speaking, was a Jewish Christian and did not despise the welcome assistance of the Targum, which was already at hand, in whatever form it might be. It is evident that he was a Christian from passages like Ps 19:5; 110:3, also from 68:19 comp. with Eph 4:8; Jer 31:31 comp. with Heb 8:8; and his knowledge of the Hebrew language, with which, as was then generally the case, the knowledge of Greek was united, shows that he was a Jewish Christian. Moreover the translation has its peculiar Targum characteristics: tropical expressions are rendered literally, and by a remarkable process of reasoning interrogative clauses are turned into express declarations: Ps 88:11-13 is an instance of this with a bold inversion of the true meaning to its opposite. In general the author shuns no violence in order to give a pleasing sense to a difficult passage e.g., 12:6b, 60:6. The musical and historical inscriptions, and consequently also the clh (including clh hgywn 9:17) he leaves untranslated, and the division of verses he adopts is not the later Masoretic. All these peculiarities make the Peshto all the more interesting as a memorial in exegetico-historical and critical enquiry: and yet, since Dathe's edition, 1768, who took the text of Erpenius as his ground-work and added valuable notes, (Note: The fragments of the translation of the Ps., which are cited under the name ho Su'ros , Dathe has also there collected in his preface.) scarcely anything has been done in this direction.

    In the second century new Greek translations were also made. The high veneration which the LXX had hitherto enjoyed was completely reversed when the rupture between the synagogue and the church took place, so that the day when this translation was completed as no longer compared to the day of the giving of the Law, but to the day of the golden calf. Nor was it possible that it should be otherwise than that its defects should become more and more perceptible. Even the New Testament writers found it requiring correction here and there, or altogether unfit for use, for the Palestinian text of the Old Testament which had been handed down, was not merely as regards the consonants but also as to pronunciation substantially the same as that which has been fixed by the Masoretes since the sixth century.

    Consequently Aquila of Pontus (a proselyte from heathenism to Judaism) in the first half of the 2nd century, made a Greek translation of the Old Testament, which imitated the original text word for word even at the risk of un-Greek expressions, and in the choice of the Greek words used is determined by the etymology of the Hebrew words. Not to lose any of the weighty words he translates the first sentence of the Thra thus: En kefalai'oo e'ktisen ho Theo's su'n ('t ) to'n ourano'n kai' su'n ('t ) tee'n gee'n .

    In the fragments of the translation of the Psalms, one of which has been preserved in the Talmudic literature (vid., on Ps. 48:15), we do not meet with such instances of violence in favour of literalness, although also even there he forces the Greek into the form of the Hebrew, and always renders the words according to their primary meaning (e.g., dbyr chreematistee'rion , mglh ei'leema , ptch a'noigma , rhb ho'rmeema , 'mn pepisteume'noos ), sometimes unhappily and misled by the usage the language had acquired in his time.

    In some passages he reads the text differently from our present pointing (e.g., Ps 10:4 ho'tan hupsoothee' ), but he moreover follows the tradition (e.g., clh aei' , shdy hikano's , mktm tou' tapeino'fronos kai' haplou' = wtm mk) and also does not despise whatever the LXX may offer that is of any worth (e.g., bmnym en chordai's), as his translation throughout, although an independent one, relies more or less upon the pioneering work of its predecessor, the LXX. His talent as a translator is unmistakeable.

    He has perfect command of the Hebrew, and handles the treasures of the Greek with a master-hand. For instance, in the causative forms he is never in difficulty for a corresponding Greek word (hpyl ptoomati'zein, hryts dromou'n , hskyl episteemou'n and the like). The fact that he translated for the synagogue in opposition to the church is betrayed by passages like Ps 2:12; 22:17; 110:3 and perhaps also 84:10, comp. Dan 9:26, where he prefers eeleimme'nou to Christou' : nevertheless one must not in this respect charge him with evil intentions throughout. Even Jerome, on calmer reflection, moderated his indignation against Aquila's translation to a less harsh judgment: ut amicae menti fatear, quae ad nostram fidem pertineant roborandam plura reperio, and praised it even at the expense of the translations of Theodotion and Symmachus: Isti Semichristiani Judaice transtulerunt, et Judaeus Aquila interpretatus est ut Christianus.

    The translation of Theodotion is not an original work. It is based upon the LXX and brings this version, which was still the most widely used, into closer relation to the original text, by making use of Aquila's translation.

    The fragments that are preserved to us of passages independently translated contain nothing pre-eminently characteristic. Symmachus also takes the LXX as his basis, but in re-moulding it according to the original text he acts far more decidedly and independently than Theodotion, and distinguishes himself from Aquila by endeavouring to unite literalness with clearness and verbal accuracy: his translation of the Psalms has even a poetic inspiration about it. Both Aquila and Symmachus issued their translations twice, so that some passages are extant translated in a twofold form (vid., Ps 110:3).

    Beside the LXX Aq. Symm. and Theod. there are also a fifth, sixth and seventh Greek translation of the Psalms. The fifth is said to have been found in Jericho under the emperor Caracalla, the sixth in Nicopolis under the emperor Alexander Severus. The former, in its remains, shows a knowledge of the language and tradition, the latter is sometimes (Ps 37:35; Hab 3:13) paraphrastic. A seventh is also mentioned besides, it is not like Theodotion. In the Hexapla of Origen, which properly contains only six columns (the Hebrew text, the Hebr. text in Greek characters, Aq., Symm., LXX, Theod.), in the Ps. and elsewhere a Quinta (E), Sexta (s), and Septima (C) are added to these six columns: thus the Hexapla (apart from the Seventh) became an Octapla. Of the remains of these old versions as compiled by Origen, after the labours of his predecessors Nobilius and Drusius, the most complete collection is that of Bernard de Montfaucon in his Hexaplorum Origenis quae supersunt (2 vols. folio, Paris 1713); the rich gleanings since handed down from many different quarters (Note: Thus e.g., Montfaucon was only able to make use of the Psalter-MS Cod. Vat. 754 for 16 Psalms; Adler has compared it to the end and found in it valuable Hexapla fragments (vid., Repert. fr Bibl. u. Morgenl. Lit. xiv. S. 183f.). The Psalm-commentary of Barhebraeus and the Psalterium Mediolanense have also been begun to be worked with this object; but as yet, not the Syriac Psalter of the Medici library mentioned by Montfaucon, Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum i. 240 and supposed to be based upon the Quinta.) are unfortunately still scattered and uncollated.

    Euthymius Zigadenus mentions beside the LXX, Aq., Symm., Theod., V, and VI, as a Seventh version that of Lucian which attempts to restore the original Septuagint-text by a comparison with the original text. Lucian died as a martyr 311 A.D. in Nicomedia, whither he had been dragged from Antioch. The autograph of this translation was found in Nicomedia, hidden in a small rough-plastered tower. (Note: Comp. the Athanasian synopsis in Montfaucon, Hexapla t. p. 59 and the contribution from a Syriac MS in the Repertorium fr Bibl. u. Morgenl. Lit. ib. (1784) S. 48f.)

    We are as little able to form a conception of this Septuagint-recension of Lucian as of that of the contemporary Egyptian bishop Hesychius, since not a single specimen of either is extant. It would be interesting to know the difference of treatment of the two critics from that of Origen, who corrected the text of the koinee' after the Hebrew original by means of Theodotion's, obelis jugulans quae abundare videbantur, et quae deerant sub asteriscis interserens, which produced a confusion that might easily have been foreseen.

    From the Old Latin translation, the so-called Itala, made from the LXX, we possess the Psalter complete: Blanchini has published this translation of the Psalms (1740) from the Veronese Psalter, and Sabbatier in the second volume of his Latinae Versiones Antiquae (1751) from the Psalter of the monastery of St. Germain. The text in Faber Stapulensis' Quincuplex Pslaterium (1509) is compiled from Augustine; for Augustine, like Hilary, Ambrose, Prosper, and Cassiodorus, expounds the Psalms according to the old Latin text. Jerome first of all carefully revised this in Rome, and thus originated the Psalterium Romanum, which has been the longest retained by the church of Milan and the Basilica of the Vatican. He then in Bethlehem prepared a second more carefully revised edition, according to the Hexaplarian Septuagint-text (Note: Illud breviter admoneo-says Jerome, Ep. cvi. ad Sunniam et Fretelam-ut sciatis, aliam esse editionem, quam Origenes et Caesareensis Eusebius omnesque Graeciae tractatores Koinee'n id est, Communem appellant atque Vulgatam et a plerisque nunc Loukiano's dicitur; aliam Septuaginta Interpretum, quae in Hexaploi's codicibus reperitur et a nobis in Latinum sermonem fideliter versa est et Hierosolymae atque in Orientis ecclesiis decantatur.) with daggers (as a sign of additions in the LXX contrary to the original) and asterisks (a sign of additions in the LXX from Theodotion in accordance with the original), and this second edition which was first adopted by the Gallican churches obtained the name of the Psalterium Gallicanum. It is not essentially different from the Psalter of the Vulgate, and appeared, with its critical signs, from a MS of Bruno, bishop of Wrzburg (died 1045), for the first time in the year 1494 (then edited by Cochleus, 1533): both Psalters, the Romish and the Gallican, are placed opposite one another in Faber's Quincuplex Psalterium, in t. x. p. 1 of the Opp. Hieronymi, ed. Vallarsi and elsewhere.

    The Latin Psalters, springing from the common or from the Hexaplarian Septuagint-text, as also the Hexapla-Syriac and the remaining Oriental versions based upon the LXX and the Peshto, have only an indirectly exegetico-historical value. On the contrary Jerome's translation of the Psalter, juxta Hebraicam veritatem, is the first scientific work of translation, and, like the whole of his independent translation of the Old Testament from the original text, a bold act by which he has rendered an invaluable service to the church, without allowing himself to be deterred by the cry raised against such innovations. This independent translation of Jerome has become the Vulgate of the church: but in a text in many ways estranged from its original form, with the simple exception of the Psalter.

    For the new translation of this book was opposed by the inflexible liturgical use it had attained; the texts of the Psalterium Romanum and Gallicanum maintained their ground and became (with the omission of the critical signs) an essential portion of the Vulgate. On this account it is the more to be desired that Jerome's Latin Psalter ex Hebraeo (Opp. ed.

    Vallarsi t. ix. p. 333) were made more generally known and accessible by a critical edition published separately. It is not necessary to search far for critical helps for such an undertaking. There is an excellent MS, Cod. 19, in the library of St. Gall, presented by the abbot Hartmot (died 895).

    Origen and Jerome learnt the language of the Old Testament from Jewish teachers. All the advantages of Origen's philological learning are lost to us, excepting a few insignificant remains, with his Hexapla: this gigantic bible which would be the oldest direct monument of the Old Testament text if it were but extant. Whereas in Jerome's Old Testament translated from the original text (canon Hebraicae veritatis) we have the maturest fruit of the philological attainments of this indefatigable, steady investigator inspired with a zeal for knowledge. It is a work of the greatest critical and historical value in reference to language and exegesis. The translation of the Psalter is dedicated to Sophronius who had promised to translate it into Greek: this Greek translation is not preserved to us.

    Jerome's translation of the Psalter has not its equal either in the synagogue or the church until the time of Saadia Gaon of Fajum, the Arabian translator of the Psalms. Two MSS of his translation of the Psalms are to be found at Oxford; but the most important, which also contains his annotations complete, is in Munich. Schnurrer (1791) contributed Ps 16; 40 and 110 to Eichhorn's Biblioth. der Bibl. Lit. iii, from Cod. Pocock. 281, then Haneberg (1840) Ps 68 and several others from the Munich Cod.; the most extensive excerpts from Cod. Pocock. 281 and Cod.

    Huntingt. 416 (with various readings from Cod. Mon. appended) are given by Ewald in the first vol. of his Beitrge zur ltesten Ausleg. u.

    Spracherklrung des A. T. 1844. The gain which can be drawn from Saadai for the interpretation of the Psalms, according to the requirements of the present day, is very limited; but he promises a more interesting and rich advantage to philology and the history of exegesis. Saadia stands in the midst of the still ever mysterious process of development out of which the finally established and pointed text of the Old Testament came forth. He has written a treatise on the punctuation (nyqwd) to which Rashi refers in Ps 45:10, but in his treatment of the Old Testament text shows himself to be unfettered by its established punctuation. His translation is the first scientific work on the Psalms in the synagogue. The translation of Jerome is five hundred years older, but only the translation of Luther has been able to stand side by side with it and that because he was the first to go back to the fountain head of the original text.

    The task, which is assigned to the translator of the sacred Scriptures, was recognised by Luther as by no one before him, and he has discharged it as no one up to the present day since his time has done. What Cicero said of his translation of the two controversial speeches of Demosthenes and Aeschines holds good also of Luther: Non converti ut interpres, sed ut orator, sententiis iisdem et earum formis tanquam figuris, verbis ad nostram consuetudinem aptis: in quibus non verbum pro verbo necesse habui reddere, sed genus omnium verborum vimque servavi; non enim ea me adnumerare lectori putavi oportere, sed tanquam adpendere-he has lived in thought and feeling in the original text in order not to reproduce it literally with a slavish adherence to its form, but to re-mould it into good and yet spiritually renewed German and at the same time to preserve its spirit free and true to its deepest meaning. This is especially the case with his translation of the Psalms, in which even Moses Mendelssohn has thought it to his advantage to follow him. To deny that here and there it is capable of improvement by a more correct understanding of the sense and in general by greater faithfulness to the original (without departing from the spirit of the German language), would indicate an ungrateful indifference to the advance which has been made in biblical interpretationan advance not merely promised, but which we see actually achieved.

    If we now take a glance over the history of the exposition of the Psalms, we shall see from it how late it was before the proper function of scientific exposition was recognised. We begin with the apostolic exposition. The Old Testament according to its very nature tends towards and centres in Christ. Therefore the innermost truth of the Old Testament has been revealed in the revelation of Jesus Christ. But not all at once: His passion, resurrection, and ascension are three steps of this progressive opening up of the Old Testament, and of the Psalms in particular. Our Lord himself, both before and after His resurrection, unfolded the meaning of the Psalms from His own life and its vicissitudes; He showed how what was written in the Law of Moses, in the Prophets and in the Psalms was fulfilled in Him; He revealed to His disciples the meaning tou' sunie'nai ta's grafa's Luke 24:44f.

    Jesus Christ's exposition of the Psalms is the beginning and the goal of Christian Psalm-interpretation. This began, as that of the Christian church, and in fact first of all that of the Apostles, at Pentecost when the Spirit, whose instrument David acknowledges himself to have been (2 Sam 23:2), descended upon the Apostles as the Spirit of Jesus, the fulfiller and fulfilment of prophecy. This Spirit of the glorified Jesus completed what, in His humiliation and after His resurrection, he had begun: He opened up to the disciples the meaning of the Psalms. How strongly they were drawn to the Psalms is seen from the fact that they are quoted about seventy times in the New Testament, which, next to Isaiah, is more frequently than any other Old Testament book. From these interpretations of the Psalms the church will have to draw to the end of time.

    For only the end will be like the beginning and even surpass it. But we must not seek in the New Testament Scriptures what they are not designed to furnish, viz., an answer to questions belonging to the lower grades of knowledge, to grammar, to contemporary history and to criticism. The highest and final questions of the spiritual meaning of Scripture find their answer here; the grammatico-historico- critical understructure- as it were, the candlestick of the new light-it was left for succeeding ages to produce.

    The post-apostolic, patristic exposition was not capable of this. The interprets of the early church with the exception of Origen and Jerome possessed no knowledge of the Hebrew tongue, and even these two not sufficient to be able to rise to freedom from a dependence upon the LXX which only led them into frequent error. Of Origen's Commentary and Homilies on the Ps. we possess only fragments translated by Rufinus, and his hupo'mneema eis tou's psalmou's (edited complete by Kleopas, 1855, from a MS in the monastery of Mar-Saba).

    Jerome, contra Rufinum i. 19, indeed mentions Commentarioli on the Ps. by himself, but the Breviarium in Psalterium (in t. vii. p. ii. of his Opp. ed.

    Vallarsi) bearing his name is allowed not to be genuine, and is worthless as regards the history of the text and the language.

    The almost complete Commentary (on Ps 1-119 according to the Hebrew reckoning) of Eusebius, made known by Montfaucon (Collectio nova Patrum et Scriptorum Graec. t. i.) is unsuspected. Eusebius, though living in Palestine and having a valuable library at command, is nevertheless so ignorant of the Hebrew, that he considers it is possible Mariam (mrchm) in Ps 110 may refer to Mary. But by contributions from the Hexapla he has preserved many acceptable treasures of historical value in connection with the translation, but of little worth in other respects, for the interpretation is superficial, and capriciously allegorical and forced.

    Athanasius in his short explanation of the Psalms (in t. i. p. ii. of the Benedictine edition) is entirely dependent on Philo for the meaning of the Hebrew names and words.

    His book: pro's Markelli'non eis tee'n hermeenei'an too'n psalmoo'n (in the same vol. of the Benedictine edition) is a very beautiful essay. It treats of the riches contained in the Psalms, classifies them according to their different points of view, and gives directions how to use them profitably in the manifold circumstances and moods of the outward and inner life.

    Johann Reuchlin has translated this little book of Athanasius into Latin, and Jrg Spalatin from the Latin of Reuchlin into German (1516. 4to.). Of a similar kind are the two books of Gregory of Nyssa eis tee'n epigrafee'n too'n psalmoo'n (Opp. ed. Paris, t. i.), which treat of the arrangement and inscriptions; but in respect of the latter he is so led astray by the LXX, that he sets down the want of titles of 12 Ps. (this is the number according to Gregory), which have titles in the LXX, to Jewish apisti'a and kaki'a . Nevertheless there are several valuable observations in this introduction of the great Nyssene. About contemporaneously with Athanasius, Hilarius Pictaviensis, in the Western church, wrote his allegorizing (after Origen's example) Tractatus in librum Psalmorum with an extensive prologue, which strongly reminds one of Hippolytus'. We still have his exposition of Ps. 1-2,9,13-14,51-53- 69,91,118-150 (according to the numbering of the LXX); according to Jerome (Ep. ad Augustin. cxii) (Note: The following Greek expositors of the Psalms are mentioned there: 1) Origen, 2) Eusebius of Caesarea, 3) Theodore of Heraclea (the Anonymus in Corderius' Catena), 4) Asterius of Scythopolis, 5) Apollinaris (Apolinarios) of Laodicea,6) Didymus of Alexandria.

    Then the following Latin expositors: 1) Hilary of Poictiers, who translated or rather remodelled Origen's Homilies on the Psalms (Jerome himself says of him, Ep. lvii. ad Pammach.: captivos sensus in suam linguam victoris jure transposuit), 2) Eusebius of Vercelli, translator of the commentary of Eusebius of Caesarea, and 3) Ambrose, who was partly dependent upon Origen. Of Apollinaris the elder, we have a Eeta'frasis tou' psaltee'ros dia' sti'choon heerooi'koo'n preserved to us. He has also translated the Pentateuch and other Old Testament books into heroic verse.) it is transferred from Origen and Eusebius. It is throughout ingenious and pity, but more useful to the dogmatic theologian than the exegete (t. xxvii., xxviii. of the Collectio Patrum by Caillau and Guillon). (Note: Vid., the characteristics of this commentary in Reinkens, Hilarius von Poitiers (1864) S. 291-308.)

    Somewhat later, but yet within the last twenty years of the fourth century (about 386-397), come Ambrose's Enarrationes in Ps. 1, 35-40, 43, 45. 47, 48, 61, 118 (in t. ii. of the Benedictine edition). The exposition of Ps 1 is likewise an introduction to the whole Psalter, taken partly from Basil. He and Ambrose have pronounced the highest eulogiums on the Psalter. The latter says: Psalmus enim benedictio populi est, Dei laus, plebis laudatio, plausus omnium, sermo universorum, vox Ecclesiae, fidei canora confessio, auctoritatis plena devotio, libertatis laetitia, clamor jucunditatis, laetitiae resultatio. Ab iracundia mitigat, a sollicitudine abdicat, a maerore allevat.

    Nocturna arma, diurna magisteria; scutum in timore, festum in sanctitate, imago tranquillitatis, pignus pacis atque concordiae, citharae modo ex diversis et disparibus vocibus unam exprimens cantilenam. Diei ortus psalmum resultat, psalmum resonat occasus. After such and similar prefatory language we are led to expect from the exposition great fervour and depth of perception: and such are really its characteristics, but not to so large an extent as might have been the case had Ambrose-whose style of writing is as musical as that of Hilary is stiff and angular-worked out these expositions, which were partly delivered as sermons, partly dictated, and his own hand.

    The most comprehensive work of the early church on the Psalms was that of Chrysostom, which was probably written while at Antioch. We possess only the exposition of 58 Ps. or (including Ps 3 and 41, which in their present form do not belong to this work) 60 Ps. (in t. v. of Montfaucon's edition). Photius and Suidas place this commentary on the Psalms in the highest rank among the works of Chrysostom. It is composed in the form of sermons, the style is brilliant, and the contents more ethical than dogmatic. Sometimes the Hebrew text according to the Hexapla is quoted, and the Greek versions which depart from the original are frequently compared, but, unfortunately, generally without any name.

    There is hardly any trace in it of the renowned philologico-historical tendency of the school of Antioch. Theodoret (in t. ii. p. ii. of the Halle edition) was the first to set before himself the middle course between an extravagant allegorising and an unspiritual adherence to the literal historical sense (by which he doubtless has reference to Theodore of Mopsuestia), and thus to a certain extent he makes a beginning in distinguishing between the province of exegesis and practical application. But this scientific commencement, with even more of the grammatico-historical tendency, is still defective and wanting in independence. For example, the question whether all the Psalms are by David or not, is briefly decided in the affirmative, with kratei'too too'n pleio'noon hee psee'fos . (Note: In the Talmud R. Meir, Pesachim 117 a, adopts the view that David is the author of all the Ps.: 'mrn dwd kwln thlym shbcpr tshbchwt kl, which in Bathra 14b ten authors are supposed: zqnym `rsh ydy `l thlym cpr ktb dwd, vid., on this Midrash to Song 4:4 and Eccl 7:19. In the former passage ltlpywt is explained as an emblematic name of the Psalter: hrbh pywt lw sh'mrwhw cpr, the book of David, to which the mouths of many have contributed. And there are two modern commentaries, viz., by Klauss, 1832, and Randegger, 1841, which are written with the design of proving all the Psalms to be Davidic.)

    The designed, minute comparison of the Greek translators is most thankworthy; in other respect, this expositor, like the Syrians generally, is wanting in the mystic depth which might compensate for the want of scientific insight. All this may be also said of Euthymius Zigadenus (Zigabgenues): his commentary on the Psalms (in Greek in t. iv. of the Venetian edition of the Opp. Theophylacti), written at the desire of the emperor Alexius Comnenus, is nothing but a skilful compilation, in the preparation of which he made good use of the Psalm-catena, likewise a compilation, of the somewhat earlier Nikee'tas Serroo'n, (Note: This information is found in the modern Greek edition of Euthemius' Commentary on the Ps. by Nicodemos the Agiorite (2 vols. Constantinople 1819-21), which also contains extracts from this catena of Nicetas Serronius.) which is to be found on Mount Athos and is still unprinted.

    The Western counterpart to Chrysostom's commentary are Augustine's Enarrationes in Psalmos (in t. iv. of the Benedictine edition). The psalmsinging in the Milaneses church had contributed greatly to Augustine's conversion. But his love to his Lord was fired still more by the reading of the Psalms when he was preparing himself in solitude for his baptism. His commentary consists of sermons which he wrote down in part himself and in part dictated. Only the thirty-two sermones on Ps 118 (119), which he ventured upon last of all, were not actually delivered. He does not adopt the text of Jerome as his basis, but makes use of the older Latin version, the original text of which he sought to establish, and here and there to correct, by the LXX; whereas Arnobius, the Semi-Pelagian, in his paraphrastic Africano-Latin commentary on the Psalms (first edition by Erasmus, Basileae, Forben. 1522, who, as also Trithemnius, erroneously regarded the author as one and the same with the Apologist) no longer uses the so-called Itala, but takes Jerome's translation as his basis. The work of Augustine far surpassing that of Chrysostom in richness and depth of thought, has become, in the Western church, the chief mine of all later exposition of the Psalms. Cassiodorus in his Expositiones in omnes Psalmos (in t. ii. of the Bened. ed.) draws largely from Augustine, though not devoid of independence.

    What the Greek church has done for the exposition of the Psalms has been garnered up many times since Photius in so-called Deirai', Catenae. That of Nicetas archbishop of Serra in Macedonia (about 1070), is still unprinted.

    One, extending only to Ps 50, appeared at Venice 1569, and a complete one, edited by Corderius, at Antwerp 1643 (3 vols., from Vienna and Munich MSS). Folckmann (1601) made extracts from the Catena of Nicetas Heracleota, and Aloysius Lippomanus began a Catena from Greek and Latin writers on the largest scale (one folio vol. on Ps 1-10, Romae 1585). The defects to be found in the ancient exposition of the Psalms are in general the same in the Greek and in the Western expositors. To their want of acquaintance with the text of the original was added their unmethodical, irregular mode of procedure, their arbitrary straining of the prophetic character of the Psalms (as e.g., Tertullian, De spectaculis, takes the whole of Ps 1 as a prophecy concerning Joseph of Arimathea), their unhistorical perception, before which all differences between the two Testaments vanish, and their misleading predilection for the allegorical method.

    In all this, the meaning of the Psalms, as understood by the apostles, remains unused; they appropriate it without rightly apprehending it, and do not place the Psalms in the light of the New Testament fulfilment of them, but at once turn them into New Testament language and thoughts.

    But the church has never found such rapturous delight in the Psalms, which it was never weary of singing day and night, never used them with richer results even to martyrdom, than at that period. Instead of profane popular songs, as one passed through the country one might hear psalms resounding over the fields and vineyards. Quocunque te verteris, writes Jerome to the widow of Marcellus from the Holy Land, arator stivam tenens Alleluja decantat, sudans messor psalmis se avocat et curva attondens vitem falce vinitor aliquid Davidicum canit. Haec sunt in hac provincia carmina, hae (ut vulgo dicitur) amatoriae cantiones, hic pastorum sibilus, haec arma culturae. The delights of country life he commends to Marcella in the following among other words: Vere ager floribus pingitur et inter querulas aves Psalmi dulcius cantabuntur. In Sidonius Apollinaris we find even psalm-singing in the mouth of the men who tow the boats, and the poet takes from this a beautiful admonition for Christians in their voyage and journey through this life: Curvorum hinc chorus helciariorum Responsantibus Alleluja ripis Ad Christum levat amicum celeusma.

    Sic, sic psallite, nauta et viator!

    And how many martyrs have endured every form of martyrdom with psalms upon their lips! That which the church in those days filed to furnish in writing towards the exposition of the Psalms, it more than compensated for by preserving the vitality of the Psalms with its blood.

    Practice made far more rapid progress than theory. (Note: Vid., besides the essay by Otto Strauss, already mentioned:

    Armknecht, Die heilige Psalmodie oder der psalmodirende Knig David und die singende Urkirche, 1855; and W. von Glick, Das Psalterium nach seinem Hauptinhalte in seiner wissenschaftlichen und praktischen Bedeutung (a Catholic prize essay) 1858; partly also Rudelbach's Hymnologische Studien in the Luther. Zeitschrift 1855, 4, 1856, 2. and especially no penitential psalm-singing Zckler's Geschichte der Askese (1863) S. 256-264.)

    These patristic works are patterns for every age of the true fervour which should characterise the expositor of the Psalms.

    The mediaeval church exposition did not make any essential advance upon the patristic. After Cassiodorus, came Haymo (d. 853) and Remigius of Auxerre (d. about 900), still less independent compilers; the commentary of the former, edited by Erasmus, appeared Trib. 1531, of the latter, first Colon. 1536, and then in the Bibl. maxima Lugdunensis. That of Petrus Lombardus (d. about 1160) is a catena taken directly from earlier expositors from Jerome to Alcuin. Of a more independent character are the commentaries of Thomas Aquinas, who however only completed 51 Ps., and Alexander of Hales, if the Commentary which appeared under his name (Venet. 1496) is not rather to be attributed to cardinal Hugo.

    Besides, these, Bonaventura (d. 1274) and Albertus Magnus (d. 1280) stand out prominently in the Middle Ages as expositors of the Psalms; and on the border of the Middle Ages Michael Ayguanus (about 1400) whose commentary has been frequently reprinted since its first appearance, Mediol. 1510.

    If you know one of these expositors, you know them all. The most that they have to offer us is an echo of the earlier writers. By their dependence on the letter of the Vulgate, and consequently indirectly of the LXX, they only too frequently light upon a false track and miss the meaning. The literalis sensus is completely buried in mysticae intelligentiae. Without observing the distinction between the two economies, the conversion of the Psalms into New Testament language and thought, regardless of the intermediate steps of development, is here continued. Thus, for example, Albertus Magnus in his commentary (Opp. t. vii.), on the principle:

    Constat, quod totus liber iste de Christo, at once expounds Beatus vir (Ps 1:1), and the whole Ps., de Christo et ejus corpore ecclesia. But as we find in the Fathers occasional instances of deep insight into the meaning of passages, and occasional flashes of thought of lasting value, so even here the reading, especially of the mystics, will repay one.-The greatest authority in psalm-exposition for the Middle Ages was Augustine. From Augustine, and perhaps we may add from Cassiodorus, Notker Labeo (d. 1022), the monk of St. Gall, drew the short annotations which, verse by verse, accompany his German translation of the Psalms (vol. ii. of H.

    Hattemer's Denkmahle des Mittelalters). In like manner the Latin Psaltercatena of bishop Bruno of Wrzburg (d. 1045), mentioned above, is compiled from Augustine and Cassiodorus, but also from Jerome, Bede and Gregory. And the Syriac annotations to the Psalms of Gregory Barhebraeus (d. 1286)-of which Tullberg and Koraen, Upsala 1842, and Schrter, Breslau 1857, have published specimens-are merely of importance in connection with the history of exposition, and are moreover in no way distinguished from the mediaeval method.

    The mediaeval synagogue exposition is wanting in the recognition of Christ, and consequently in the fundamental condition required for a spiritual understanding of the Psalms. But as we are indebted to the Jews for the transmission of the codex of the Old Testament, we also owe the transmission of the knowledge of Hebrew to them. So far the Jewish interpreters give us what the Christian interpreters of the same period were not able to tender. The interpretations of passages from the Psalms scattered up and down in the Talmud are mostly unsound, arbitrary, and strange. And the Midrash on the Ps., bearing the title Ewb shwchr (vid., Zunz, Vortrge, 266ff.), and the Midrash-catenae entitled ylqwT, of which at present only shm`wny ylqwT (by Simeon Kara ha-Darshan) is known, and mkyry ylqwT (by Machir b. Abba-Mari), contain far more that is limitlessly digressive than what is to the point and usable.

    This class of psalm-exposition was always employed for the thoroughly practical end of stimulating and edifying discourse. It is only since about 900 A.D., when indirectly under Syro-Arabian influence, the study of grammar began to be cultivated among the Jews, that the exposition and the application of Scripture began to be disentangled. At the head of this new era of Jewish exegesis stands Saadia Gaon (d. 941-2), from whose Arabic translation and annotations of the Ps. Haneberg (1840) and Ewald (1844) have published extracts. The Karaites, Salmon b. Jerocham and Jefeth, both of whom have also expounded the Psalms, are warm opponents of Saadia; but Jefeth whose commentary on the Psalms (Note: It is to be found in MS partly in Paris, partly in St. Petersburg: the former having been brought thither from Egypt by Munk in and the latter by Tischendorf in 1853.) has been in part made known by Bargs (since 1846), nevertheless already recognises the influence of grammar, which Saadia raised to the dignity of a science, but which Salmon utterly discards. The next great expositor of the Psalms is Rashi (i.e., Rabbi Salomo Isaaki) of Troyes (d. 1105), who has interpreted the whole of the Old Testament (except the Chronicles) and the whole of the Talmud; (Note: But on some parts of the Talmud, e.g., the tractate Maccoth, we have not any commentary by Rashi.) and he has not only treasured up with pithy brevity the traditional interpretations scattered about in the Talmud and Midrash, but also (especially in the Psalms) made use of every existing grammatico-lexical help. Aben-Ezra of Toledo (d. 1167) and David Kimchi of Narbonne (d. about 1250) are less dependent upon tradition, which for the most part expended itself upon strange interpretations. The former is the more independent and genial, but seldom happy in his characteristic fancies; the latter is less original, but gifted with a keener appreciation of that which is simple and natural, and of all the Jewish expositors he is the pre-eminently grammatico-historical interpreter. Gecatilia's (Mose ha-Cohen Chiquitilla) commentary on the Psalms written in Arabic is only known to us from quotations, principally in Aben-Ezra. In later commentaries, as those of Mose Alshch (Venice 1601) and Joel Shob (Salonica 1569), the simplicity and elegance of the older expositors degenerates into the most repulsive scholasticism.

    The commentary of Obadia Sforno (d. at Bologna 1550), Reuchlin's teacher, is too much given to philosophising, but is at least withal clear and brief. Their knowledge of the Hebrew gives all these expositors a marked advantage over their Christian contemporaries, but the veil of Moses over their eyes is thicker in proportion to their conscious opposition to Christianity. Nevertheless the church has not left these preparatory works unused. The Jewish Christians, Nicolaus de Lyra (d. about 1340), the author of the Postillae perpetuae, and Archbishop Paul de Santa Maria of Burgos (d. 1435), the author of the Additiones ad Lyram, took the lead in this respect. Independently, like the last mentioned writers, Augustinus Justinianus of Genoa, in his Octaplus Psalterii (Genoa, 1516, folio), drew chiefly from the Midrash and Sohar. The preference however was generally given to the use of Aben-Ezra and Kimchi; e.g., Bucer, who acknowledges his obligation to these, says: neque enim candidi ingenii est dissimulare, per quos profeceris. Justinianus, Pagninus, and Felix were the three highest authorities on the original text at the commencement of the Reformation. The first two had gained their knowledge of the original from Jewish sources and Felix Pratensis, whose Psalterium ex hebreo diligentissime ad verbum fere translatum, 1522, appeared under Leo X, was a proselyte.

    We have now reached the threshold of the Reformation exposition.

    Psalmody in the reigning church had sunk to a lifeless form of service. The exposition of the Psalms lost itself in the dependency of compilation and the chaos of the schools. Et ipsa quamvis frigida tractatione Psalmorumsays Luther in his preface to Bugenhagen's Latin Psalter-aliquis tamen odor vitae oblatus est plerisque bonae mentis hominibus, et utcunque ex verbis illis etiam non intellectis semper aliquid consolationis et aurulae senserunt e Psalmis pii, veluti ex roseto leniter spirantis. Now, however, when a new light dawned upon the church through the Reformation-the light of a grammatical and deeply spiritual understanding of Scripture, represented in Germany by Reuchlin and in France by Vatablus-then the rose-garden of the Psalter began to breathe forth its perfumes as with the renewed freshness of a May day; and born again from the Psalter, German hymns resounded from the shores of the Baltic to the foot of the Alps with all the fervour of a newly quickened first-love. "It is marvellous"- says the Spanish Carmelite Thomas Jesu-"How greatly the hymns of Luther helped forward the Lutheran cause. Not only the churches and schools echo with them, but even the private houses, the workshops, the markets, streets, and fields." For converted into imperishable hymns (by Luther, Albinus, Franck, Gerhardt, Jonas, Musculus, Poliander, Ringwaldt, and many more) the ancient Psalms were transferred anew into the psalmody of the German as of the Scandinavian (Note: The Swedish hymns taken from the Psalms have been recently remodelled for congregational use and augmented by Runeberg (Oerebro 1858).)

    Lutheran church. In the French church Clement Marot translated into verse 30 Ps., then 19 more (1541-43) and Theodore Beza added the rest (1562). (Note: Vid., Felix Bovet, Les Psaumes de Marot et de Bze, in the Lausanne magazine, Le Chretien Evangelique, 1866, No. 4.)

    Calvin introduced the Psalms in Marot's version as early as 1542 into the service of the Geneva church, and the Psalms have since continued to be the favorite hymns of the Reformed church. Goudimel, the martyr of St. Bartholemew's night and teacher of Palestrina, composed the melodies and chorales. The English Established church adopted the Psalms direct as they are, as a portion of its liturgy, the Congregational church followed the example of the sister-churches of the Continent. And how industriously the Psalter was moulded into Greek verse, as by Olympia Morata (d. 1555) (Note: Vid., examples in Bonnet's life of Olympia Morata. Germ. transl. by Merschmann 1860 S. 131-135.) and under the influence of Melanthon (Note: Vid., Wilhelm Thilo, Melanchthon im Dienste an heil. Schrift (Berlin, 1859), S. 28.) into Latin! The paraphrases of Helius Eoban Hesse (of whom Martin Herz, 1860, has given a biographical sketch), (Note: His Psalms (to which Veit Dietrich wrote notes) passed through forty editions in seventy years.)

    Joh. Major, Jacob Micyllus (whose life Classen has written, 1859), Joh.

    Stigel (whose memory has been revived by Paulus Cassel 1860), Gre.

    Bersmann (d. 1611), and also that begun by Geo. Buchanan during his sojourn in a Portuguese monastery, are not only learned performances, but productions of an inward spiritual need; although one must assent to the judgment expressed by Harless, that the best attempts of this kind only satisfy one in proportion as we are able first of all to banish the remembrance of the original from our mind.

    But since the time of the Reformation the exegetical functions of psalmexposition have been more clearly apprehended and more happily discharged than ever before. In Luther, who opened his academical lectures in 1514 with the Ps. (in Latin in Luther's own hand writing in Wolfenbttel) and began to publish a part of them in 1519 under the title Operationes in duas Psalmorum decades, the depth of experience of the Fathers is united to the Pauline recognition (which he gave back to the church) of the doctrine of free grace. It is true, he is not entirely free from the allegorising which he rejected in thesi, and, in general, from a departure a sensu literae, and there is also still wanting in Luther the historical insight into the distinctive character of the two Testaments; but with respect to experimental, mystical, and withal sound, understanding he is incomparable.

    His interpretations of the Psalms, especially of the penitential Ps. and of Ps 90, excel every thing hitherto produced, and are still a perpetual mine of wealth. Bugenhagen's exposition of the Psalms (Basel 1524, 4to. and freq.) continued the interrupted work of Luther, who in a brief but forcible preface says in its praise, that it is the first worthy of the name of an exposition. Penetration and delicacy of judgment distinguish the interpretation of the five books of the Psalms by Aretius Felinus i.e., Martin Bucer (1529, 4to. and freq.). The Autophyes (= a se et per se Existens), by which throughout he translates yhwh , gives it a remarkable appearance. But about the same time, as an exegete, Calvin came forward at the side of the German reformer. His commentary (first published at Geneva 1564) combines with great psychological penetration more discernment of the types and greater freedom of historical perception, but is not without many errors arising from this freedom.

    Calvin's strict historical method of interpretation becomes a caricature in Esrom Rdinger, the schoolmaster of the Moravian brethren, who died at Altorf in 1591 without being able, as he had intended, to issue his commentary, which appeared in 1580-81, in a new and revised form. His is an original work which, after trying many conjectures, at last assigns even the first Psalm to the era of the Seleucidae.

    Within the range of the post-Reformation exposition the first that meets us is Reinhard Bakius, the persevering and talented pastor of Magdeburg and Grimma during the Thirty-years' war, whose Comm. exegeticopracticus on the Ps. (in the first edition by his son 1664) is a work of extensive reading and good sense, in many respects a welcome supplement to Luther, crammed full of all kinds of notable things about the Psalms, under which, however, the thread of simple exposition is lost. Martin Geier keeps the work of the exposition most distinctly before him, adhering more closely to it and restraining himself from digression. His lectures on the Psalms delivered at Leipzig extended over a period of eighteen years. Deep piety and extensive learning adorn his commentary (1668), but the free spirit of the men of the Reformation is no longer here.

    Geier is not capable of turning from dogmatics, and throwing himself into the exegesis: a traditional standard of exegesis had become fixed, to overstep which was accounted as heterodox. In the Reformed church Cocceius stands prominently forward (d. 1669). He was an original and gifted man, but starting from false principles of hermeneutics, too fond of an eschatological literalness of interpretation.

    Not only the two Protestant churches, but also the Romish church took part in the advancing work of psalm-exposition. Its most prominent expositors from 1550-1650 are Genebrardus, Agellius, and De Muis, all of whom possessing a knowledge of the Semitic languages, go back to the original, and Gallarmin, who brings to the work not merely uncommon natural talents, but, within the limits of papistical restraint, a deep spiritual penetration. Later on psalm-exposition in the Romish church degenerated into scholasticism. This is at its height in Le Blanc's Psalmorum Davidicorum Analysis and in Joh. Lorinus' Commentaria in Psalmos (6 folio vols. 1665-1676). In the protestant churches, however, a lamentable decline from the spirit of the men of the Reformation in like manner manifested itself. The Adnotationes uberiores in Hagiographa (t. i. 1745, 4to.: Ps. and Prov.) of Joh. Heinrich Michaelis are a mass of raw materials: the glossarial annotations groan beneath the burden of numberless unsifted examples and parallel passages.

    What had been done during the past sixteen hundred years remains almost entirely unnoticed; Luther is not explored, even Calvin within the pale of his own church no longer exerts any influence over the exposition of Scripture. After 1750, the exposition of Scripture lost that spiritual and ecclesiastical character which had gained strength in the seventeenth century, but had also gradually become torpid; whereas in the Romish church, as the Psalm-expositions of De Sacy, Berthier and La Harpe show, it never sank so low as to deny the existence of revealed religion. That love for the Ps., which produced the evangelical hymn-psalter of that truly Christian poet and minister Christoph Karl Ludwig von Pfeil (1747), (Note: Vid., his Life by Heinr. Jerz (1863), 111-117.) prefaced by Bengel, degenerated to a merely literary, or at most poetical, interest-exegesis became carnal and unspiritual.

    The remnant of what was spiritual in this age of decline, is represented by Burk in his Gnomon to the Ps. (1760) which follows the model of Bengel, and by Chr. A. Crusius in the second part of his Hypomnemata ad Theologiam Propheticam (1761), a work which follows the track newly opened up by Bengel, and is rich in germs of progressive knowledge (vid., my Biblisch-prophetische Theologie, 1845). We may see the character of the theology of that age from Joh. Dav. Michaelis' translation of the Old Testament, with notes for the unlearned (1771), and his writings on separate Psalms. From a linguistic and historical point of view we may find something of value here; but besides, only wordy, discursive, tasteless trifling and spiritual deadness. It has been the honour of Herder that he has freed psalm-exposition from this want of taste, and the merit of Hengstenberg (first of all in his Lectures), that he has brought it back out of this want of spirituality to the believing consciousness of the church.

    The transition to modern exposition is marked by Rosenmller's Scholia to the Ps. (first published in 1798-1804), a compilation written in pure clear language with exegetical tact and with a thankworthy use of older expositors who had become unknown, as Rdinger, Bucer, and Agellius, and also of Jewish writers. De Wette's commentary on the Psalms (first published in 1811, 5th edition by Gustav Baur, 1856) was far more independent and forms an epoch in exegesis. De Wette is precise and clear, and also not without a perception of the beautiful; but his position in relation to the Scripture writers is too much like that of a reviewer, his research too sceptical, and his estimate of the Ps. does not sufficiently recognise their place in the history of redemption. He regards them as national hymns, partly in the most ordinary patriotic sense, and when his theological perception fails him, he helps himself out with sarcasm against the theocratic element, which he carries to the extreme of disgust.

    Nevertheless, De Wette's commentary opens up a new epoch so far as it has first of all set in order the hitherto existing chaos of psalm-exposition, and introduced into it taste and grammatical accuracy, after the example of Herder and under the influence of Gesenius. He is far more independent than Rosenmller, who though not wanting in taste and tact, is only a compiler. In investigating the historical circumstances which gave rise to the composition of the different psalms, De Wette is more negative than assumptive. Hitzig in his historical and critical commentary (1835. 36), which has appeared recently in a revised form (Bd. 1, 1863, Bd. 2. Abth. 1, 1864, Abth. 2, 1865), has sought to supplement positively the negative criticism of De Wette, by ascribing to David fourteen Ps. of the seventy three that bear the inscription ldwd, assigning all the Ps. from the onwards, together with 1, 2, 60 (these three, as also 142-144, 150, by Alexander Jannaeus) to the Maccabean period (e.g., 138-141 to Alexander's father, John Hyrcanus), and also inferring the authors (Zechariah, 2 Chron 26:5; Isaiah, Jeremiah) or at least the date of composition of all the rest.

    Von Lengerke, in his commentary compiled half from Hengstenberg, half from Hitzig (1847), has attached himself to this so-called positive criticism, which always arrives at positive results and regards Maccabean psalms as the primary stock of the Psalter. Von Lengerke maintains that not a single Ps. can with certainty be ascribed to David. Olshausen (in his Comment. 1853), who only leaves a few Ps., as 2, 20, 21, to the time of the kings prior to the Exile, and with a propensity, which he is not able to resist, brings down all the others to the time of the Maccabees, even to the beginning of the reign of John Hyrcanus, also belongs to the positive school. Whereas Hupfeld in his commentary, 1855-1862 (4 vols.), considers it unworthy of earnest investigation, to lower one's self to such "childish trifling with hypotheses" and remains true to De Wette's negative criticism: but he seeks to carry it out in a different way. He also maintains that none of the Ps. admit of being with certainty ascribed to David; and proceeds on the assumption, that although only a part of the inscriptions are false, for that very reason none of them can be used by us.

    We stand neither on the side of this scepticism, which everywhere negatives tradition, nor on the side of that self-confidence, which mostly negatives it and places in opposition to it its own positive counterassumptions; but we do not on this account fail to recognise the great merit which Olshausen, Hupfeld and Hitzig have acquired by their expositions of the Psalms. In Olshausen we prize his prominent talent for critical conjectures; in Hupfeld grammatical thoroughness, and solid study so far as it is carried; in Hitzig the stimulating originality everywhere manifest, his happy perspicacity in tracing out the connection of the thoughts, and the marvellous amount of reading which is displayed in support of the usage of language and of that which is admissible according to syntax. The commentary of Ewald (Poetische Bcher, 1839, 40. 2nd edition 1866), apart from the introductory portion, according to its plan only fragmentarily meets the requirements of exposition, but in the argument which precedes each Ps. gives evidence of a special gift for piercing the emotions and throbbings of the heart and entering into the changes of feeling.

    None of these expositors are in truly spiritual rapport with the spirit of the psalmists. The much abused commentary of Hengstenberg 1842-1847 (4 vols. 2nd edition 1849-1852) consequently opened a new track, in as much as it primarily set the exposition of the Psalms in its right relation to the church once more, and was not confined to the historico-grammatical function of exposition. The kindred spirited works of Umbreit (Christliche Erbauung aus dem Psalter 1835) and Stier (Siebenzig Psalmen 1834. 36), which extend only to a selection from the Psalms, may be regarded as its forerunners, and the commentary of Tholuck (1847) who excludes verbal criticism and seeks to present the results of exegetical progress in a practical form for the use of the people, as its counterpart. For the sake of completeness we may also mention the commentary of Kster (1837) which has become of importance for its appreciation of the artistic form of the Psalms, especially the strophe-system, and Vaihinger's (1845).

    Out of Germany, no work on the Psalms has appeared which could be placed side by side with those of Hengstenberg, Hupfeld and Hitzig. And yet the inexhaustible task demands the combined work of many hands.

    Would that the examples set by Bjrk, by Perret-Gentil, Armand deo Mestral and J. F. Thrupp, of noble rivalry with German scholarship might find many imitators in the countries of the Scandinavian, Latin, and English tongues! Would that the zealous industry of Bade and Reinke, the noble endeavours so Schegg and Knig, might set an example to many in the Romish church! Would that also the Greek church on the basis of the criticism of the LXX defended by Pharmakides against Oikonomos, far surpassing the works on the Ps. of Nicodimos and Anthimos, which are drawn from the Fathers, might continue in that rival connection with German scholarship of which the Prolegomena to the Psalm-commentary of the Jerusalem patriarch Anthimos, by Dionysios Kleopas (Jerusalem 1855. 4to.) give evidence! Non plus ultra is the watchword of the church with regard to the word of God, and plus ultra is its watchword with regard to the understanding of that word. Common work upon the Scriptures is the finest union of the severed churches and the surest harbinger of their future unity. The exposition of Scripture will rear the Church of the Future. 10. Theological Preliminary Considerations The expositor of the Psalms can place himself on the standpoint of the poet, or the standpoint of the Old Testament church, or the standpoint of the church of the present dispensation-a primary condition of exegetical progress is the keeping of these three standpoints distinct, and, in accordance therewith, the distinguishing between the two Testaments, and in general, between the different steps in the development of the revelation, and in the perception of the plan, of redemption. For as redemption itself has a progressive history, so has the revelation and growing perception of it a progressive history also, which extends from paradise, through time, on into eternity. Redemption realizes itself in a system of facts, in which the divine purpose of love for the deliverance of sinful humanity unfolds itself, and the revelation of salvation is given in advance of this gradually developing course of events in order to guarantee its divine authorship and as a means by which it may be rightly understood.

    In the Psalms we have five centuries and more of this progressive realizing, disclosing, and perception of salvation laid open before us. If we add to this the fact that one psalm is by Moses, and that the retrospective portions of the historical psalms refer back even to the patriarchal age, then, from the call of Abraham down to the restoration of Israel's position among the nations after the Exile, there is scarcely a single event of importance in sacred history which does not find some expression in the Psalter. And it is not merely facts external to it, which echo therein in lyric strains, but, because David-next to Abraham undoubtedly the most significant character of sacred history in the Old Testament-is its chief composer, it is itself a direct integral part of the history of redemption.

    And it is also a source of information for the history of the revelation of redemption, in as much as it flowed not from the Spirit of faith merely, but mainly also from the Spirit of prophecy: but, pre-eminently, it is the most important memorial of the progressive recognition of the plan of salvation, since it shows how, between the giving of the Law from Sinai and the proclamation of the Gospel from Sion, the final, great salvation was heralded in the consciousness and life of the Jewish church.

    We will consider 1) the relation of the Psalms to the prophecy of the future Christ. When man whom God had created, had corrupted himself by sin, God did not leave him to that doom of wrath which he had chosen for himself, but visited him on the evening of that most unfortunate of all days, in order to make that doom the disciplinary medium of His love.

    This visitation of Jahve Elohim was the first step in the history of redemption towards the goal of the incarnation, and the so-called protevangelium was the first laying of the foundation of His verbal revelation of law and gospel-a revelation in accordance with the plan of salvation, and preparing the way towards this goal of the incarnation and the recovery of man. The way of this salvation, which opens up its own historical course, and at the same time announces itself in a form adapted to the human consciousness, runs all through Israel, and the Psalms show us how this seed-corn of words and acts of divine love has expanded with a vital energy in the believing hearts of Israel. They bear the impress of the period, during which the preparation of the way of salvation was centred in Israel and the hope of redemption was a national hope.

    For after mankind was separated into different nations, salvation was confined within the limits of a chosen nation, that it might mature there, and then bursting its bounds become the property of the human race. At that period the promise of the future Mediator was in its third stage. The hope of overcoming the tendency in mankind to be led astray into evil was attached to the seed of the woman, and the hope of a blessing for all peoples, to the seed of Abraham: but, at this period, when David became the creator of psalm-poesy for the sanctuary service, the promise had assumed a Messianic character and pointed the hope of the believing ones towards the king of Israel, and in fact to David and his seed: the salvation and glory of Israel first, and indirectly of the nations, was looked for from the mediatorship of Jahve's Anointed.

    The fact that among all the Davidic psalms there is only a single one, viz., Ps 110, in which David (as in his last words 2 Sam 23:1-7) looks forth into the future of his seed and has the Messiah definitely before his mind, can only be explained by the consideration, that he was hitherto himself the object of Messianic hope, and that this hope was first gradually (especially in consequence of his deep fall) separated from himself individually, and transferred to the future. Therefore when Solomon came to the throne the Messianic desires and hopes of Israel were directed towards him, as Ps 72 shows; they belonged only to the one final Christ of God, but they clung for a long time enquiringly and with a perfect right (on the ground of 2 Sam 7) to the direct son of David. Also in Ps 45 it is a son of David, contemporary with the Korahite singer, to whom the Messianic promise is applied as a marriage benediction, wishing that the promise may be realized in him.

    But it soon became evident that He, in whom the full realization of the idea of the Messiah is to be found, had not yet appeared either in the person of this king or of Solomon. And when in the later time of the kings the Davidic line became more and more inconsistent with its vocation in the sacred history, then the hope of the Messiah was completely weaned of its expectation of immediate fulfilment, and the present became merely the dark ground from which the image of the Messiah, as purely future, stood forth in relief. The bn-dwd, in whom the prophecy of the later time of the kings centres, and whom also Ps 2 sets forth before the kings of the earth that they may render homage to Him, is an eschatological character (although the 'chryt was looked for as dawning close upon the border of the present).

    In the mouth of the congregation Ps 45 and 132, since their contents referred to the future, have become too prophetically and eschatologically Messianic. But it is remarkable that the number of these psalms which are not merely typically Messianic is so small, and that the church of the period after the Exile has not enriched the Psalter with a single psalm that is Messianic in the stricter sense. In the later portion of the Psalter, in distinction from the strictly Messianic psalms, the theocratic psalms are more numerously represented, i.e., those psalms which do not speak of the kingdom of Jahve's Anointed which shall conquer and bless the world, not of the Christocracy, in which the theocracy reaches the pinnacle of its representation, but of the theocracy as such, which is complete inwardly and outwardly in its own representation of itself-not of the advent of a human king, but of Jahve Himself, with the kingdom of God manifest in all its glory.

    For the announcement of salvation in the Old Testament runs on in two parallel lines: the one has as its termination the Anointed of Jahve, who rules all nations out of Zion, the other, the Lord Himself sitting above the Cherubim, to whom all the earth does homage. These two lines do not meet in the Old Testament; it is only the fulfilment that makes it plain, that the advent of the Anointed one and the advent of Jahve is one and the same. And of these two lines the divine is the one that preponderates in the Psalter; the hope of Israel, especially after the kingship had ceased in Israel, is directed generally beyond the human mediation directly towards Jahve, the Author of salvation. The fundamental article of the Old Testament faith funs lyhwh yshw`th (Ps. 3:9; Jonah 2:10). The Messiah is not yet recognised as a God-man. Consequently the Psalms contain neither prayer to Him, nor prayer in His name. But prayer to Jahve and for Jahve's sake is essentially the same. For Jesus is in Jahve. Jahve is the Saviour. And the Saviour when he shall appear, is nothing but the visible manifestation of the yshw`h of this God (Isa 49:6).

    In considering the goal of the Old Testament history in its relation to the God-man, we distinguish five classes of psalms which are directed towards this goal. After 2 Sam 7 the Messianic promise is no longer in a general way connected with the tribe of Judah, but with David; and is referred not merely to the endless duration of his kingdom, but also to one scion of his house, in whom that to which God has appointed the seed of David in its relation to Israel first, and from Israel to all the other nations, shall be fully realised, and without whom the kingdom of David is like a headless trunk.

    Psalms in which the poet, looking beyond his own age, comforts himself with the vision of this king in whom the promise is finally fulfilled, we call eschatological psalms, and in fact directly eschatologically Messianic psalms. These connect themselves not merely with the already resisting prophetic utterances, but carry them even further, and are only distinguished from prophecy proper by their lyric form; for prophecy is a discourses and the psalms are spiritual songs.

    The Messianic character of the Psalms is, however, not confined to prophecy proper, the subject of which is that which is future. Just as nature exhibits a series of stages of life in which the lower order of existence points to the next order above it and indirectly to the highest, so that, for instance, in the globular form of a drop we read the intimation of the struggle after organism, as it were, in the simplest barest outline: so also the progress of history is typical, and not only as a whole, but also most surprisingly in single traits, the life of David is a vaticinium reale of the life of Him, whom prophecy calls directly dwd `bdy Ezek 34:23f., Ps 37:24f. and mlkm dwd Hos 3:5; Jer 30:9, as the David who is, as it were, raised from the dead in a glorified form.

    Those psalms in which David himself (or even a poet throwing himself into David's position and mood) gives expression in lyric verse to prominent typical events and features of his life, we call typically Messianic psalms. This class, however, is not confined to those, of which David is directly or indirectly the subject, for the course of suffering of all the Old Testament saints, and especially of the prophets in their calling (vid., on Ps 34:20f. and Ps 69), was to a certain extent a tu'pos tou' me'llontos . All these psalms, not less than those of the first class, may be quoted in the New Testament with the words hi'na pleeroothee' , with this difference only, that in the former it is the prophetic word, in the latter the prophetic history, that is fulfilled. The older theologians, especially the Lutheran, contended against the supposition of such typological citations of the Old Testament in the New: they were destitute of that perception of the organic element in history granted to our age, and consequently were lacking in the true counterpoise to their rigid notions of inspiration.

    But there is also a class of Psalms which we call typico-prophetically Messianic, viz., those in which David, describing his outward and inward experiences-experiences even in themselves typical-is carried beyond the limits of his individuality and present condition, and utters concerning himself that which, transcending human experience, is intended to become historically true only in Christ. Such psalms are typical, in as much as their contents is grounded in the individual, but typical, history of David; they are, however, at the same time prophetic, in as much as they express present individual experience in laments, hopes, and descriptions which point far forward beyond the present and are only fully realised in Christ.

    The psychological possibility of such psalms has been called in question; but they would only be psychologically impossible, if one were obliged to suppose that David's self-consciousness must under such circumstances pass over into that of his antitype; but it is in reality quite otherwise. As the poet in order to describe his experiences in verse, idealises them, i.e., seizes the idea of them at the very root, and, stripping off all that is adventitious and insignificant, rises into the region of the ideal: so David also in these psalms idealises his experiences, which even in itself results in the reduction of them to all that is essential to their continuance as types. This he does, however, not from his own poetic impulse, but under the inspiration of the Spirit of God; and a still further result which follows from this is, that the description of his typical fortunes and their corresponding states of feeling is moulded into the prophetic description of the fortunes and feelings of his antitype.

    Beside these three classes of Messianic psalms one may regard psalms like 45 and 72 as a fourth class of indirectly eschatologically Messianic psalms. They are those in which, according to the time of their composition, Messianic hopes are referred to a contemporary king, but without having been fulfilled in him; so that, in the mouth of the church, still expecting their final accomplishment, these psalms have become eschatological hymns and their exposition as such, by the side of their chronological interpretation, is fully warranted.

    A fifth class is formed by the eschatologically Jehovic psalms, which are taken up with describing the advent of Jahve and the consummation of His kingdom, which is all through brought about by judgment (vid., Ps 93).

    The number of these psalms in the Psalter greatly preponderates. They contain the other premiss to the divine-human end of the history of salvation. There are sudden flashes of light thrown upon this end in the prophets. But it remains reserved to the history itself to draw the inference of the unio personalis from these human and divine premises.

    The Redeemer, in whom the Old Testament faith reposed, is Jahve. The centre of the hope lay in the divine not in the human king. That the Redeemer, when He should appear, would be God and man in one person was alien to the mind of the Old Testament church. And the perception of the fact that He would be sacrifice and priest in one person, only penetrates in single rays into the Old Testament darkness, the cynosure of which is yhwh , and yhwh only.

    Coming now to consider 2) the relation of the Psalms to the legal sacrifice, we shall find this also different from what we might expect from the stand- point of fulfilment. Passages certainly are not wanting where the outward legal sacrifice is acknowledged as an act of worship on the part of the individual and of the congregation (Ps 66:15; 51:21); but those occur more frequently, in which in comparison with the logikee' latrei'a it is so lightly esteemed, that without respect to its divine institution it appears as something not at all desired by God, as a shell to be cast away, and as a form to be broken in pieces (40:7f., 50, 51:18f.). But it is not this that surprises us. It is just in this respect that the psalms contribute their share towards the progress of sacred history.

    It is that process of spiritualisation which beings even in Deuteronomy, and which is continued by reason of the memorable words of Samuel, Sam 15:22f. It is the spirit of the New Testament, growing more and more in strength, which here and in other parts of the Psalter shakes the legal barriers and casts off the stoichei'a tou' ko'smou as a butterfly does its chrysalis shell. But what is substituted for the sacrifice thus criticised and rejected? Contrition, prayer, thanksgiving, yielding one's self to God in the doing of His will, as Prov 21:3 to do justly, Hos 6:6 kindness, Mic 6:6-8 acting justly, love, and humility, Jer 7:21-23 obedience. This it is that surprises one. The disparaged sacrifice is regarded only as a symbol not as a type; it is only considered in its ethical character, not in its relation to the history of redemption.

    Its nature is unfolded only so far as it is a gift to God (qrbn), not so far as the offering is appointed for atonement (kprh); in one word: the mystery of the blood remains undisclosed. Where the New Testament mind is obliged to think of the sprinkling with the blood of Jesus Christ, it is, in Ps 51:9, the sprinkling of the legal ritual of purification and atonement that is mentioned, and that manifestly figuratively but yet without the significance of the figure. Whence is it?-Because the sacrifice with blood, as such, in the Old Testament remains a question to which Isaiah, in ch. 53, gives almost the only distinct answer in accordance with its historical fulfilment; for passages like Dan 9:24ff., Zech 12:10; 13:7 are themselves questionable and enigmatical. The prophetic representation of the passion and sacrifice of Christ is only given in direct prophetic language thus late on, and it is only the evangelic history of the fulfilment that shows, how exactly the Spirit which spoke by David has moulded that which he says concerning himself, the type, into correspondence with the antitype.

    The confidence of faith under the Old Testament, as it finds expression in the Psalms, rested upon Jahve even in reference to the atonement, as in reference to redemption in general. As He is the Saviour, so is He also the one who makes the atonement (mkpr), from whom expiation is earnestly sought and hoped for (Ps 79:9; 65:4; 78:38; 85:3 and other passages). It is Jahve who at the end of His course of the redemptive history is the Godman, and the blood given by Him as the medium of atonement (Lev 17:11) is, in the antitype, His own blood.

    Advancing from this point, we come to examine 3) the relation of the Psalms to the New Testament righteousness of faith and to the New Testament morality which flows from the primary command of infinite love. Both with respect to the atonement and to redemption the Psalms undergo a complete metamorphosis in the consciousness of the praying New Testament church-a metamorphosis, rendered possible by the unveiling and particularising of salvation that has since taken place, and to which they can without any reserve be accommodated. There are only two points in which the prayers of the Psalms appear to be difficult of amalgamation with the Christian consciousness. These are the moral selfconfidence bordering on self-righteousness, which is frequently maintained before God in the Psalms, and the warmth of feeling against enemies and persecutors which finds vent in fearful cursings.

    The self-righteousness here is a mere appearance; for the righteousness to which the psalmists appeal is not the merit of works, not a sum of good works, which are reckoned up before God as claiming a reward, but a godly direction of the will and a godly form of life, which has its root in the surrender of one's whole self to God and regards itself as the operation and work of justifying, sanctifying, preserving and ruling grace (Ps 73:25f., 25:5-7; 19:14 and other passages). There is not wanting an acknowledgement of the innate sinfulness of our nature (51:7), of the man's exposure to punishment before God apart from His grace (143:2), of the many, and for the most part unperceived, sins of the converted (19:13), of the forgiveness of sins as a fundamental condition to the attainment of happiness (32:1f.), of the necessity of a new divinelycreated heart (51:12), in short, of the way of salvation which consists of penitential contrition, pardon, and newness of life.

    On the other hand it is not less true, that in the light of the vicarious atonement and of the Spirit of regeneration it becomes possible to form a far more penetrating and subtle moral judgment of one's self; it is not less true, that the tribulation, which the New Testament believer experiences, though it does not produce such a strong and overwhelming sense of divine wrath as that which is often expressed in the psalms, nevertheless sinks deeper into his inmost nature in the presence of the cross on Golgotha and of the heaven that is opened up to him, in as much as it appears to him to be sent by a love that chastens, proves, and prepares him for the future; and it is not less true, that after the righteousness of God-which takes over our unrighteousness and is accounted even in the Old Testament as a gift of grace-lies before us for believing appropriation as a righteousness redemptively wrought out by the active and passive obedience of Jesus, the distinctive as well as the reciprocally conditioned character of righteousness of faith and of righteousness of life is become a more clearly perceived fact of the inner life, and one which exercises a more powerful influence over the conduct of that life. (Note: Cf. Kurtz, Zur Theologie der Psalmen, III: The selfrighteousness of the psalmists, in the Dorpater Zeitschrift 1865 S. 352-358: "The Old Testament righteousness of faith, represented by the evangelium visibile of the sacrificial worship, had not as yet the fundamental and primary, helpful position assigned to it, especially by Paul, in the New Testament, but only a more secondary position; justification is conceived not as a condition of the sanctification which is to be striven after, but as a supplementing of that which is wanting in the sanctification thus defectively striven after.)

    Nevertheless even such personal testimonies, as Ps 17:1-5, do not resist conversion into New Testament forms of thought and experience, for they do not hinder the mind from thinking specially, at the same time, of righteousness of faith, of God's acts which are performed through the medium of sacraments, and of that life resulting from the new birth, which maintains itself victorious in the old man; moreover the Christian ought to be himself earnestly warned by them to examine himself whether his faith is really manifest as an energising power of a new life; and the difference between the two Testaments loses its harshness even here, in the presence of the great verities which condemn all moral infirmity, viz., that the church of Christ is a community of the holy, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin, and that whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin.

    But as to the so-called imprecatory psalms, (Note: Cf. Kurtz, ibid. IV: The imprecatory Psalms, ibid. S. 359-372 and our discussions in the introductions to Ps 35 and 109, which belong to this class.) in the position occupied by the Christian and by the church towards the enemies of Christ, the desire for their removal is certainly outweighed by the desire for their conversion: but assuming, that they will not be converted and will not anticipate their punishment by penitence, the transition from a feeling of love to that of wrath is warranted in the New Testament (e.g., Gal 5:12), and assuming their absolute Satanic hardness of heart the Christian even may not shrink from praying for their final overthrow. For the kingdom of God comes not only by the way of mercy but also of judgment; and the coming of the kingdom of God is the goal of the Old as well as of the New Testament saint (vid., 9:21; Ps 59:14 and other passages), and every wish that judgment may descend upon those who oppose the coming of the kingdom of God is cherished even in the Psalms on the assumption of their lasting impenitence (vid., 7:13f., 109:17). Where, however, as in Ps 69 and 109, the imprecations go into particulars and extend to the descendants of the unfortunate one and even on to eternity, the only justification of them is this, that they flow from the prophetic spirit, and for the Christian they admit of no other adoption, except as, reiterating them, he gives the glory to the justice of God, and commends himself the more earnestly to His favour.

    Also 4) the relation of the Psalms to the Last Things is such, that in order to be used as prayer expressive of the New Testament faith they require deepening and adjusting. For what Julius Africanus says of the Old Testament: oude'poo de'doto elpi's anasta'seoos safee's, holds good at least of the time before Isaiah. For Isaiah is the first to foretell, in one of his latest apocalyptic cycles (ch. 24-27), the first resurrection, i.e., the requickening of the martyr-church that has succumbed to death (Isa 26:19), just as with an extended vision he foretells the termination of death itself (ch. 25:8); and the Book of Daniel-that Old Testament apocalypse, sealed until the time of its fulfilment-first foretells the general resurrection, i.e., the awakening of some to life and others to judgment (Dan 12:2).

    Between these two prophecies comes Ezekiel's vision of Israel's return from the Exile under the figure of a creative quickening of a vast field of corpses (ch. 37)-a figure which at least assumes that what is represented is not impossible to the wonder-working power of God, which is true to His promises. But also in the latest psalms the perception of salvation nowhere appears to have made such advance, that these words of prophecy foretelling the resurrection should have been converted into a dogmatic element of the church's belief. The hope, that the bones committed, like seed, to the ground would spring forth again, finds expression first only in a bold, but differently expressed figure (Ps 141:7); the hopeless darkness of Shel (6:6; 30:10; 88:11-13) remained unillumined, and where deliverance from death and Hades is spoken of, what is meant is the preservation of the living, either experienced (e.g., 86:13) or hoped for (e.g., 118:17) from falling a prey to death and Hades, and we find in connection with it other passages which express the impossibility of escaping this universal final destiny (89:49). The hope of eternal life after death is nowhere definitely expressed, as even in the Book of Job the longing for it is never able to expand into a hope, because no light of promise shines into that night, which reigns over Job's mind-a night, which the conflict of temptation through which he is passing makes darker than it is in itself. The pearl which appears above the waves of temptation is only too quickly swallowed up again by them.

    Also in the Psalms we find passages in which the hope of not falling a prey to death is expressed so broadly, that the thought of the final destiny of all men being inevitable is completely swallowed up by the living one's confidence of living in the strength of God (Psalms 56:14 and esp. Ps 16:9- 11); passages in which the covenant relation with Jahve is contrasted with this present life and its possession, in such a manner that the opposite of a life extending beyond the present time is implied (17:14f., 63:4); passages in which the end of the ungodly is compared with the end of the righteous as death and life, defeat and triumph (49:15), so that the inference forces itself upon one, that the former die although they seem to live for ever, and the latter live for ever although they die at once; and passage in which the psalmist, though only by way of allusion, looks forward to a being borne away to God, like Enoch and Elijah (49:16; 73:24).

    Nowhere, however, is there any general creed to be found, but we see how the belief in a future life struggles to be free, at first only, as an individual conclusion of the believing mind from premises which experience has established. And far from the grave being penetrated by a glimpse of heaven, it has, on the contrary, to the ecstasy of the life derived from God, as it were altogether vanished; for life in opposition to death only appears as the lengthening of the line of the present ad infinitum. Hence it is that we no more find in the Psalms than in the Book of Job a perfectly satisfactory theodicy with reference to that distribution of human fortunes in this world, which is incompatible with God's justice.-Ps. 7, 49, certainly border on the right solution of the mystery, but it stops short at mere hint and presage, so that the utterances that touch upon it admit of different interpretation. (Note: Vid., Kurtz, ibid. II: The doctrine of retribution in the Psalms, ibid. S. 316-352.)

    But on the other hand, death and life in the mind of the psalmists are such deep-rooted notions (i.e., taken hold of at the very roots, which are grounded in the principles of divine wrath and divine love), that it is easy for the New Testament faith, to which they have become clear even to their back ground of hell and heaven, to adjust and deepen the meaning of all utterances in the Psalms that refer to them. It is by no means contrary to the meaning of the psalmist when, as in passages like Ps 6:6, Gehenna is substituted for Hades to adapt it to the New Testament saint; for since the descent of Jesus Christ into Hades there is no longer any limbus patrum, the way of all who die in the Lord is not earthwards but upwards, Hades exists only as the vestibule of hell. The psalmists indeed dread it, but only as the realm of wrath or of seclusion from god's love, which is the true life of man.

    Nor is it contrary to the idea of the poets to think of the future vision of God's face in all its glory in Ps 17:15 and of the resurrection morn in Ps 49:15; for the hopes expressed there, though to the Old Testament consciousness they referred to this side the grave, are future according to their New Testament fulfilment, which is the only truly satisfying one.

    There is, as Oetinger says, no essential New Testament truth not contained in the Psalms either noi' (according to its unfolded meaning), or at least pneu'mati . The Old Testament barrier encompasses the germinating New Testament life, which at a future time shall burst it. The eschatology of the Old Testament leaves a dark background, which, as is designed, is divided by the New Testament revelation into light and darkness, and is to be illumined into a wide perspective extending into the eternity beyond time.

    Everywhere, where it begins to dawn in this eschatological darkness of the Old Testament, it is the first morning rays of the New Testament sun-rise which is already announcing itself. The Christian also here cannot refrain from leaping the barrier of the psalmists, and understanding the Psalms according to the mind of the Spirit whose purpose in the midst of the development of salvation and of the perception of it, is directed towards its goal and consummation. Thus understood the Psalms are the hymns of the New Testament Israel as of the Old. The church by using the language of the Psalms in supplication celebrates the unity of the two Testaments, and scholarship in expounding them honours their distinctiveness. Both are in the right; the former in regarding the Psalms in the light of the one great salvation, the latter in carefully distinguishing the eras in the history, and the steps in the perception, of this salvation. Cum consummaverit homo, tunc incipiet, et cum quieverit, aporiabitur (novis aporiis urgebitur).

    Sir. xviii. 6 (applied by Augustine to the expositor of the Psalter).


    The Radically Distinct Lot of the Pious and the Ungodly The collection of the Psalms and that of the prophecies of Isaiah resemble one another in the fact, that the one begins with a discourse that bears no superscription, and the other with a Psalm of the same character; and these form the prologues to the two collections. From Acts 13:33, where the words: Thou art My Son... are quoted as being found en too' proo'too psalmoo' , we see that in early times Ps 1 was regarded as the prologue to the collection. The reading en too' psalmoo' too' deute'roo , rejected by Griesbach, is an old correction.

    But this way of numbering the Psalms is based upon tradition. A scholium from Origen and Eusebius says of Ps 1 and 2: en too' Hebrai'koo' suneemme'noi, and just so Apollinaris: Epigrafee's ho psalmo's ehure'thee di'cha Heenoome'nos de' toi's par' Hebrai'ois sti'chois.

    For it is an old Jewish way of looking at it, as Albertus Magnus observes:

    Psalmus primus incipit a beatitudine et terminatur a beatitudine, i.e., it begins with 'shry Ps 1:1 and ends with 'shry 2:12, so that consequently Ps 1 and 2, as is said in B. Berachoth 9b (cf. Jer. Taanith ii. 2), form one Psalm (prshh chd'). As regards the subject-matter this is certainly not so.

    It is true Ps 1 and 2 coincide in some respects (in the former yhgh, in the latter yhgw; in the former t'bd...wdrk, in the latter drk wt'kdw; in the former 'shry at the beginning, in the latter, at the end), but these coincidences of phraseology are not sufficient to justify the conclusion of unity of authorship (Hitz.), much less that the two Psalms are so intimately connected as to form one whole. These two anonymous hymns are only so far related, as that the one is adapted to form the proaemium of the Psalter from its ethical, the other from its prophetic character.

    The question, however, arises whether this was in the mind of the collector. Perhaps Ps 2 is only attached to Ps 1 on account of those coincidences; Ps 1 being the proper prologue of the Psalter in its pentateuchal arrangement after the pattern of the Tra. For the Psalter is the Yea and Amen in the form of hymns to the word of God given in the Tra. Therefore it begins with a Psalm which contrasts the lot of him who loves the Tra with the lot of the ungodly-an echo of that exhortation, Josh 1:8, in which, after the death of Moses, Jahve charges his successor Joshua to do all that is written in the book of the Tra. As the New Testament sermon on the Mount, as a sermon on the spiritualized Law, begins with maka'rioi , so the Old Testament Psalter, directed entirely to the application of the Law to the inner life, begins with 'shry. The First book of the Psalms begins with two 'shry Ps 1:1; 2:12, and closes with two 'shry 40:5; 41:2. A number of Psalms begin with 'shry, Ps 32; 41; 112; 119; 128; but we must not therefore suppose the existence of a special kind of ashr-psalms; for, e.g., Ps 32 is a mskyl , Ps 112 a Hallelujah, Ps 128 a hm`lwt shyr.

    As regards the time of the composition of the Psalm, we do not wish to lay any stress on the fact that 2 Chron 22:5 sounds like an allusion to it.

    But 1st, it is earlier than the time of Jeremiah; for Jeremiah was acquainted with it. The words of curse and blessing, Jer 17:5-8, are like an expository and embellished paraphrase of it. It is customary with Jeremiah to reproduce the prophecies of his predecessors, and more especially the words of the Psalms, in the flow of his discourse and to transform their style to his own. In the present instance the following circumstance also favours the priority of the Psalm: Jeremiah refers the curse corresponding to the blessing to Jehoiakim and thus applies the Psalm to the history of his own times. It is 2ndly, not earlier than the time of Solomon. For leetsiym occurring only here in the whole Psalter, a word which came into use, for the unbelievers, in the time of the Chokma (vid., the definition of the word, Prov 21:24), points us to the time of Solomon and onwards. But since it contains no indications of contemporary history whatever, we give up the attempt to define more minutely the date of its composition, and say with St. Columba (against the reference of the Psalm to Joash the protege of Jehoiada, which some incline to): Non audiendi sunt hi, qui ad excludendam Psalmorum veram expositionem falsas similitudines ab historia petitas conantur inducere. (Note: Vid., Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica (1853) ii. 1065. The Commentary of Columba on the Psalms, with Irish explanations, and coming from the monastery of Bobbio, is among the treasures of the Ambrosiana.)

    PSALMS 1:1-3

    Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.

    Verse 1-3. The exclamatory 'ash|reey , as also Ps 32:2; 40:5; Prov 8:34, has Gaja (Metheg) by the Aleph, and in some Codd. even a second by sh|, because it is intended to be read asher as an exception, on account of the significance of the word (Baer, in Comm. ii. 495). It is the construct of the pluralet. 'ashaariym (from 'aashar , cogn.yaashar , kaashar, to be straight, right, well-ordered), and always in the form 'ash|reey , even before the light suffixes (Olsh. 135, c), as an exclamation: O the blessedness of so and so. The man who is characterised as blessed is first described according to the things he does not do, then (which is the chief thought of the whole Ps.) according to what he actually does: he is not a companion of the unrighteous, but he abides by the revealed word of God. r|shaa`iym are the godless, whose moral condition is lax, devoid of stay, and as it were gone beyond the reasonable bounds of true unity (wanting in stability of character), so that they are like a tossed and stormy sea, Isa 57:20f.; (Note: Nevertheless we have not to compare r`sh, rgsh, for rsh` , but the Arabic in the two roots Arab. rs' and rsg shows for rsh` the primary notion to be slack, loose, in opposition to Arab. tsdq, tsdq to be hard, firm, tight; as Arab. rumhun tsadqun, i.e., according to the Kamus Arab. rmh tslb mtn mstwin, a hard, firm and straight spear. We too transfer the idea of being lax and loose to the province of ethics: the difference is only one of degree. The same two primary notions are also opposed to one another in speaking of the intellect: Arab. hakuma, wise, prop. thick, firm, stout, solid, and Arab. sachufa, foolish, simple, prop. thin, loose, without stay, like a bad piece of weaving, vid., Fleischer's translation of Samachschari's Golden Necklace pp. 26 and 27 Anm. 76. Thus raashaa` means the loose man and indeed as a moral-religyous notion loose from God, godless comp. Bibl. Psychol. p. 189. transl.].) chaTaa'iym (from the sing. chaTaa' , instead of which choTee' is usually found) sinners, hamartooloi' , who pass their lives in sin, especially coarse and manifest sin; leetsiym (from luwts , as mit from muwt ) scoffers, who make that which is divine, holy, and true a subject of frivolous jesting.

    The three appellations form a climax: impii corde, peccatores opere, illusores ore, in accordance with which `eetsaah (from yaa`ats figere, statuere), resolution, bias of the will, and thus way of thinking, is used in reference to the first, as in Job 21:16; 22:18; in reference to the second, derek| mode of conduct, action, life; in reference to the third, mowshaab which like the Arabic meglis signifies both seat (Job 29:7) and assembling (107:32), be it official or social (cf. Ps 26:4f., Jer 15:17). On b| haalak| , in an ethical sense, cf. Mic 6:16; Jer 7:24. Therefore: Blessed is he who does not walk in the state of mind which the ungodly cherish, much less that he should associate with the vicious life of sinners, or even delight in the company of those who scoff at religion. The description now continues with 'im kiy (imo si, Ges. 155, 2, 9): but (if) his delight is, = (substantival instead of the verbal clause:) he delights (cheepets cf. Arab. chfd f. i. with the primary notion of firmly adhering, vid., on Job 40:17) in h' twrat , the teaching of Jahve, which is become Israel's no'mos , rule of life; in this he meditates profoundly by day and night (two acc. with the old accusative terminations am and ah). The perff. in v. 1 describe what he all along has never done, the fut. yeh|geh , what he is always striving to do; haagaah of a deep (cf. Arab. hjj, depressum esse), dull sound, as if vibrating between within and without, here signifies the quiet soliloquy (cf. Arab. hjs, mussitando secum loqui) of one who is searching and thinking.

    With w|haayaah , (Note: By the Sheb stands Metheg (Gaja), as it does wherever a word, with Sheb in the first syllable, has Olewejored, Rebia magnum, or Dech without a conjunctive preceding, in case at least one vowel and no Metheg-except perhaps that standing before Sheb compos.-lies between the Sheb and the tone, e.g., |nnat|qaah (with Dech) Ps 2:3, w|'e`eneehuw 91:15 and the like. The intonation of the accent is said in these instances to begin, by anticipation, with the fugitive e.) in v. 3, the development of the 'shry now begins; it is the praet. consec.: he becomes in consequence of this, he is thereby, like a tree planted beside the water-courses, which yields its fruit at the proper season and its leaf does not fall off. In distinction from naaTuwa` , according to Jalkut 614, shaatuwl means firmly planted, so that no winds that may rage around it are able to remove it from its place (mmqwmw 'tw mzyzyn 'yn).

    In mayim pal|geey , both mayim and the plur. serve to give intensity to the figure; peleg (Arab. fal'g, from plg to divide, Job 38:25) means the brook meandering and cleaving its course for itself through the soil and stones; the plur. denotes either one brook regarded from its abundance of water, or even several which from different directions supply the tree with nourishing and refreshing moisture. In the relative clause the whole emphasis does not rest on b|`itow (Calvin: impii, licet praecoces fructus ostentent, nihil tamen producunt nisi abortivum), but pir|yow is the first, b|`itow the second toneword: the fruit which one expects from it, it yields (equivalent to ya`aseh it produces, elsewhere), and that at its appointed, proper time (= b|`id|tow, for `eet is = `eedet or `edet, like redet , ledet , from waa`ad), without ever disappointing that hope in the course of the recurring seasons. The clause yibowl lo' w|`aaleehuw is the other half of the relative clause: and its foliage does not fall off or wither (naabeel like the synon. Arab. dbl, from the root bl).

    The green foliage is an emblem of faith, which converts the water of life of the divine word into sap and strength, and the fruit, an emblem of works, which gradually ripen and scatter their blessings around; a tree that has lost its leaves, does not bring its fruit to maturity. It is only with w|kol , where the language becomes unemblematic, that the man who loves the Law of God again becomes the direct subject. The accentuation treats this member of the verse as the third member of the relative clause; one may, however, say of a thriving plant tsaaleeach, but not hits|liyach . This Hiph. (from tslch , Arab. tslh, to divide, press forward, press through, vid., Ps 45:5) signifies both causative: to cause anything to go through, or prosper (Gen 34:23), and transitive: to carry through, and intransitive: to succeed, prosper (Judg 18:5). With the first meaning, Jahve would be the subject; with the third, the project of the righteous; with the middle one, the righteous man himself. This last is the most natural: everything he takes in hand he brings to a successful issue (an expression like 2 Chron 7:11; 31:21; Dan 8:24). What a richly flowing brook is to the tree that is planted on its bank, such is the word of God to him who devotes himself to it: it makes him, according to his position and calling, ever fruitful in good and well-timed deeds and keeps him fresh in his inner and outward life, and whatsoever such an one undertakes, he brings to a successful issue, for the might of the word and of the blessing of God is in his actions.

    PSALMS 1:4-6

    The ungodly are not so: but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away.

    The ungodly (hrsh`ym, with the demonstrative art.) are the opposite of a tree planted by the water-courses: they are kamots , like chaff (from muwts to press out), which the wind drives away, viz., from the loftily situated threshing-floor (Isa 17:13), i.e., without root below, without fruit above, devoid of all the vigour and freshness of life, lying loose upon the threshing-floor and a prey of the slightest breeze-thus utterly worthless and unstable. With `al-keen an inference is drawn from this moral characteristic of the ungodly: just on account of their inner worthlessness and instability they do not stand bamish|paaT . This is the word for the judgment of just recompense to which God brings each individual man and all without exception with all their words (Eccl 12:14)- His righteous government, which takes cognisance of the whole life of each individual and the history of nations and recompenses according to desert.

    In this judgment the ungodly cannot stand (quwm to continue to stand, like `aamad Ps 130:3 to keep one's self erect), nor sinners tsadiyqiym ba`adat . The congregation (`eedaah = 'idah, from waa`ad, yaa`ad ) of the righteous is the congregation of Jahve (h' `adat ), which, according to its nature which is ordained and inwrought by God, is a congregation of the righteous, to which consequently the unrighteous belong only outwardly and visibly: ou' ga'r pa'ntes ohi ex Israee'l ohu'toi Israee'l, Rom 9:6. God's judgment, when and wheresoever he may hold it, shall trace back this appearance to its nothingness. When the time of the divine decision shall come, which also separates outwardly that which is now inwardly separate, viz., righteous and unrighteous, wheat and chaff, then shall the unrighteous be driven away like chaff before the storm, and their temporary prosperity, which had no divine roots, come to a fearful end.

    For Jahve knoweth the way of the righteous, yowdeea` as in Ps 37:18; Matt 7:23; 2 Tim 2:19, and frequently. What is intended is, as the schoolmen say, a nosse con affectu et effectu, a knowledge which is in living, intimate relationship to its subject and at the same time is inclined to it and bound to it by love. The way, i.e., the life's course, of the righteous has God as its goal; God knows this way, which on this very account also unfailingly reaches its goal. On the contrary, the way of the ungodly to'beed , perishes, because left to itself-goes down to 'abadown , loses itself, without reaching the goal set before it, in darkest night. The way of the righteous only is `owlaam derek| , Ps 139:24, a way that ends in eternal life. Ps 112 which begins with 'shry ends with the same fearful t'bd.

    The Kingdom of God and of His Christ, to Which Everything Must Bow The didactic Ps 1 which began with 'shry, is now followed by a prophetic Psalm, which closes with 'shry. It coincides also in other respects with Ps 1, but still more with Psalms of the earlier time of the kings (59:9; 83:3-9) and with Isaiah's prophetic style. The rising of the confederate nations and their rulers against Jahve and His Anointed will be dashed to pieces against the imperturbable all-conquering power of dominion, which Jahve has entrusted to His King set upon Zion, His Son. This is the fundamental thought, which is worked out with the vivid directness of dramatic representation. The words of the singer and seer begin and end the Psalm.

    The rebels, Jahve, and His Anointed come forward, and speak for themselves; but the framework is formed by the composer's discourse, which, like the chorus of the Greek drama, expresses the reflexions and feelings which are produced on the spectators and hearers. The poem before us is not purely lyric. The personality of the poet is kept in the background. The Lord's Anointed who speaks in the middle of the Psalm is not the anonymous poet himself. It may, however, be a king of the time, who is here regarded in the light of the Messianic promise, or that King of the future, in whom at a future period the mission of the Davidic kingship in the world shall be fulfilled: at all events this Lord's Anointed comes forward with the divine power and glory, with which the Messiah appears in the prophets.

    The Psalm is anonymous. For this very reason we may not assign it to David (Hofm.) nor to Solomon (Ew.); for nothing is to be inferred from Acts 4:25, since in the New Testament "hymn of David" and "psalm" are co-ordinate ideas, and it is always far more hazardous to ascribe an anonymous Psalm to David or Solomon, than to deny to one inscribed ldwd or lshlmh direct authorship from David or Solomon. But the subject of the Psalm is neither David (Kurtz) nor Solomon (Bleek). It might be David, for in his reign there is at least one coalition of the peoples like that from which our Psalm takes its rise, vid., 2 Sam 10:6: on the contrary it cannot be Solomon, because in his reign, though troubled towards its close (1 Kings 11:14ff.), no such event occurs, but would then have to be inferred to have happened from this Psalm. We might rather guess at Uzziah (Meier) or Hezekiah (Maurer), both of whom inherited the kingdom in a weakened condition and found the neighbouring peoples alienated from the house of David. The situation might correspond to these times, for the rebellious peoples, which are brought before us, have been hitherto subject to Jahve and His Anointed. But all historical indications which might support the one supposition or the other are wanting.

    If the God-anointed one, who speaks in v. 7, were the psalmist himself, we should at least know the Psalm was composed by a king filled with a lofty Messianic consciousness. But the dramatic movement of the Psalm up to the w`th (v. 10) which follows, is opposed to such an identification of the God-anointed one with the poet. But that Alexander Jannaeus (Hitz.), that blood-thirsty ruler, so justly hated by his people, who inaugurated his reign by fratricide, may be both at the same time, is a supposition which turns the moral and covenant character of the Psalm into detestable falsehood. The Old Testament knows no kingship to which is promised the dominion of the world and to which sonship is ascribed (2 Sam 7:14; Ps 89:28), but the Davidic. The events of his own time, which influenced the mind of the poet, are no longer clear to us. But from these he is carried away into those tumults of the peoples which shall end in all kingdoms becoming the kingdom of God and of His Christ (Apoc. 11:15; 12:10).

    In the New Testament this Psalm is cited more frequently than any other.

    According to Acts 4:25-28, vv. 1 and 2 have been fulfilled in the confederate hostility of Israel and the Gentiles against Jesus the holy servant of God and against His confessors. In the Epistle to the Hebrews, Ps 110 and 2 stand side by side, the former as a witness of the eternal priesthood of Jesus after the order of Melchisedek, the latter as a witness of His sonship, which is superior to that of the angels. Paul teaches us in Acts 13:33, comp. Rom 1:4, how the "to-day" is to be understood. The "to-day" according to its proper fulfilment, is the day of Jesus' resurrection. Born from the dead to the life at the right hand of God, He entered on this day, which the church therefore calls dies regalis, upon His eternal kingship.

    The New Testament echo of this Psalm however goes still deeper and further. The two names of the future One in use in the time of Jesus, ho Christo's and ho uhio's tou' theou' , John 1:50; Matt 26:63 (in the mouth of Nathanael and of the High Priest) refer back to this Ps. and Dan 9:25, just as ho uhio's tou' anthroo'pou incontrovertibly refers to Ps 8:5 and Dan 7:13. The view maintained by De Wette and Hupfeld, that the Psalm is not applicable to the Christian conceptions of the Messiah, seems almost as though these were to be gauged according to the authoritative utterances of the professorial chair and not according to the language of the Apostles. Even in the Apocalypse, Ps 19:15; 12:5, Jesus appears exactly as this Psalm represents Him, as poimai'noon ta' e'thnee en rha'bdoo sideera'. The office of the Messiah is not only that of Saviour but also of Judge. Redemption is the beginning and the judgment the end of His work. It is to this end that the Psalm refers. The Lord himself frequently refers in the Gospels to the fact of His bearing side by side with the sceptre of peace and the shepherd's staff, the sceptre of iron also, Matt 24:50f., 21:44, Luke 19:27.

    The day of His coming is indeed a day of judgment-the great day of the orgee' tou' agni'ou, Apoc. 6:17, before which the ultra-spiritual Messianic creations of enlightened exegetes will melt away, just as the carnal Messianic hopes of the Jews did before His first coming.

    PSALMS 2:1-3

    Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?

    Verse 1-3. The Psalm begins with a seven line strophe, ruled by an interrogative Wherefore. The mischievous undertaking condemns itself, It is groundless and fruitless. This certainty is expressed, with a tinge of involuntary astonishment, in the question. laamaah followed by a praet. enquires the ground of such lawlessness: wherefore have the peoples banded together so tumultuously (Aquila: ethorubee'theesan)? and followed by a fut., the aim of this ineffectual action: wherefore do they imagine emptiness? riyq might be adverbial and equivalent to laariyq , but it is here, as in Ps 4:3, a governed accusative; for haagaah which signifies in itself only quiet inward musing and yearning, expressing itself by a dull muttering (here: something deceitful, as in 38:13), requires an object. By this ryq the involuntary astonishment of the question justifies itself: to what purpose is this empty affair, i.e., devoid of reason and continuance?

    For the psalmist, himself a subject and member of the divine kingdom, is too well acquainted with Jahve and His Anointed not to recognise beforehand the unwarrantableness and impotency of such rebellion. That these two things are kept in view, is implied by v. 2, which further depicts the position of affairs without being subordinated to the lmh . The fut. describes what is going on at the present time: they set themselves in position, they take up a defiant position (hit|yatseeb as in 1 Sam 17:16), after which we again (comp. the reverse order in Ps 83:6) have a transition to the perf. which is the more uncoloured expression of the actual: nowcad (with yachad as the exponent of reciprocity) prop. to press close and firm upon one another, then (like Arab. swada, which, according to the correct observation of the Turkish Kamus, in its signification clam cum aliquo locutus est, starts from the very same primary meaning of pressing close to any object): to deliberate confidentially together (as 31:14 and now`ats 71:10).

    The subjects mal|keey-'erets and rowz|niym (according to the Arabic razuna, to be weighty: the grave, dignitaries, semnoi', augusti) are only in accordance with the poetic style without the article. It is a general rising of the people of the earth against Jahve and His maashiyach , Christo's , the king anointed by Him by means of the holy oil and most intimately allied to Him. The psalmist hears (v. 3) the decision of the deliberating princes. The pathetic suff. moo instead of hem refers back to Jahve and His Anointed. The cohortatives express the mutual kindling of feeling; the sound and rhythm of the exclamation correspond to the dull murmur of hatred and threatening defiance: the rhythm is iambic, and then anapaestic. First they determine to break asunder the fetters (mowceerowt = mo'ceerowt) to which the 'et , which is significant in the poetical style, points, then to cast away the cords from them (mimenuw a nobis, this is the Palestinian mode of writing, whereas the Babylonians said and wrote mimeenuw a nobis in distinction from mimenuw ab eo, B. Sota 35a) partly with the vexation of captives, partly with the triumph of freedmen. They are, therefore, at present subjects of Jahve and His Anointed, and not merely because the whole world is Jahve's, but because He has helped His Anointed to obtain dominion over them. It is a battle for freedom, upon which they are entering, but a freedom that is opposed to God.

    PSALMS 2:4-6

    He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.

    Above the scene of this wild tumult of battle and imperious arrogance the psalmist in this six line strophe beholds Jahve, and in spirit hears His voice of thunder against the rebels. In contrast to earthly rulers and events Jahve is called bashaamayim yowsheeb : He is enthroned above them in unapproachable majesty and ever-abiding glory; He is called 'adonaay as He who controls whatever takes place below with absolute power according to the plan His wisdom has devised, which brooks no hindrance in execution. The futt. describe not what He will do, but what He does continually (cf. Isa 18:4f.). laamow also belongs, according to Ps 59:9; 37:13, to yis|chaaq (schq which is more usual in the post-pentateuchal language = tschq ). He laughs at the defiant ones, for between them and Him there is an infinite distance; He derides them by allowing the boundless stupidity of the infinitely little one to come to a climax and then He thrusts him down to the earth undeceived.

    This climax, the extreme limit of the divine forbearance, is determined by the 'aaz , as in Deut 29:19, cf. shaam Ps 14:5; 36:13, which is a "then" referring to the future and pointing towards the crisis which then supervenes. Then He begins at once to utter the actual language of His wrath to his foes and confounds them in the heat of His anger, disconcerts them utterly, both outwardly and in spirit. baahal , Arab. bhl, cogn. baalah , means originally to let loose, let go, then in Hebrew sometimes, externally, to overthrow, sometimes, of the mind, to confound and disconcert.

    Verse 5-6. V. 5a is like a peal of thunder (cf. Isa 10:33); bacharownow , 5b, like the lightning's destructive flash. And as the first strophe closed with the words of the rebels, so this second closes with Jahve's own words. With wa'aniy begins an adverbial clause like Gen 15:2; 18:13; Ps 50:17. The suppressed principal clause (cf. Isa 3:14; Ew. 341, c) is easily supplied: ye are revolting, whilst notwithstanding I.... With wa'aniy He opposes His irresistible will to their vain undertaking.

    It has been shown by Bttcher, that we must not translate "I have anointed" (Targ., Symm.). naacak| , Arab. nsk, certainly means to pour out, but not to pour upon, and the meaning of pouring wide and firm (of casting metal, libation, anointing) then, as in hitsiyg, hitsiyq, goes over into the meaning of setting firmly in any place (fundere into fundare, constituere, as LXX, Syr., Jer., and Luther translate), so that consequently naaciyk| the word for prince cannot be compared with maashiyach , but with n|tsiyb . (Note: Even the Jalkut on the Psalms, 620, wavers in the explanation of nckty between 'mshchtyh I have anointed him, (after Dan 10:3), 'tyktyh (I have cast him (after Ex 32:4 and freq.), and gdltyw I have made him great (after Mic 5:4). Aquila, by rendering it kai' ediasa'meen (from dia'zesthai = hufai'nein), adds a fourth possible rendering. A fifth is naacak| to purify, consecrate (Hitz.), which does not exist, for the Arabic nasaka obtains this meaning from the primary signification of cleansing by flooding with water (e.g., washing away the briny elements of a field). Also in Prov 8:23 nicak|tiy means I am cast = placed.)

    The Targum rightly inserts uwm|niyteeyh (et praefeci eum) after rabiytiy (unxi), for the place of the anointing is not `al-tsiyown. History makes no mention of a king of Israel being anointed on Zion. Zion is mentioned as the royal seat of the Anointed One; there he is installed, that He may reign there, and rule from thence, Ps 110:2. It is the hill of the city of David (2 Sam 5:7,9; 1 Kings 8:1) including Moriah, that is intended. That hill of holiness, i.e., holy hill, which is the resting-place of the divine presence and therefore excels all the heights of the earth, is assigned to Him as the seat of His throne.

    PSALMS 2:7-9

    I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.

    The Anointed One himself now speaks and expresses what he is, and is able to do, by virtue of the divine decree. No transitional word or formula of introduction denotes this sudden transition from the speech of Jahve to that of His Christ. The psalmist is the seer: his Psalm is the mirrored picture of what he saw and the echo of what he heard. As Jahve in opposition to the rebels acknowledges the king upon Zion, so the king on Zion appeals to Him in opposition to the rebels. The name of God, y|haaowh , has Rebia magnum and, on account of the compass of the full intonation of this accent, a Gaja by the Sheb (comp. 'elohiy Ps 25:2, 'elohiym 68:8, 'adonaay 90:1). (Note: We may observe here, in general, that this Gaja (Metheg) which draws the Sheb into the intonation is placed even beside words with the lesser distinctives Zinnor and Rebia parvum only by the Masorete Ben-Naphtali, not by Ben-Asher (both about 950 A.D.).

    This is a point which has not been observed throughout even in Baer's edition of the Psalter so that consequently e.g., in 5:11 it is to be written 'elohiym ; in 6:2 on the other hand (with Dech) y|haowh, not y|haaowh .)

    The construction of cipeer with 'el (as Ps 69:27, comp. 'mr Gen 20:2; Jer 27:19, dibeer 2 Chron 32:19, hwdy` Isa 38:19): to narrate or make an announcement with respect to... is minute, and therefore solemn. Self-confident and fearless, he can and will oppose to those, who now renounce their allegiance to him, a choq , i.e., an authentic, inviolable appointment, which can neither be changed nor shaken. All the ancient versions, with the exception of the Syriac, read chq-yhwh together. The line of the strophe becomes thereby more symmetrical, but the expression loses in force. 'el-choq rightly has Olewejored. It is the amplificative use of the noun when it is not more precisely determined, known in Arabic grammar: such a decree! majestic as to its author and its matter. Jahve has declared to Him: 'ataah b|niy , (Note: Even in pause here 'ataah remains without a lengthened aa (Psalter ii. 468), but the word is become Milel, while out of pause, according to Ben-Asher, it is Milra; but even out of pause (as in Ps 89:10,12; 90:2) it is accented on the penult. by Ben-Naphtali. The Athnach of the books t'm (Ps., Job, Prov.), corresponding to the Zakeph of the 21 other books, has only a half pausal power, and as a rule none at all where it follows Olewejored, cf. 9:7; 14:4; 25:7; 27:4; 31:14; 35:15, etc. (Baer, Thorath Emeth p. 37).) and that on the definite day on which He has begotten or born him into this relationship of son. The verb yaalad (with the changeable vowel i (Note: The changeable i goes back either to a primary form yaaleed, yaar|sh , shaa'eel , or it originates directly from Pathach; forms like y|reeshuwhaa and sh|'eel|kaa favour the former, ee in a closed syllable generally going over into Segol favours the latter.)) unites in itself, like genna'n , the ideas of begetting and bearing (LXX gege'nneeka , Aq. e'tekon ); what is intended is an operation of divine power exalted above both, and indeed, since it refers to a setting up (nck ) in the kingship, the begetting into a royal existence, which takes place in and by the act of anointing (mshch). Whether it be David, or a son of David, or the other David, that is intended, in any case 2 Sam 7 is to be accounted as the first and oldest proclamation of this decree; for there David, with reference to his own anointing, and at the same time with the promise of everlasting dominion, receives the witness of the eternal sonship to which Jahve has appointed the seed of David in relation to Himself as Father, so that David and his seed can say to Jahve: 'ataah 'aabiy , Thou art my Father, 89:27, as Jahve can to him: 'ataah b|niy , Thou art My son.

    From this sonship of the Anointed one to Jahve, the Creator and Possessor of the world, flows His claim to and expectation of the dominion of the world. The cohortative, natural after challenges, follows upon sh|'al , Ges. 128, 1. Jahve has appointed the dominion of the world to His Son: on His part therefore it needs only the desire for it, to appropriate to Himself that which is allotted to Him. He needs only to be willing, and that He is willing is shown by His appealing to the authority delegated to Him by Jahve against the rebels. This authority has a supplement in v. 9, which is most terrible for the rebellious ones. The suff. refer to the gowyim , the e'thnee , sunk in heathenism. For these his sceptre of dominion (Ps 90:2) becomes a rod of iron, which will shatter them into a thousand pieces like a brittle image of clay (Jer 19:11).

    With nipeets alternates raa`a` (= raa`ats frangere), fut. taaroa` ; whereas the LXX (Syr., Jer.), which renders poimanei's autou's en rha'bdoo (as 1 Cor 4:21) sideera' , points it tir|`eem from raa`aah . The staff of iron, according to the Hebrew text the instrument of punitive power, becomes thus with reference to sheebeT as the shepherd's staff Ps 23:4; Mic 7:14, an instrument of despotism.

    PSALMS 2:10-12

    Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth.

    The poet closes with a practical application to the great of the earth of that which he has seen and heard. With w|`ataah , kai' nu'n (1 John 2:28), itaque, appropriate conclusions are drawn from some general moral matter of face (e.g., Prov 5:7) or some fact connected with the history of redemption (e.g., Isa 28:22). The exhortation is not addressed to those whom he has seen in a state of rebellion, but to kings in general with reference to what he has prophetically seen and heard. 'erets shop|Teey are not those who judge the earth, but the judges, i.e., rulers (Amos 2:3, cf. 1:8), belonging to the earth, throughout its length or breadth. The Hiph. his|kiyl signifies to show intelligence or discernment; the Niph. nowcar as a so-called Niph. tolerativum, to let one's self be chastened or instructed, like now`ats Prov 13:10, to allow one's self to be advised, nid|raash Ezek 14:3, to allow one's self to be sought, nim|tsaa' to allow one's self to be found, 1 Chron 28:9, and frequently.

    This general call to reflection is followed, in v. 11, by a special exhortation in reference to Jahve, and in v. 12, in reference to the Son. `ib|duw and giyluw answer to each other: the latter is not according to Hos 10:5 in the sense of chiyluw 96:9, but-since "to shake with trembling" (Hitz.) is a tautology, and as an imperative gylw everywhere else signifies: rejoice-according to Ps 100:2, in the sense of rapturous manifestation of joy at the happiness and honour of being permitted to be servants of such a God. The LXX correctly renders it: agallia'sthe autoo' en tro'moo . Their rejoicing, in order that it may not run to the excess of security and haughtiness, is to be blended with trembling (b| as Zeph 3:17), viz., with the trembling of reverence and selfcontrol, for God is a consuming fire, Heb 12:28.

    The second exhortation, which now follows, having reference to their relationship to the Anointed One, has been missed by all the ancient versions except the Syriac, as though its clearness had blinded the translators, since they render br , either bor purity, chastity, discipline (LXX, Targ., Ital., Vulg.), or bar pure, unmixed (Aq., Symm., Jer.: adorate pure). Thus also Hupfeld renders it "yield sincerely," whereas it is rendered by Ewald "receive wholesome warning," and by Hitzig "submit to duty" (bar like the Arabic birr = bir); Olshausen even thinks, there may be some mistake in br , and Diestel decides for bw instead of br . But the context and the usage of the language require osculamini filium. The Piel nisheeq means to kiss, and never anything else; and while bor in Hebrew means purity and nothing more, and bar as an adverb, pure, cannot be supported, nothing is more natural here, after Jahve has acknowledged His Anointed One as His Son, than that bar (Prov 31:2, even b|riy = b|niy )-which has nothing strange about it when found in solemn discourse, and here helps one over the dissonance of pen been -should, in a like absolute manner to choq , denote the unique son, and in fact the Son of God. (Note: Apart from the fact of br not having the article, its indefiniteness comes under the point of view of that which, because it combines with it the idea of the majestic, great, and terrible, is called by the Arabian grammarians Arab. 'l-tnkr lt'dm or ltktr or lthwl; by the boundlessness which lies in it it challenges the imagination to magnify the notion which it thus expresses. An Arabic expositor would here (as in v. 7 above) render it "Kiss a son and such a son!" (vid., Ibn Hishm in De Sacy's Anthol. Grammat. p. 85, where it is to be translated hic est vir, qualis vir!). Examples which support this doctrine are b|yaad Isa 28:2 by a hand, viz., God's almighty hand which is the hand of hands, and Isa 31:8 mip|neey-chereb before a sword, viz., the divine sword which brooks no opposing weapon.)

    The exhortation to submit to Jahve is followed, as Aben-Ezra has observed, by the exhortation to do homage to Jahve's Son. To kiss is equivalent to to do homage. Samuel kisses Saul (1 Sam 10:1), saying that thereby he does homage to him. (Note: On this vid., Scacchi Myrothecium, to. iii. (1637) c. 35.)

    The subject to what follows is now, however, not the Son, but Jahve. It is certainly at least quite as natural to the New Testament consciousness to refer "lest He be angry" to the Son (vid., Apoc. 6:16f.), and since the warning against putting trust (chacowt) in princes, Ps 118:9; 146:3, cannot be applied to the Christ of God, the reference of bow to Him (Hengst.) cannot be regarded as impossible. But since b| chaacaah is the usual word for taking confiding refuge in Jahve, and the future day of wrath is always referred to in the Old Testament (e.g., 110:5) as the day of the wrath of God, we refer the ne irascatur to Him whose son the Anointed One is; therefore it is to be rendered: lest Jahve be angry and ye perish derek| . This derek| is the accus. of more exact definition. If the way of any one perish. 1:6, he himself is lost with regard to the way, since this leads him into the abyss.

    It is questionable whether kim|`at means "for a little" in the sense of brevi or facile. The usus loquendi and position of the words favour the latter (Hupf.). Everywhere else kim|`at means by itself (without such additions as in Ezra 9:8; Isa 26:20; Ezek 16:47) "for a little, nearly, easily." At least this meaning is secured to it when it occurs after hypothetical antecedent clauses as in Ps 81:15; 2 Sam 19:37; Job 32:22.

    Therefore it is to be rendered: for His wrath might kindle easily, or might kindle suddenly. The poet warns the rulers in their own highest interest not to challenge the wrathful zeal of Jahve for His Christ, which according to v. 5 is inevitable. Well is it with all those who have nothing to fear from this outburst of wrath, because they hide themselves in Jahve as their refuge. The construct state chowceey connects bow , without a genitive relation, with itself as forming together one notion, Ges. 116, 1. chch the usual word for fleeing confidingly to Jahve, means according to its radical notion not so much refugere, confugere, as se abdere, condere, and is therefore never combined with 'el , but always with b|. (Note: On old names of towns, which show this ancient chch .

    Wetzstein's remark on Job 24:8 \Comm. on Job, en loc.]. The Arabic still has hsy in the reference of the primary meaning to water which, sucked in and hidden, flows under the sand and only comes to sight on digging. The rocky bottom on which it collects beneath the surface of the sand and by which it is prevented from oozing away or drying up is called Arab. has or his a hiding-place or place of protection, and a fountain dug there is called Arab. 'yn 'l-hy.)

    Morning Hymn of One in Distress, but Confident in God (In the Hebrew, v.1 is the designation 'A Psalm of David, when he fled before Absolom, his son.'; from then on v.1-8 in English translation corresponds to v.2-9 in the Hebrew, so followed here by K & D.)

    The two Psalms forming the prologue, which treat of cognate themes, the one ethical, from the standpoint of the chkmh, and the other related to the history of redemption from the standpoint of the nbw'h, are now followed by a morning prayer; for morning and evening prayers are surely the first that one expects to find in a prayer- and hymn-book. The morning hymn, Ps 3, which has the mention of the "holy hill" in common with Ps 2, naturally precedes the evening hymn Ps 4; for that Ps 3 is an evening hymn as some are of opinion, rests on grammatical misconception.

    With Ps 3, begin, as already stated, the hymns arranged for music. By l|daawid miz|mowr , a Psalm of David, the hymn which follows is marked as one designed for musical accompaniment. Since mzmwr occurs exclusively in the inscriptions of the Psalms, it is no doubt a technical expression coined by David. zaamar (root zm) is an onomatopoetic word, which in Kal signifies to cut off, and in fact to prune or lop (the vine) (cf. Arabic zbr, to write, from the buzzing noise of the style or reed on the writing material). The signification of singing and playing proper to the Piel are not connected with the signification "to nip." For neither the rhythmical division (Schultens) nor the articulated speaking (Hitz.) furnish a probable explanation, since the caesura and syllable are not natural but artificial notions, nor also the nipping of the strings (Bttch., Ges.), for which the language has coined the word nigeen (of like root with naaga` ).

    Moreover, the earliest passages in which zim|raah and zimeer occur (Gen 43:11; Ex 15:2; Judg 5:3), speak rather of song than music and both words frequently denote song in distinction from music, e.g., Ps 98:5; 81:3, cf. Song 2:12. Also, if zimeer originally means, like psa'llein, carpere (pulsare) fides, such names of instruments as Arab. zemr the hautboy and zummra the pipe would not be formed. But zimeer means, as Hupfeld has shown, as indirect an onomatope as canere, "to make music" in the widest sense; the more accurate usage of the language, however, distinguishes zimeer and shiyr as to play and to sing. With b| of the instrument zimeer denotes song with musical accompaniment (like the Aethiopic zmr instrumento canere) and zim|raah (Aram. z|maar ) is sometimes, as in Amos 5:23, absolutely: music. Accordingly miz|mowr signifies technically the music and shiyr the words. And therefore we translate the former by "Psalm," for ho psalmo's estin -says Gregory of Nyssa-hee dia' tou' orga'nou tou' mousikou' meloodi'a oodee' de' hee dia' sto'matos genome'nou tou' me'lous meta' rheema'toon ekfoo'neesis.

    That Ps 3 is a hymn arranged for music is also manifest from the celaah which occurs here 3 times. It is found in the Psalter, as Bruno has correctly calculated, 71 times (17 times in the 1st book, 30 in the 2nd, in the 3rd, 4 in the 4th) and, with the exception of the anonymous Ps 66- 67, always in those that are inscribed by the name of David and of the psalmists famed from the time of David. That it is a marginal note referring to the Davidic Temple-music is clearly seen from the fact, that all the Psalms with clh have the lam|natseeach which relates to the musical execution, with the exception of eight (32, 48, 50, 82, 83, 87, 89, 143) which, however, from the designation miz|mowr are at least manifestly designed for music. The Tephilla of Habbakuk, ch. 3, the only portion of Scripture in which clh occurs out of the Psalter, as an exception has the lmntsch at the end. Including the three clh of this tephilla, the word does not occur less than 74 times in the Old Testament.

    Now as to the meaning of this musical nota bene, 1st, every explanation as an abbreviation-the best of which is = hashaar l|ma`|laah cob (turn thyself towards above i.e., towards the front, O Singer! therefore: da capo)-is to be rejected, because such abbreviations fail of any further support in the Old Testament. Also 2ndly, the derivation from shaalaah = caalaah silere, according to which it denotes a pause, or orders the singers to be silent while the music strikes up, is inadmissible, because clh in this sense is neither Hebrew nor Aramaic and moreover in Hebrew itself the interchange of sh with c (shir|yown , cir|yown) is extremely rare. There is but one verbal stem with which celaah can be combined, viz., caalal or caalaah (caalaa' ).

    The primary notion of this verbal stem is that of lifting up, from which, with reference to the derivatives culaam a ladder and m|cilaah in the signification an ascent, or steps, 2 Chron 9:11, comes the general meaning for celaah , of a musical rise. When the tradition of the Mishna explains the word as a synonym of netsach and the Targum, the Quinta, and the Sexta (and although variously Aquila and sometimes the Syriac version) render it in accordance therewith "for ever (always),"-in favour of which Jerome also at last decides, Ep. ad Marcellam "quid sit Sela",-the original musical signification is converted into a corresponding logical or lexical one. But it is apparent from the dia'psalma of the LXX (adopted by Symm., Theod., and the Syr.), that the musical meaning amounts to a strengthening of some kind or other; for dia'psalma signifies, according to its formation (-ma = -menon ), not the pause as Gregory of Nyssa defines it: hee metaxu' tee's psalmoodi'as genome'nee kata' to' athro'on epeere'meesis pro's hupodochee'n tou' theo'then epikrinome'nou noee'matos, but either the interlude, especially of the stringed instruments, (like diau'lion diau'leion], according to Hesychius the interlude of the flutes between the choruses), or an intensified playing (as diapsa'llein trigoo'nois is found in a fragment of the comedian Eupolis in Athenaeus of the strong play of triangular harps). (Note: On the explanations of dia'psalma in the Fathers and the old lexicographers. Vid., Suicer's Thes. Eccl. and Augusti's Christl.

    Archologie, Th. ii.)

    According to the pointing of the word as we now have it, it ought apparently to be regarded as a noun cal with the ah of direction (synonymous with geewaah , up! Job 22:29); for the omission of the Dagesh beside the ah of direction is not without example (cf. 1 Kings 2:40 gataah which is the proper reading, instead of gataah , and referred to by Ewald) and the e-, with Dag. forte implicitum, is usual before liquids instead of aa-, as padenaah Gen 28:2, heraah Gen 14:10 instead of paddannah, harrah, as also kar|melaah 1 Sam 25:5 instead of kar|milaah. But the present pointing of this word, which is uniformly included in the accentuation of the Masoretic verse, is scarcely the genuine pointing: it looks like an imitation of netsach . The word may originally have been pronounced calaah (elevatio after the form bataah , dalaah ). The combination clh higaayown Ps 9:17, in which hgywn refers to the playing of the stringed instruments (92:4) leads one to infer that clh is a note which refers not to the singing but to the instrumental accompaniment. But to understand by this a heaping up of weighty expressive accords and powerful harmonies in general, would be to confound ancient with modern music. What is meant is the joining in of the orchestra, or a reinforcement of the instruments, or even a transition from piano to forte.

    Three times in this Psalm we meet with this Hebrew forte. In sixteen Psalms (7, 10, 21, 44, 47, 48, 50, 54, 60, 61, 75, 81, 82, 83, 85, 143) we find it only once; in fifteen Psalms (4, 9, 24, 39, 49, 52, 55, 57, 59, 62, 67, 76, 84, 87, 88), twice; in but seven Psalms (3, 32, 46, 56, 68, 77, 140 and also Hab), three times; and only in one (89), four times. It never stands at the beginning of a Psalm, for the ancient music was not as yet so fully developed, that clh should absolutely correspond to the ritornello.

    Moreover, it does not always stand at the close of a strophe so as to be the sign of a regular interlude, but it is always placed where the instruments are to join in simultaneously and take up the melody-a thing which frequently happens in the midst of the strophe. In the Psalm before us it stands at the close of the 1st, 2nd, and 4th strophes. The reason of its omission after the third is evident.

    Not a few of the Psalms bear the date of the time of the persecution under Saul, but only this and probably Ps 63 have that of Absolom. The Psalter however contains other Psalms which reflect this second time of persecution. It is therefore all the more easy to accept as tradition the inscription: when he fled before Absolom, his son. And what is there in the contents of the Psalm against this statement? All the leading features of the Psalm accord with it, viz., the mockery of one who is rejected of God 2 Sam 16:7f., the danger by night 2 Sam 17:1, the multitudes of the people 2 Sam 15:13; 17:11, and the high position of honour held by the psalmist. Hitzig prefers to refer this and the following Psalm to the surprize by the Amalekites during David's settlement in Ziklag. But since at that time Zion and Jerusalem were not free some different interpretation of v. 5b becomes necessary. And the fact that the Psalm does not contain any reference to Absolom does not militate against the inscription. It is explained by the tone of 2 Sam. 19:118:33 Engl. And if Psalms belonging to the time of Absolom's rebellion required any such reference to make them known, then we should have none at all.

    PSALMS 3:1-2

    (3:2-3) LORD, how are they increased that trouble me! many are they that rise up against me.

    Many there be which say of my soul, There is no help for him in God.


    The first strophe contains the lament concerning the existing distress.

    From its combination with the exclamative maah , rabuw is accented on the ultima (and also in Ps 104:24); the accentuation of the perf. of verbs `` very frequently (even without the Waw consec.) follows the example of the strong verb, Ges. 67 rem. 12. A declaration then takes the place of the summons and the rabiym implied in the predicate rabuw now becomes the subject of participial predicates, which more minutely describe the continuing condition of affairs. The l| of l|nap|shiy signifies "in the direction of," followed by an address in 11:1 (= "to"), or, as here and frequently (e.g., Gen 21:7) followed by narration (= "of," concerning). l|nap|shiy instead of liy implies that the words of the adversaries pronounce a judgment upon his inmost life, or upon his personal relationship to God. y|shuw`aataah is an intensive form for y|shuw`aah , whether it be with a double feminine termination (Ges., Ew., Olsh.), or, with an original (accusative) ah of the direction: we regard this latter view, with Hupfeld, as more in accordance with the usage and analogy of the language (comp. 44:27 with 80:3, and lay|laah prop. nu'kta , then as common Greek hee nu'kta nu'chtha).

    God is the ground of help; to have no more help in Him is equivalent to being rooted out of favour with God. Open enemies as well as disconcerted friends look upon him as one henceforth cast away. David had plunged himself into the deepest abyss of wretchedness by his adultery with Bathsheba, at the beginning of the very year in which, by the renewal of the Syro-Ammonitish war, he had reached the pinnacle of worldly power. The rebellion of Absolom belonged to the series of dire calamities which began to come upon him from that time. Plausible reasons were not wanting for such words as these which give up his cause as lost.

    PSALMS 3:3-4

    (3:4-5) But cleansed by penitence he stands in a totally different relationship to God and God to him from that which men suppose. Every hour he has reason to fear some overwhelming attack but Jahve is the shield which covers him behind and before (b|`ad constr. of ba`ad = Arab. ba'da, prop. pone, post). His kingdom is taken from him, but Jahve is his glory.

    With covered head and dejected countenance he ascended the Mount of Olives (2 Sam 15:30), but Jahve is the "lifter up of his head," inasmuch as He comforts and helps him. The primary passage of this believing utterance "God is a shield" is Gen 15:1 (cf. Deut 33:29). Very far from praying in vain, he is assured, that when he prays his prayer will be heard and answered. The rendering "I cried and He answered me" is erroneous here where 'eq|raa' does not stand in an historical connection. The future of sequence does not require it, as is evident from Ps 55:17f. (comp. on 120:1); it is only an expression of confidence in the answer on God's part, which will follow his prayer. In constructions like 'eq|raa' qowliy , Hitzig and Hupfeld regard qowliy as the narrower subject-notion beside the more general one (as Psalms 44:3; 69:11; 83:19): my voice-I cried; but the position of the words is not favourable to this in the passage before us and in 17:10; 27:7; 57:5; 66:17; 142:2, Isa 36:9, though it may be in 69:11; 108:2. According to Ew. 281, c, qowliy is an accusative of more precise definition, as without doubt in Isa 10:30 cf. Ps 60:7; 17:13f.; the cry is thereby described as a loud cry. (Note: Bttcher, Collectanea pp. 166f., also adopts the view, that nap|shiy , piy , qowliy are each appositum vicarium subjecti and therefore nomin. in such passages. But 1) the fact that 'eet never stands beside them is explained by the consideration that it is not suited to an adverbial collateral definition. And 2) that elsewhere the same notions appear as direct subjects, just as 3) that elsewhere they alternate with the verbal subject-notion in the parallel member of the verse (Ps 130:5; Prov 8:4)-these last two admit of no inference. The controverted question of the syntax is, moreover, an old one and has been treated of at length by Kimchi in his Book of Roots s. r. 'wh.)

    To this cry, as waya`aneeniy as being a pure mood of sequence implies, succeeds the answer, or, which better corresponds to the original meaning of `aanaah (comp. Arab. 'nn, to meet, stand opposite) reply; (Note: Vid., Redslob in his treatise: Die Integritt der Stelle Hos. vii. 4-10 in Frage gestellt S. 7.) and it comes from the place whither it was directed: qaad|show meehar . He had removed the ark from Kirjath Jeraim to Zion. He had not taken it with him when he left Jerusalem and fled before Absolom, 2 Sam 15:25. He was therefore separated by a hostile power from the resting-place of the divine presence. But his prayer urged its way on to the cherubimthrone; and to the answer of Him who is enthroned there, there is no separating barrier of space or created things.

    PSALMS 3:5-6

    (3:6-7) That this God will protect him, His protection during the past night is now a pledge to him in the early morning. It is a violation of the rules of grammar to translate waa'iyshaanaah : I shall go to sleep, or: I am going to sleep. The 1 pers. fut. consec. which is indicated by the waa, is fond of taking an ah of direction, which gives subjective intensity to the idea of sequence: "and thus I then fell asleep," cf. Ps 7:5; 119:55, and frequently, Gen 32:6, and more especially so in the later style, Ezra 9:3; Neh 13:21, vid., Ges. 49, 2, Bttcher, Neue Aehrenlese, No. 412. It is a retrospective glance at the past night. Awaking in health and safety, he feels grateful to Him to whom he owes it: yic|m|keeniy yhwh . It is the result of the fact that Jahve supports him, and that God's hand is his pillow. (Note: Referred to the other David, v. 6 has become an Eastermorning call, vid., Val. Herberger's Paradies-Blmlein aus dem Lustgarten der Psalmen (Neue Ausg. 1857) S. 25.)

    Because this loving, almighty hand is beneath his head (Song 2:6) he is inaccessible and therefore also devoid of fear. shiyt (shuwt) carries its object in itself: to take up one's position, as in Isa 22:7, synon. chaanaah Ps 28:3 and siym 1 Kings 20:12, cf. epitithe'nai tini' . David does not put a merely possible case. All Israel, that is to say ten thousands, myriads, were gone over to Absolom. Here, at the close of the third strophe, clh is wanting because the 'iyraa' lo' (I will not fear) is not uttered in a tone of triumph, but is only a quiet, meek expression of believing confidence. If the instruments struck up boldly and suddenly here, then a cry for help, urged forth by the difficulties that still continually surrounded him, would not be able to follow.

    PSALMS 3:7-8

    (3:8-9) The bold quwmaah is taken from the mouth of Moses, Num 10:35.

    God is said to arise when He takes a decisive part in what takes place in this world. Instead of kmah it is accented kumh as Milra, in order (since the reading 'dny qwmh is assumed) that the final aah may be sharply cut off from the guttural initial of the next word, and thus render a clear, exact pronunciation of the latter possible (Hitz., Ew. 228, b). (Note: This is the traditional reason of the accentuation shub h, km h, shith h before yhwh : it is intended to prevent the one or other of the two gutturals being swallowed up (ybwl`w shl') by too rapid speaking. Hence it is that the same thing takes place even when another word, not the name of God, follows, if it begins with ' or the like, and is closely connected with it by meaning and accentuation: e.g., Judg 4:18 cuwraah twice Milra before '; Ps 57:9 `uwraah , Milra before h; laamaah , Milra before h; Ex 5:22; naachaah Isa 11:2, and heebee'taa Gen 26:10, Milra before `; and the following fact favours it, viz., that for a similar reason Pasek is placed where two y would come together, e.g., Gen 21:14 Adonaj jir'eh with the stroke of separation between the two words, cf. Ex 15:18; Prov 8:21. The fact that in Jer 40:5, y|shubaah remains Milel, is accounted for by its being separated from the following 'el-g|dal|yaah by Pazer; a real exception, however (Michlol 112 b)-and not as Norzi from misapprehension observes, a controverted one-is shubaah , Milel before haa`iyr 2 Sam 15:27, but it is by no means sufficient to oppose the purely orthophonic (not rhythmical) ground of this ultima-accentuation.

    Even the semi-guttural r sometimes has a like influence over the tone: rbh rb Ps 43:1; 119:154.)

    Beside yhwh we have 'elohay , with the suff. of appropriating faith. The cry for help is then substantiated by kiy and the retrospective perf. They are not such perff. of prophetically certain hope as in Ps 6:9; 7:7; 9:5f., for the logical connection requires an appeal to previous experience in the present passage: they express facts of experience, which are taken from many single events (hence kl ) down to the present time. The verb hikaah is construed with a double accusative, as e.g., Iliad xvi. 597 to'n me'n a'ra Glau'kos stee'thos me'son ou'tase douri'. The idea of contempt (Job 16:10) is combined with that of rendering harmless in this "smiting upon the cheek." What is meant is a striking in of the jaw-bone and therewith a breaking of the teeth in pieces (shibar ). David means, an ignominious end has always come upon the ungodly who rose up against him and against God's order in general, as their punishment.

    The enemies are conceived of as monsters given to biting, and the picture of their fate is fashioned according to this conception. Jahve has the power and the will to defend His Anointed against their hostility: hay|shuw`aah lah' penes Jovam est salus. y|shuw`aah (from yaasha` , Arab. wasi'a, amplum esse) signifies breadth as applied to perfect freedom of motion, removal of all straitness and oppression, prosperity without exposure to danger and unbeclouded. In the l| of possession lies the idea of the exclusiveness of the possession and of perfect freedom of disposal. At Jahve's free disposal stands hay|shuw`aah , salvation, in all its fulness (just so in Jonah 2:10, Apoc. Ps 7:10). In connection therewith David first of all thinks of his own need of deliverance. But as a true king he cannot before God think of himself, without connecting himself with his people. Therefore he closes with the intercessory inference: bir|kaatekaa `al-`am|kaa Upon Thy people by Thy blessing! We may supply t|hiy or taabo' . Instead of cursing his faithless people he implores a blessing upon those who have been piteously led astray and deceived. This "upon Thy people be Thy blessing!" has its counterpart in the "Father forgive them" of the other David, whom His people crucified.

    The one concluding word of the Psalm-observes Ewald-casts a bright light into the very depths of his noble soul.

    Evening Hymn of One Who Is Unmoved before Backbiters and Men of Little Faith (In the Hebrew, v.1 is the designation 'To the leader:...'; from then on v.1-8 in English translation corresponds to v.2-9 in the Hebrew, so followed here by K & D.)

    The Davidic morning hymn is now followed by a Davidic evening hymn.

    It is evident that they belong together from the mutual relation of Ps 4:7 with 3:3, and 3:6 with 4:9. They are the only two Psalms in which the direct words of others are taken up into a prayer with the formula "many say," 'mrym rbym. The history and chronological position of the one is explained from the inscription of the other. From the quousque 4:3, and the words of the feeble-faiths 4:7, it follows that Ps 4 is the later of the two.

    It is at the head of this Psalm that we are first met by lam|natseech (or lam|natseeach with Gaja, Hab 3:19), which still calls for investigation. It is found fifty five times in the Psalter, not 54 as is usually reckoned: viz., 19 times in book 1, 25 times in book 2, 8 times in book 3, times in book 4. Only two of the Psalms, at the head of which it is found, are anonymous: viz., 66, 67. All the others bear the names of David and of the psalmists celebrated from David's time, viz., 39 of David,9 of the Korahites, 5 of Asaph. No fewer than 30 of these Psalms are Elohimic. lmntsch is always the first word of the inscription; only in Ps 88, which is easily liable to be overlooked in reckoning, is it otherwise, because there two different inscriptions are put together.

    The meaning of the verb nitseeach is evident from the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra, which belongs to them. The predilection of the chronicler for the history of religious worship and antiquarian lore is also of use in reference to this word. He uses it in the history of the time of David, of Solomon, of Josiah, of Zerubbabel and Joshua, and always in connection with the accounts of the Temple-service and the building of single parts of the Temple. To discharge the official duties of the Temple-service is called beeyt-h' `al-m|le'ket natseeach 1 Chron 23:4 (comp. 28-32), and the expression is used in Ezra 3:8f. of the oversight of the work and workmen for the building of the Temple. The same 3300 (3600) overseers, who are called bam|laa'kaah haa`osiym baa`aam harodiym in 1 Kings 5:30 are described by the chronicler (2 Chron 2:1) as `aleeyhem m|nats|chiym .

    In connection with the repair of the Temple under Josiah we read that Levites were appointed l|natseeach (2 Chron 34:12), namely m|laa'kaah `oseeh l|kol (v. 13), instead of which we find it said in 2:17 l|ha`abiyd, to keep the people at their work. The primary notion of ntsch is that of shining, and in fact of the purest and most dazzling brightness; this then passes over to the notion of shining over to outshining, and in fact both of uninterrupted continuance and of excellence and superiority (vid., Ithpa. Dan 6:4, and cf. 1 Chron 23:4 with 9:13; 1 Cor 15:54 with Isa 25:8). Thus, therefore, m|natseeach is one who shows eminent ability in any department, and then it gains the general signification of master, director, chief overseer. At the head of the Psalms it is commonly understood of the direct of the Templemusic. m|natseeach est dux cantus-Luther says in one place-quem nos dicimus den Kappellenmeister the band-master, qui orditur et gubernat cantum, e'xarchos (Opp. lat. xvii. 134 ed. Erl.). But 1st, even the Psalms of Asaph have this lmntsch at the beginning, and he was himself a director of the Temple-music, and in fact the chief-director (chaaro'sh) 1 Chron 16:5, or at any rate he was one of the three (Heman, Asaph, Ethan), to whom the 24 classes of the 4000 Levite singers under the Davidico-Salomonic sanctuary were subordinate; 2ndly, the passage of the chronicler (1 Chron 15:17-21) which is most prominent in reference to this question, does not accord with this explanation.

    According to this passage the three directors of the Temple-music managed the cymbals l|hash|miya` , to sound aloud; eight other musicians of high rank the nablas and six others the citherns l|natseeach . This expression cannot mean "to direct," for the direction belonged to the three, and the cymbals were also better adapted to it than the citherns. It means "to take the lead in the playing": the cymbals directed and the citherns, better adapted to take the lead in the playing, were related to them, somewhat as the violins to the clarinets now-a-days.

    Hence m|natseeach is not the director of the Temple-music but in general the master of song, and lmntsch addresses the Psalm to him whose duty it is to arrange it and to train the Levite choristers; it therefore defines the Psalm as belonging to the songs of the Temple worship that require musical accompaniment. The translation of the Targum (Luther) also corresponds to this general sense of the expression: l|shabaachaa' "to be sung liturgically," and the LXX: eis to' te'los , if this signifies "to the execution" and does not on the contrary ascribe an eschatological meaning to the Psalm. (Note: Thus e.g., Eusebius: eis to' te'los hoos a'n makroi's hu'steron chro'nois epi' suntelei'a tou' aioo'nos mello'ntoon pleerou'sthai, and Theodoret: seemai'nei to' eis to' te'los ho'ti makroi's hu'steron chro'nois pleeroothee'setai ta' profeeteuo'mena, with which accords Pesachim 117a lb' l`tyd wngwn nytswch, i.e., Psalms with lmntsch and bngynwt refer to the last days. Gregory of Nyssa combines the different translations by rendering: eis te'los ho'per esti'n hee ni'kee.

    Ewald's view, that te'los in this formula means consecration, celebration, worship, is improbable; in this signification it is not a Septuagint word.)

    The bin|giynowt which is added is not governed by it. This can be seen at once from Hab 3:19: to the chief singer, with an accompaniment of my stringed instruments (vid., my Commentary), which Hitzig renders: to the chief singer of my musical pieces; but b| nitseeach is not a phrase that can be supported, and n|giynaah does not mean a piece of music.

    The Piel, nigeen, complete with b|yaad , signifies to touch the strings (cogn. ng` ), to play a stringed instrument. Whence comes n|giynowt (Ps 77:7; Isa 38:20) which is almost always used as a pluralet.: the play of the stringed instruments, and the superscribed bin|giynowt Ps 4; 6; 54:1-55:23; 67; 76: with an accompaniment of the stringed instruments; and b is used as in 49:5, Isa 30:29,32. The hymn is to be sung in company with, probably with the sole accompaniment of, the stringed instruments. The fact of the inscribed words bngynwt lmntsch preceding ldwd mzmwr probably arises from the fact of their being written originally at the top over the chief title which gave the generic name of the hymn and the author.

    PSALMS 4:1

    Hear me when I call, O God of my righteousness: thou hast enlarged me when I was in distress; have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.

    Jahve is tsedeq 'eloheey , the possessor of righteousness, the author of righteousness, and the vindicator of misjudged and persecuted righteousness. This God of righteousness David believingly calls his God (cf. Ps 24:5; 59:11); for the righteousness he possesses, he possesses in Him, and the righteousness he looks for, he looks for in Him. That this is not in vain, his previous experience assures him: Thou hast made a breadth (space) for me when in a strait. In connection with this confirmatory relation of liy hir|hab|taa batsaar it is more probable that we have before us an attributive clause (Hitz.), than that we have an independent one, and at any rate it is a retrospective clause. hrchbt is not precative (Bttch.), for the perf. of certainty with a precative colouring is confined to such exclamatory utterances as Job 21:16 (which see). He bases his prayer on two things, viz., on his fellowship with God, the righteous God, and on His justifying grace which he has already experienced. He has been many times in a strait already, and God has made a broad place for him. The idea of the expansion of the breathing (of the stream of air) and of space is attached to the ch, Arab. h, of rchb , root rch (Deutsch. Morgenl.

    Zeitschr. xii. 657). What is meant is the expansion of the straitened heart, Ps 25:17. Isa 60:5, and the widening of a straitened position, 18:20; 118:5.

    On the Dag. in liy vid., on Ps 84:4.

    PSALMS 4:2-3

    (4:3-4) O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Selah.

    But know that the LORD hath set apart him that is godly for himself: the LORD will hear when I call unto him.

    Righteous in his relation to God he turns rebukingly towards those who contemn his whose honour is God's honour, viz., to the partisans of Absolom. In contrast with 'aadaam b|neey , men who are lost in the multitude, 'iysh b|neey denotes such as stand prominently forward out of the multitude; passages like Ps 49:3; 62:10; Prov 8:4; Isa 2:9; 5:15, show this distinction. In this and the preceding Psalm David makes as little mention of his degenerate son as he does of the deluded king in the Psalms belonging to the period of his persecution by Saul. The address is directed to the aristocratic party, whose tool Absolom has become. To these he days: till when (`ad-meh beside the non-guttural which follows with Segol, without any manifest reason, as in Ps 10:13; Isa 1:5; Jer 16:10), i.e., how long shall my honour become a mockery, namely to you and by you, just as we can also say in Latin quousque tandem dignitas mea ludibrio? The two following members are circumstantial clauses subordinate to the principal clause with `ad-meh (similar to Isa 1:5a; Ew. 341, b).

    The energetic fut. with Nun parag. does not usually stand at the head of independent clauses; it is therefore to be rendered: since ye love riyq , that which is empty-the proper name for their high rank is hollow appearance-how long will ye pursue after kaazaab , falsehood?-they seek to find out every possible lying pretext, in order to trail the honour of the legitimate king in the dust. The assertion that the personal honour of David, not his kingly dignity, is meant by k|bowdiy , separates what is inseparable. They are eager to injure his official at the same time as his personal reputation. Therefore David appeals in opposition to them (v. 4) not only to the divine choice, but also to his personal relationship to God, on which that choice is based. The w of uwd|`uw is, as in Kings 4:41, the w of sequence: so know then. The Hiph. chip|laah (from paalaah = paalaa' , cogn. paalal , prop. to divide) to make a separation, make a distinction Ex 9:4; 11:7, then to distinguish in an extraordinary and remarkable way Ex 8:18, and to show Ps 17:7, cf. 31:22, so that consequently what is meant is not the mere selection (baachar ), but the remarkable selection to a remarkable position of honour (LXX, Vulg. mirificavit, Windberg translation of the Psalms gewunderlichet). low belongs to the verb, as in 135:4, and the principal accent lies on chaaciyd : he whom Jahve Himself, not men, has thus remarkably distinguished is a chaaciyd , a pious man, i.e., either, like the Syriac chaciydaa' = r|chiymaa': God's favourite, or, according to the biblical usage of the language (cf. 12:2 with Isa 17:1), in an active signification like paaliyT , paariyts , and the like: a lover of God, from chaacad (root chc Arab. hs, stringere, whence hassa to curry, mahassa a curry-comb) prop. to feel one's self drawn, i.e., strongly affected (comp. hiss is mental impression), in Hebrew, of a strong ardent affection. As a chcyd he does not call upon God in vain, but finds a ready hearing. Their undertaking consequently runs counter to the miraculously evidenced will of God and must fail by reason of the loving relationship in which the dethroned and debased one stands to God.

    PSALMS 4:4-5

    (4:5-6) The address is continued: they are to repent and cleave to Jahve instead of allowing themselves to be carried away by arrogance and discontent. The LXX has rendered it correctly: orgi'zesthe kai' mee' hamarta'nete (cf. Ephes. 4:26): if ye will be angry beware of sinning, viz., backbiting and rebellion (cf. the similar paratactic combinations Ps 28:1; Josh 6:18; Isa 12:1). In connection with the rendering contremiscite we feel to miss any expression of that before which they are to tremble (viz., the sure punishment which God decrees). He warns his adversaries against blind passion, and counsels them to quiet converse with their own hearts, and solitary meditation, in order that they may not imperil their own salvation. To commune with one's own heart, without the addition of the object, is equivalent to to think alone by one's self, and the bed or resting-place, without requiring to be understood literally, points to a condition of mind that is favourable to quiet contemplation.

    The heart is the seat of the conscience, and the Spirit of God (as Hamann, Werke i. 98, observes on this subject) disguises itself as our own voice that we may see His exhortation, His counsel, and His wisdom well up out of our own stony heart. The second imper. continues the first: and cease, prop. be still (daamam from the sound of the closed mouth checking the discourse), i.e., come to your right mind by self-examination, cease your tumult-a warning coming with the semblance of command by reason of the consciousness of innocence on his part; and this impression has to be rendered here by the striking in of the music. The dehortation passes over into exhortation in v. 6. Of course the sacrifices were continued in the sanctuary while David, with his faithful followers, was a fugitive from Jerusalem. Referring to this, David cries out to the Absolomites: offer zib|cheey-tsedeq.

    Here at least these are not offerings consisting of actions which are in accordance with the will of God, instead of slaughtered animals, but sacrifices offered with a right mind, conformed to the will of God, instead of the hypocritical mind with which they consecrate their evil doings and think to flatter God. In 51:21, Deut 33:19 also, "the sacrifices of righteousness" are real sacrifices, not merely symbols of moral acts. Not less full of meaning is the exhortation 'el-h' uwbiT|chuw. The verb baaTach is construed with 'el as in Ps 31:7; 56:4; 86:2, combining with the notion of trusting that of drawing near to, hanging on, attaching one's self to any one. The Arabic word bth, expandere, has preserved the primary notion of the word, a notion which, as in the synon. Arab. bst, when referred to the effect which is produced on the heart, countenance and whole nature of the man by a joyous cheerful state of mind, passes over to the notion of this state of mind itself, so that baaTach (like the Arab. inbasata to be cheerful, fearless, bold, lit., expanded cf. rhb Isa 60:5 = unstraitened) consequently signifies to be courageous, confident.

    They are to renounce the self-trust which blinds them in their opposition to the king who is deprived of all human assistance. If they will trustingly submit themselves to God, then at the same time the murmuring and rancorous discontent, from which the rebellion has sprung, will be stilled.

    Thus far the address to the rebellious magnates goes.

    PSALMS 4:6-7

    (4:7-8) Looking into his own small camp David is conscious of a disheartened feeling which is gaining power over him. The words: who will make us see, i.e., (as in Ps 34:13) experience any good? can be taken as expressive of a wish according to 2 Sam 23:15; Isa 42:23; but the situation gives it the character of a despondent question arising from a disheartened view of the future. The gloom has now, lasted so long with David's companions in tribulation that their faith is turned to fear, their hope to despair. David therefore prays as he looks upon them: Oh lift upon us (n|cah-`aleeynuw) (Note: The Metheg which stands in the second syllable before the tone stands by the Sheb, in the metrical books, if this syllable is the first in a word marked with a greater distinctive without any conjunctive preceding it, and beginning with Sheb; it is, therefore, not n|cah-`aleeynuw but n|caah-`aaleeynuw, cf. Ps 51:2 b|bw'-, 69:28 t|nh- , 81:3 s|'w- , 116:17 l|k-, 119:175 t|chy- . The reason and object are the same as stated in note p. *84 supra.) the light of Thy countenance.

    The form of the petition reminds one of the priestly benediction in Num 6.

    There it is: paanaayw h' yaa'eer in the second portion, in the third paanaayw h' yisaa', here these two wishes are blended into one prayer; and moreover in n|caah there is an allusion to neec a banner, for the imper. of naasaa' , the regular form of which is saa' , will also admit of the form n|saa' (Ps 10:12), but the mode of writing n|caah (without example elsewhere, for nicaah Job 4:2 signifies "to be attempted") is only explained by the mingling of the verbs naasaa' and naacac , Arab. ntsts, extollere (Ps 60:6); niciy h' (cf. 60:6) is, moreover, a primeval word of the Tra (Ex 17:15). If we may suppose that this mingling is not merely a mingling of forms in writing, but also a mingling of the ideas in those forms, then we have three thoughts in this prayer which are brought before the eye and ear in the briefest possible expression: may Jahve cause His face to shine upon them; may He lift upon them the light of His countenance so that they may have it above them like the sun in the sky, and may that light be a banner promising them the victory, around which they shall rally.

    David, however, despite the hopelessness of the present, is even now at peace in His God. The joy which Jahve has put into his heart in the midst of outward trial and adversity is raabuw w|tiyrowshaam d|gaanaam mee`eet . The expression is as concise as possible: (1) gaudium prae equivalent to gaudium magnum prae - majus quam; then (2) mee`eet after the analogy of the comparatio decurtata (e.g., Ps 18:34 my feet are like hinds, i.e., like the feet of hinds) is equivalent to `eet misim|chat; (3) 'asher is omitted after `eet according to Ges. 123, 3, for `at is the construct state, and what follows is the second member of the genitival relation, dependent upon it (cf. 90:15; 29:1); the plurality of things: corn and new wine, inasmuch as it is the stores of both that are specially meant, is exceptionally joined with the plur. instead of the sing., and the chief word raabbu stands at the end by way of emphasis.

    The suff. does not refer to the people of the land in general (as in Ps 65:10), but, in accordance with the contrast, to the Absolomites, to those of the nation who have fallen away from David. When David came to Mahanaim, while the rebels were encamped in Gilead, the country round about him was hostile, so that he had to receive provisions by stealth, Sam 17:26-29. Perhaps it was at the time of the feast of tabernacles. The harvest and the vintage were over. A rich harvest of corn and new wine was garnered. The followers of Absolom had, in these rich stores which were at their disposal, a powerful reserve upon which to fall back. David and his host were like a band of beggars or marauders. But the king brought down from the sceptre of the beggar's staff is nevertheless happier than they, the rebels against him. What he possesses in his heart is a richer treasure than all that they have in their barns and cellars.

    PSALMS 4:8

    (4:9) 4:9. Thus then he lies down to sleep, cheerfully and peacefully. The hymn closes as it began with a three line verse. yach|duw (lit., in its unions = collectively, Olshausen, 135, c, like kulow altogether, b|`itow at the right time) is by no means unemphatic; nor is it so in Ps 19:10 where it means "all together, without exception." With synonymous verbs it denotes the combination of that which they imply, as Isa 42:14. It is similar in Ps 141:10 where it expresses the coincidence of the fall of his enemies and the escape of the persecuted one. So here: he wishes to go to sleep and also at once he falls asleep (w|'iyshan in a likewise cohortative sense = w|'iyshaanaah). His God makes him to dwell in seclusion free of care. l|baadaad is a first definition of condition, and laabeTach a second. The former is not, after Deut 32:12, equivalent to l|bad|kaa , an addition which would be without any implied antithesis and consequently meaningless. One must therefore, as is indeed required by the situation, understand l|badaad according to Num 23:9; Mic 7:14; Deut 33:28; Jer 49:31. He needs no guards for he is guarded round about by Jahve and kept in safety. The seclusion, baadaad , in which he is, is security, beTach , because Jahve is near him. Under what a many phases and how sweetly the nature of faith is expressed in this and the foregoing Psalm: his righteousness, exaltation, joy, peace, contentment in God! And how delicately conceived is the rhythm! In the last line the evening hymn itself sinks to rest. The iambics with which it closes are like the last strains of a lullaby which die away softly and as though falling asleep themselves. Dante is right when he says in his Convito, that the sweetness of the music had harmony of the Hebrew Psalter is lost in the Greek and Latin translations.

    Morning Prayer before Going to the House of God (In the Hebrew, v.1 is the designation 'To the leader:....A Psalm of David'; from then on v.1-12 in English translation corresponds to v.2-13 in the Hebrew, so followed here by K & D.)

    The evening prayer is now followed by a second morning prayer, which like the former draws to a close with kiy-'ataah (4:19; 5:13). The situation is different from that in Ps 3. In that Psalm David is fleeing, here he is in Jerusalem and anticipates going up to the Temple service. If this Psalm also belongs to the time of the rebellion of Absolom, it must have been written when the fire which afterwards broke forth was already smouldering in secret.

    The inscription 'el-han|chiylowt is certainly not a motto indicative of its contents (LXX, Vulg., Luther, Hengstenberg). As such it would stand after miz|mowr . Whatever is connected with lmntsch, always has reference to the music. If nchylwt came from naachal it might according to the biblical use of this verb signify "inheritances," or according to its use in the Talmud "swarms," and in fact swarms of bees (Arab. nahl); and nchylwt ought then to be the beginning of a popular melody to which the Psalm is adapted. Hai Gaon understands it to denote a melody resembling the hum of bees; Reggio a song that sings of bees. Or is n|chiylowt equivalent to n|chilowt (excavatae) and this a special name for the flutes (chaliyliym)? The use of the flute in the service of the sanctuary is attested by Isa 30:29, cf. 1 Sam 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40. (Note: On the use of the flute in the second Temple, vid., Introduction p. 19.)

    The praep. 'el was, then, more appropriate than `al ; because, as Redslob has observed, the singer cannot play the flute at the same time, but can only sing to the playing of another.

    The Psalm consists of four six line strophes. The lines of the strophes here and there approximate to the caesura-schema. They consist of a rising and a sudden lowering. The German language, which uses so many more words, is not adapted to this caesura-schema and the same may be said of the English.

    PSALMS 5:1-3

    (5:2-4) Give ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation. Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my King, and my God: for unto thee will I pray.

    The introit: Prayer to be heard. The thoughts are simple but the language is carefully chosen. 'amaariym is the plur. of 'omer ('eemer ), one of the words peculiar to the poetic prophetical style. The denominative he'eziyn (like audire = aus, ou's dare) belongs more to poetry than prose. haagiyg (like 'aabiyb ) or hagiyg (like m|chiyr ) occurs only in two Psalms ldwd, viz., here and Ps 34:4. It is derived from haagag = haagaah (vid., 1:2) and signifies that which is spoken meditatively, here praying in rapt devotion.

    Beginning thus the prayer gradually rises to a vox clamoris. shaw|`iy from shewa` , to be distinguished from shauw|`iy (inf.

    Pi.) 28:2; 31:23, is one word with the Aram. tswch, Aethiop. tsuw` (to call).

    On hiq|sh|yb used of intent listening, vid., Ps 10:17. The invocation wee'lohaay mal|kiy, when it is a king who utters it, is all the more significant. David, and in general the theocratic king, is only the representative of the Invisible One, whom he with all Israel adores as his King. Prayer to Him is his first work as he begins the day. In the morning, boqer (as in 65:18 for baboqer , Ps 88:14), shalt Thou hear my cry, is equivalent to my cry which goes forth with the early morn.

    Hupfeld considers the mention of the morning as only a "poetical expression" and when getting rid of the meaning prima luce, he also gets rid of the beautiful and obvious reference to the daily sacrifice. The verb `aarak| is the word used of laying the wood in order for the sacrifice, Lev 1:7, and the pieces of the sacrifice, Lev 1:8,12; 6:5, of putting the sacred lamps in order, Ex 27:21; Lev 24:3f., and of setting the shew-bread in order, Ex 40:23; Lev 24:8.

    The laying of the wood in order for the morning offering of a lamb (Lev. 6:512, cf. Num 28:4) was one of the first duties of the priest, as soon as the day began to dawn; the lamb was slain before sun-rise and when the sun appeared above the horizon laid piece by piece upon the altar. The morning prayer is compared to this morning sacrifice. This is in its way also a sacrifice. The object which David has in his mind in connection with 'e`erok| is t|pilaatiy . As the priests, with the early morning, lay the wood and pieces of the sacrifices of the Tamd upon the altar, so he brings his prayer before God as a spiritual sacrifice and looks out for an answer (tsipaah speculari as in Hab 2:1), perhaps as the priest looks out for fire from heaven to consume the sacrifice, or looks to the smoke to see that it rises up straight towards heaven.

    PSALMS 5:4-6

    (5:5-7) The basing of the prayer on God's holiness. The verbal adjective chaapeets (coming from the primitive signification of adhering firmly which is still preserved in Arab. chfd, fut. i.) is in the sing. always (Ps 34:13; 35:27) joined with the accusative. raa` is conceived as a person, for although guwr may have a material object, it cannot well have a material subject. y|gur|kaa is used for brevity of expression instead of `im|kaa yaaguwr (Ges. 121, 4). The verb guwr (to turn in, to take up one's abode with or near any one) frequently has an accusative object, 120:5, Judg 5:17, and Isa 33:14 according to which the light of the divine holiness is to sinners a consuming fire, which they cannot endure. Now there follow specific designations of the wicked. howlaliym part. Kal = hoolalim, or even Poal = hlalim (= m|howlaliym ), (Note: On the rule, according to which here, as in showraray v. 9 and the like, a simple Sheb mobile goes over into Chateph pathach with Gaja preceding it, vid., the observations on giving a faithful representation of the O.T. text according to the Masora in the Luther Zeitschr. 1863. S. 411. The Babylonian Ben-Naphtali (about 940) prefers the simple Sheb in such cases, as also in others; Ben- Asher of the school of Tiberias, whom the Masora follows, and whom consequently our Masoretic text ought to follow, prefers the Chateph, vid., Psalter ii. 460-467.) are the foolish, and more especially foolish boasters; the primary notion of the verb is not that of being hollow, but that of sounding, then of loud boisterous, nonsensical behaviour.

    Of such it is said, that they are not able to maintain their position when they become manifest before the eye of God (l|neged as in Ps 101:7 manifest before any one, from naagad to come forward, be visible far off, be distinctly visible). 'aawen po`aleey are those who work (ohi ergazo'menoi Matt 7:23) iniquity; 'aawen breath (a'nemos ) is sometimes trouble, in connection with which one pants, sometimes wickedness, in which there is not even a trace of any thing noble, true, or pure. Such men Jahve hates; for if He did not hate evil (Ps 11:5), His love would not be a holy love. In kaazab dob|reey , dob|reey is the usual form in combination when the plur. is used, instead of m|dab|reey. It is the same in 58:4. The style of expression is also Davidic in other respects, viz., uwmir|maah daamiym 'iysh as in 55:24, and 'ibeed as in 9:6, cf. 21:11. ti`eeb (in Amos, Amos 6:8 tee'eeb) appears to be a secondary formation from `uwb , like taa'ab to desire, from 'aabaah , and therefore to be of a cognate root with the Aram. `ayeeb to despise, treat with indignity, and the Arabic 'aib a stain (cf. on Lam 2:1). The fact that, as Hengstenberg has observed, wickedness and the wicked are described in a sevenfold manner is perhaps merely accidental.

    PSALMS 5:7-9

    (5:8-10) Since the Psalm is a morning hymn, the futt. in v. 8 state what he, on the contrary, may and will do (Ps 66:13). By the greatness and fulness of divine favour (169:14) he has access (ei'sodon , for bow' means, according to its root, "to enter") to the sanctuary, and he will accordingly repair thither to-day. It is the tabernacle on Zion in which was the ark of the covenant that is meant here. That daily liturgical service was celebrated there must be assumed, since the ark of the covenant is the sign and pledge of Jahve's presence; and it is, moreover, attested by 1 Chron 16:37f. It is also to be supposed that sacrifice was offered daily before the tabernacle. For it is not to be inferred from 1 Chron 16:39ff. that sacrifice was only offered regularly on the Bama (high place) in Gibeon before the Mosaic tabernacle. (Note: Thus, in particular, Sthelin, Zur Kritik der Psalmen in the Deutsch. Morgenl. Zeitschr. vi. (1852) S. 108 and Zur Einleitung in die Psalmen. An academical programme, 1859. 4to.)

    It is true sacrifice was offered in Gibeon, where the old tabernacle and the old altars (or at least the altar of burnt- offering) were, and also that after the removal of the ark to Zion both David (1 Chron 21:29f.) and Solomon (1 Kings 3:4; 2 Chron 1:2-6) worshipped and sacrificed in Gibeon. But it is self-evident sacrifices might have been offered where the ark was, and that even with greater right than in Gibeon; and since both David, upon its arrival (2 Sam 6:17f.), and Solomon after his accession (1 Kings 3:15), offered sacrifices through the priests who were placed there, it is probableand by a comparison of the Davidic Psalms not to be doubted-that there was a daily service, in conjunction with sacrifices, before the ark on Zion.

    But, moreover, is it really the 'ohel in Zion which is meant here in v. 8 by the house of God? It is still maintained by renowned critics that the tabernacle pitched by David over the sacred ark is never called h' byt or hykl or h' mshkn or mqdsh or qdsh . But why could it not have all these names? We will not appeal to the fact that the house of God at Shilo (1 Sam 1:9; 3:3) is called byt and h' hykl , since it may be objected that it was really more of a temple than a tabernacle, (Note: Vid., C. H. Graf, Commentation de templo Silonensi ad illustrandum locum Jud. xviii. 30, 31, (1855, 4to.), in which he seeks to prove that the sanctuary in Shilo was a temple to Jahve that lasted until the dissolution of the kingdom of Israel.) although in the same book, Ps 2:22 it is called mow`eed 'ohel , and in connection with the other appellations the poetic colouring of the historical style of 1 Sam 1-3 is to be taken into consideration.

    Moreover, we put aside passages like Ex 23:19; 34:26, since it may be said that the future Temple was present to the mind of the Lawgiver. But in Josh 6:24; 2 Sam 12:20, the sanctuary is called h' byt without being conceived of as a temple. Why then cannot the tabernacle, which David pitched for the ark of the covenant when removed to Zion (2 Sam 6:17), be called h' byt ? It is only when 'ohel and bayit are placed in opposition to one another that the latter has the notion of a dwelling built of more solid materials; but in itself beit (bt) in Semitic is the generic term for housing of every kind whether it be made of wool, felt, and hair-cloth, or of earth, stone, and wood; consequently it is just as much a tent as a house (in the stricter sense of the word), whether the latter be a hut built of wood and clay or a palace. (Note: The Turkish Kamus says: "Arab. byt is a house (Turk. ew) in the signification of chne (Persic the same), whether it be made of hair, therefore a tent, or built of stone and tiles." And further on: "Beit originally signified a place specially designed for persons to retire to at night from Arab. bta he has passed the night, if it does not perhaps come from the bw' , Arab. bayya, which stands next to it in this passage, vid., Job at 29:15-17]; but later on the meaning was extended and the special reference to the night time was lost." Even at the present day the Beduin does not call his tent ahl, but always bt and in fact bt sha'r (see`aar byt ), the modern expression for the older bt wabar (hair-house).)

    If a dwelling-house is frequently called 'hl , then a tent that any one dwells in may the more naturally be called his bayit . And this we find is actually the case with the dwellings of the patriarchs, which, although they were not generally solid houses (Gen 33:17), are called byt (Gen 27:15). Moreover, heeykaal (from yaakal = kuwl to hold, capacem esse), although it signifies a palace does not necessarily signify one of stone, for the heavens are also called Jahve's heeykaal , e.g., Ps 18:7, and not necessarily one of gigantic proportions, for even the Holy of holies of Solomon's Temple, and this par excellence, is called heeykaal , and once, 1 Kings 6:3, habayit heeykal . Of the spaciousness and general character of the Davidic tabernacle we know indeed nothing: it certainly had its splendour, and was not so much a substitute for the original tabernacle, which according to the testimony of the chronicler remained in Gibeon, as a substitute for the Temple that was still to be built. But, however insignificant it may have been, Jahve had His throne there, and it was therefore the hybl of a great king, just as the wall-less place in the open field where God manifested Himself with His angels to the homeless Jacob was 'elohiym beeyt (Gen 28:17).

    Into this tabernacle of God, i.e., into its front court, will David enter (bow' with acc. as in Ps 66:13) this morning, there will he prostrate himself in worship, proskunei'n (hish|tachawaah) reflexive of the Pilel shachawah, Ges. 75, rem. 18), towards ('el as in 28:2, 1 Kings 8:29,35, cf. l| Ps 99:5,9) Jahve's qodesh heeykal , i.e., the d|biyr , the Holy of holies 28:2, and that "in Thy fear," i.e., in reverence before Thee (genit. objectivus). The going into the Temple which David purposes, leads his thoughts on to his way through life, and the special de'eesis , which only begins here, moulds itself accordingly: he prays for God's gracious guidance as in 27:11; 86:11, and frequently. The direction of God, by which he wishes to be guided he calls ts|daaqaah . Such is the general expression for the determination of conduct by an ethical rule.

    The rule, acting in accordance with which, God is called par excellence tsdyq , is the order of salvation which opens up the way of mercy to sinners. When God forgives those who walk in this way their sins, and stands near to bless and protect them, He shows Himself not less tsdyq (just), than when He destroys those who despise Him, in the heat of His rejected love. By this righteousness, which accords with the counsel and order of mercy, David prays to be led showraraay l|ma`an , in order that the malicious desire of those who lie in wait for him may not be fulfilled, but put to shame, and that the honour of God may not be sullied by him. showreer is equivalent to m|showreer (Aquila efodeu'oon, Jerome insidiator) from the Pilel showreer to fix one's eyes sharply upon, especially of hostile observation. David further prays that God will make his way (i.e., the way in which a man must walk according to God's will) even and straight before him, the prayer one, in order that he may walk therein without going astray and unimpeded. The adj. yaashaar signifies both the straightness of a line and the evenness of a surface. The fut. of the Hiph. heeyshiyr is yayishiyr in Prov 4:25, and accordingly the Ker substitutes for the imper. howshar the corresponding form hay|shar , just as in Isa 45:2 it removes the Hiphil form 'owshir (cf. Gen 8:17 hwts' Keri hay|tsee' ), without any grammatical, but certainly not without some traditional ground. kiy in v. 10 is closely connected with shwrry lm`n: on account of my way-layers, for the following are their characteristics. 'eeyn is separated by b|piyhuw (= b|piyw Ps 62:5) from n|kownaah the word it governs; this was the more easily possible as the usage of the language almost entirely lost sight of the fact that 'eeyn is the construct of 'ayin , Ges. 152, 1. In his mouth is nothing that should stand firm, keep its ground, remain the same (cf. Job 42:7f.). The singular suffix of bpyhw has a distributive meaning: in ore unuiscujusque eorum.

    Hence the sing. at once passes over into the plur.: hauwowt qir|baam their inward part, i.e., that towards which it goes forth and in which it has its rise (vid., Ps 49:12) is hwwt corruption, from hauwah which comes from haawaah = Arab. haw, to yawn, gape, chai'nein, hiare, a yawning abyss and a gaping vacuum, and then, inasmuch as, starting from the primary idea of an empty space, the verbal significations libere ferri (especially from below upwards) and more particularly animo ad or in aliquid ferri are developed, it obtains the pathological sense of strong desire, passion, just as it does also the intellectual sense of a loose way of thinking proceeding from a self-willed tendency (vid., Fleischer on Job 37:6).

    In Hebrew the prevalent meaning of the word is corruption, Ps 57:2, which is a metaphor for the abyss, barathrum, (so far, but only so far Schultens on Prov 10:3 is right), and proceeding from this meaning it denotes both that which is physically corruptible (Job 6:30) and, as in the present passage and frequently, that which is corruptible from an ethical point of view. The meaning strong desire, in which hauwaah looks as though it only differed from 'auwaah in one letter, occurs only in Ps 52:9; Prov 10:3; Mic 7:3. The substance of their inward part is that which is corruptible in every way, and their throat, as the organ of speech, as in Ps 115:7; 149:6, cf. 69:4, is (perhaps a figure connected with the primary meaning of hwwt) a grave, which yawns like jaws, which open and snatch and swallow down whatever comes in their way. To this "they make smooth their tongue" is added as a circumstantial clause. Their throat is thus formed and adapted, while they make smooth their tongue (cf. Prov 2:16), in order to conceal their real design beneath flattering language. From this meaning, hecheliyq directly signifies to flatter in Ps 36:3; Prov 29:5. The last two lines of the strophe are formed according to the caesura schema. This schema is also continued in the concluding strophe.

    PSALMS 5:10-12

    (5:11-13) The verb 'aasham or 'aasheem unites in itself the three closely allied meanings of becoming guilty (e.g., Lev 5:19), of a feeling of guilt (Lev 5:4f.), and of expiation (Ps 34:22f.); just as the verbal adj. 'aasheem also signifies both liable to punishment and expiating, and the substantive 'aashaam both the guilt to be expiated and the expiation. The Hiph. he'eshiym signifies to cause any one to render the expiation due to his fault, to make him do penance. As an exception God is here, in the midst of the Jehovic Psalms, called 'elohiym , perhaps not altogether unintentionally as being God the Judge. The min of mimo`atsowteeyhem (with Gaja by the min and a transition of the counter-tone Metheg into Galgal, as in Hos 11:6 into Meajla, vid., Psalter ii. 526) is certainly that of the cause in Hos 11:6, but here it is to be explained with Olsh. and Hitz. according to Sir. 14:2, Judith 11:6 (cf. Hos 10:6): may they fall from their own counsels, i.e., founder in the execution of them.

    Therefore min in the sense of "down from, away," a sense which the parallel hadiycheemow thrust them away (cf. dochuw from daachaah 36:13), presupposes. The b of b|rob is to be understood according to John 8:21,24 "ye shall die en tai's hamarti'ais humoo'n ". The multitude of their transgressions shall remain unforgiven and in this state God is to cast them into hades.

    The ground of this terrible prayer is set forth by baak| (OT:871a ) maaruw kiy . The tone of maaruw , for a well-known reason (cf. e.g., Ps 37:40; 64:11; 72:17) has retreated to the penult. maaraah , root mr, prop. to be or hold one's self stiff towards any one, compare Arab. mrr, tmrr, to press and stiffen against one another in wrestling, Arab. mr, tmr, to struggle against anything, whether with outward or mental and moral opposition.

    Their obstinacy is not obstinacy against a man, but against God Himself; their sin is, therefore, Satanic and on that account unpardonable. All the prayers of this character are based upon the assumption expressed in Ps 7:13, that those against whom they are directed do not wish for mercy.

    Accordingly their removal is prayed for. Their removal will make the ecclesia pressa free and therefore joyous. From this point of view the prayer in v. 12 is inspired by the prospect of the result of their removal.

    The futt. do not express a wish, but a consequence. The division of the verse is, however, incorrect. The rise of the first half of the verse closes with baak| (the pausal form by Pazer), its fall is yrneenuw l`wlm; then the rise begins anew in the second half, extending to bk which ought likewise to be pointed baak| , and sh|mekaa 'hby is its fall. `aaleeymow w|taaceek| (from heeceek| Hiph. of caakak| 91:4) is awkward in this sequence of thoughts.

    Hupfeld and Hitzig render it: "they shall rejoice for ever whom Thou defendest;" but then it ought not only to be pointed y|ran|nuw , but the w| must also be removed, and yet there is nothing to characterise `lymw tck as being virtually a subject. On the other hand it does not harmonise with the other consecutive futures. It must therefore, like yip|luw , be the optative: "And do Thou defend them, then shall those who love Thy name rejoice in Thee." And then upon this this joy of those who love the name of Jahve (i.e., God in His revelation of Himself in redemption) 69:37; Ps 119:132, is based by kiy-'ataah from a fact of universal experience which is the sum of all His historical self-attestations. `aaleeymow is used instead of `aleeyhem as a graver form of expression, just like hadiycheemow for hadiycheem as an indignant one.

    The form w|ya`|l|tsuw (Ges. 63, 3) is chosen instead of the ya`alitsuw found in Ps 25:2; 68:4, in order to assist the rhythm.

    The futt. are continuative. ta`|T|renuw , cinges eum, is not a contracted Hiph. according to 1 Sam 17:25, but Kal as in 1 Sam 23:26; here it is used like the Piel in 8:6 with a double accusative. The tsinaah (from tsaanan Arab. tsn, med. Waw, Aethiop. tswn to hedge round, guard) is a shield of a largest dimensions; larger than maageen Kings 10:16f. (cf. 1 Sam 17:7, where Goliath has his tsinaah borne by a shield-bearer). katsinaah "like a shield" is equivalent to: as with a shield (Ges. 118, 3, rem.). The name of God, yhwh , is correctly drawn to the second member of the verse by the accentuation, in order to balance it with the first; and for this reason the first clause does not begin with yhwh ky-'th here as it does elsewhere (4:9; 12:8). raatsown delight, goodwill, is also a synonym for the divine blessing in Deut 33:23.

    A Cry for Mercy under Judgment The morning prayer, Ps 5, is followed by a "Psalm of David," which, even if not composed in the morning, looks back upon a sleepless, tearful night.

    It consists of three strophes. In the middle one, which is a third longer than the other two, the poet, by means of a calmer outpouring of his heart, struggles on from the cry of distress in the first strophe to the believing confidence of the last. The hostility of men seems to him as a punishment of divine wrath, and consequently (but this is not so clearly expressed as in Ps 38, which is its counterpart) as the result of his sin; and this persecution, which to him has God's wrath behind it and sin as the sting of its bitterness, makes him sorrowful and sick even unto death. Because the Psalm contains no confession of sin, one might be inclined to think that the church has wrongly reckoned it as the first of the seven (probably selected with reference to the seven days of the week) Psalmi paenitentiales (6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143). A. H. Francke in his Introductio in Psalterium says, it is rather Psalmus precatorius hominis gravissimi tentati a paenitente probe distinguendi. But this is a mistake. The man who is tempted is distinguished from a penitent man by this, that the feeling of wrath is with the one perfectly groundless and with the other wellgrounded.

    Job was one who was tempted thus. Our psalmist, however, is a penitent, who accordingly seeks that the punitive chastisement of God, as the just God, may for him be changed into the loving chastisement of God, as the merciful One.

    We recognise here the language of penitently believing prayer, which has been coined by David. Compare v. 2 with Ps 38:2; 3 with 411:5; 5 with 109:26; 6 with 30:10; 7 with 69:4; 8 with 31:10; 11 with 35:4,26. The language of Heman's Psalm is perceptibly different, comp. v. 6 with 87:11- 13; 8 with 88:10. And the corresponding strains in Jeremiah (comp. v. 2, 38:2 with Jer 10:24; 3 and 5 with Jer 17:14; 7 with Jer 45:3) are echoes, which to us prove that the Psalm belongs to an earlier age, not that it was composed by the prophet (Hitzig). It is at once probable, from the almost anthological relationship in which Jeremiah stands to the earlier literature, that in the present instance also he is the reproducer. And this idea is confirmed by the fact that in Ps 10:25, after language resembling the Psalm before us, he continues in words taken from Ps 79:6f. When Hitzig maintains that David could no more have composed this disconcertedly despondent Psalm than Isaiah could the words in Isa 21:3-4, we refer, in answer to him, to Isa 22:4 and to the many attestations that David did weep,2 Sam 1:12; 3:32; 12:21; 15:30; 19:1.

    The accompanying musical direction runs: To the Precentor, with accompaniment of stringed instruments, upon the Octave. The LXX translates hupe'r tee's ogdo'ees , and the Fathers associate with it the thought of the octave of eternal happiness, hee ogdo'ee ekei'nee , as Gregory of Nyssa says, hee'ti's estin ho efexee's aioo'n. But there is no doubt whatever that `al-hash|miyniyt has reference to music. It is also found by Ps 12, and besides in 1 Chron 15:21. From this latter passage it is at least clear that it is not the name of an instrument. An instrument with eight strings could not have been called an octave instead of an octachord. In that passage they played upon nablas `al-`alaamowt, and with citherns `al-hash|miyniyt. If `alaamowt denotes maidens = maidens' voices i.e., soprano, then, as it seems, hash|miyniyt is a designation of the bass, and `l-hshmynyt equivalent to all' ottava bassa. The fact that Ps 46, which is accompanied by the direction `l`-lmwt, is a joyous song, whereas Ps 6 is a plaintive one and Ps 12 not less gloomy and sad, accords with this. These two were to be played in the lower octave, that one in the higher.

    PSALMS 6:1-3

    (6:2-4) O LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure. Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I am weak: O LORD, heal me; for my bones are vexed.

    There is a chastisement which proceeds from God's love to the man as being pardoned and which is designed to purify or to prove him, and a chastisement which proceeds from God's wrath against the man as striving obstinately against, or as fallen away from, favour, and which satisfies divine justice. Ps 94:12; 118:17; Prov 3:11f. speak of this loving chastisement. The man who should decline it, would act against his own salvation. Accordingly David, like Jeremiah (Jer 10:24), does not pray for the removal of the chastisement but of the chastisement in wrath, or what is the same thing, of the judgment proceeding from wrath \Zorngericht. b|'ap|kaa and bachamaat|kaa stand in the middle, between 'al and the verbs, for the sake of emphasis. Hengstenberg indeed finds a different antithesis here. He says: "The contrast is not that of chastisement in love with chastisement in wrath, but that of loving rescue in contrast with chastisement, which always proceeds from the principle of wrath."

    If what is here meant is, that always when God chastens a man his wrath is the true and proper motive, it is an error, for the refutation of which one whole book of the Bible, viz., the Book of Job, has been written. For there the friends think that God is angry with Job; but we know from the prologue that, so far from being angry with him, he on the contrary glories in him. Here, in this Psalm, assuming David to be its author, and his adultery the occasion of it, it is certainly quite otherwise. The chastisement under which David is brought low, has God's wrath as its motive: it is punitive chastisement and remains such, so long as David remains fallen from favour. But if in sincere penitence he again struggles through to favour, then the punitive becomes a loving chastisement: God's relationship to him becomes an essentially different relationship. The evil, which is the result of his sin and as such indeed originates in the principle of wrath, becomes the means of discipline and purifying which love employs, and this it is that he here implores for himself. And thus Dante Alighieri (Note: Provided he is the author of I stte Salmi Penitenziali trasportati alla volgar poesia, vid., Dante Alighieri's Lyric poems, translated and annotated by Kannegiesser and Witte (1842) i. 203f., ii. 208f.) correctly and beautifully paraphrases the verse: Signor, non mi riprender con furore, E non voler correggermi con ira, Ma con dolcezza e con perfetto amore.

    In chaaneeniy David prays God to let him experience His lovingkindness and tender mercy in place of the punishment He has a right to inflict; for anguish of soul has already reduced him to the extreme even of bodily sickness: he is withered up and weary. 'm|lal has Pathach, and consequently seems to be the 3 pers. Pul. as in Joel 1:10; Nah 1:4; but this cannot be according to the rules of grammar. It is an adjective, like ra`anaan , sha'anaan , with the passive pointing. The formation 'mll (from 'ml Arab. aml, with the primary meaning to stretch out lengthwise) is analogous to the IX and XI forms of the Arabic verb which serve especially to express colours and defects (Caspari 59). The two words 'aaniy 'um|lal have the double accent Mercha- Mahpach together, and according to the exact mode of writing (vid., Baer in my Psalter ii. 492) the Mahpach, (the sign resembling Mahpach or rather Jethib), ought to stand between the two words, since it at the same time represents the Makkeph. The principal tone of the united pair, therefore, lies on aani; and accordingly the adj. 'um|laal is shortened to 'um|lal (cf. 'adam|dam, hapak|pak| , mir|mac , and the like)-a contraction which proves that 'mll is not treated as part. Pul. (= m|'um|laal ), for its characteristic aa is unchangeable. The prayer for healing is based upon the plea that his bones (Job 4:14; Isa 38:13) are affrighted. We have no German word exactly corresponding to this nib|hal which (from the radical notion "to let go," cogn. baalah ) expresses a condition of outward overthrow and inward consternation, and is therefore the effect of fright which disconcerts one and of excitement that deprives one of self-control. (Note: We have translated Dr. Delitzsch's word erschrecht literallythe vexed of the Authorized Version seems hardly equal to the meaning.)

    His soul is still more shaken than his body. The affliction is therefore not a merely bodily ailment in which only a timorous man loses heart. God's love is hidden from him. God's wrath seems as though it would wear him completely away. It is an affliction beyond all other afflictions. Hence he enquires: And Thou, O Jahve, how long?! Instead of 'th it is written 't , which the Ker says is to be read 'atah , while in three passages (Num 11:15; Deut 5:24; Ezek 28:14) 'at| is admitted as masc.

    PSALMS 6:4-7

    (6:5-8) God has turned away from him, hence the prayer shuwbaah , viz., 'eelay . The tone of shuwbaah is on the ult., because it is assumed to be read 'adonaay shuwbaah . The ultima accentuation is intended to secure its distinct pronunciation to the final syllable of shwbh, which is liable to be drowned and escape notice in connection with the coming together of the two aspirates (vid., on Ps 3:8).

    May God turn to him again, rescue (chileets from chlts, which is transitive in Hebr. and Aram., to free, expedire, exuere, Arab. chalatsa, to be pure, prop. to be loose, free) his soul, in which his affliction has taken deep root, from this affliction, and extend to him salvation on the ground of His mercy towards sinners. He founds this cry for help upon his yearning to be able still longer to praise God-a happy employ, the possibility of which would be cut off from him if he should die. zeeker , as frequently hiz|kiyr , is used of remembering one with reverence and honour; howdaah (from waadaah ) has the dat. honoris after it. sh|'owl , v. 6b, ha'dees (Apoc. 20:13), alternates with maawet . Such is the name of the grave, the yawning abyss, into which everything mortal descends (from shaa'al = shuwl Arab. sl, to be loose, relaxed, to hang down, sink down: a sinking in, that which is sunken in, (Note: The form corresponds to the Arabic form fi'lun, which, though originally a verbal abstract, has carried over the passive meaning into the province of the concrete, e.g., kitb = maktb and ilh, 'elowha = ma'lh = ma'bd (the feared, revered One).) a depth). The writers of the Psalms all (which is no small objection against Maccabean Psalms) know only of one single gathering-place of the dead in the depth of the earth, where they indeed live, but it is only a quasi life, because they are secluded from the light of this world and, what is the most lamentable, from the light of God's presence. Hence the Christian can only join in the prayer of v. 6 of this Psalm and similar passages (Ps 30:10; 88:11-13; 115:17; Isa 38:18f.) so far as he transfers the notion of hades to that of gehenna. (Note: An adumbration of this relationship of Christianity to the religion of the Old Testament is the relationship of Islam to the religion of the Arab wandering tribes, which is called the "religion of Abraham" (Din Ibrhim), and knows no life after death; while Islam has taken from the later Judaism and from Christianity the hope of a resurrection and heavenly blessedness.)

    In hell there is really no remembrance and no praising of God. David's fear of death as something in itself unhappy, is also, according to its ultimate ground, nothing but the fear of an unhappy death. In these "pains of hell" he is wearied with (b| as in Ps 69:4) groaning, and bedews his couch every night with a river of tears. Just as the Hiph. his|chaah signifies to cause to swim from saachaah to swim, so the Hiph. him|caah signifies to dissolve, cause to melt, from maacaah (cogn. maacac ) to melt. dim|`aah , in Arabic a nom. unit. a tear, is in Hebrew a flood of tears.

    In v. 8 `eeyniy does not signify my "appearance" (Num 11:7), but, as becomes clear from 31:10; 88:10, Job 17:7, "my eye;" the eye reflects the whole state of a man's health. The verb `aasheesh appears to be a denominative from `aash : to be moth-eaten. (Note: Reuchlin in his grammatical analysis of the seven Penitential Psalms, which he published in 1512 after his Ll. III de Rudimentis Hebraicis (1506), explains it thus: `sh|shaah Verminavit. Sic a vermibus dictum qui turbant res claras puras et nitidas, and in the Rudim. p. 412: Turbatus est a furore oculus meus, corrosus et obfuscatus, quasi vitro laternae obductus.)

    The signification senescere for the verb `aateeq is more certain. The closing words b|kaal-tsowraraay (cf. Num 10:9 hatsoreer hatsar the oppressing oppressor, from the root tsr Arab. tsr, to press, squeeze, and especially to bind together, constringere, coartare (Note: In Arabic itsoyr dir is the word for a step-mother as the oppressor of the step-children; and itsor|r dirr, a concubine as the oppressor of her rival.)), in which the writer indicates, partially at least, the cause of his grief (ka`ac , in Job 18:7 ka`ash), are as it were the socket into which the following strophe is inserted.

    PSALMS 6:8-10

    (6:9-11) Even before his plaintive prayer is ended the divine light and comfort come quickly into his heart, as Frisch says in his "Neuklingende Harfe Davids."

    His enemies mock him as one forsaken of God, but even in the face of his enemies he becomes conscious that this is not his condition. Thrice in vv. 9, 10 his confidence that God will answer him flashes forth: He hears his loud sobbing, the voice of his weeping that rises towards heaven, He hears his supplication, and He graciously accepts his prayer. The twofold shaama` expresses the fact and yiqaach its consequence.

    That which he seems to have to suffer, shall in reality be the lot of his enemies, viz., the end of those who are rejected of God: they shall be put to shame. The bowsh , Syr. behet, Chald. b|hit, b|heet, which we meet with here for the first time, is not connected with the Arab. bht, but (since the Old Arabic as a rule has t as a mediating vowel between s and t, t) with Arab. bt, which signifies "to turn up and scatter about things that lie together (either beside or upon each other)" eruere et diruere, disturbare,-a root which also appears in the reduplicated form Arab. btt: to root up and disperse, whence Arab. battun, sorrow and anxiety, according to which therefore bowsh (= baawsh as Arab. bta = bawata) prop. signifies disturbare, to be perplexed, lose one's self-control, and denotes shame according to a similar, but somewhat differently applied conception to confundi, sugchei'sthai sugchu'nesthai. w|yibaahaluw points back to vv. 2, 3: the lot at which the malicious have rejoiced, shall come upon themselves. As is implied in yeeboshuw yaashubuw , a higher power turns back the assailants filled with shame (Ps 9:4; 35:4).

    What an impressive finish we have here in these three Milels, jashbu jebshu raaga', in relation to the tripping measure of the preceding words addressed to his enemies! And, if not intentional, yet how remarkable is the coincidence, that shame follows the involuntary reverse of the foes, and that ybshw in its letters and sound is the reverse of yshbw! What music there is in the Psalter! If composers could but understand it!!

    Appeal to the Judge of the Whole Earth against Slander and Requiting Good with Evil (In the Hebrew, v.1 is the designation 'A Shiggayon of David, which he sang....'; from then on v.1-17 in English translation corresponds to v.2-18 in the Hebrew, so followed here by K & D.)

    In the second part of Ps 6 David meets his enemies with strong selfconfidence in God. Ps 7, which even Hitzig ascribes to David, continues this theme and exhibits to us, in a prominent example taken from the time of persecution under Saul, his purity of conscience and joyousness of faith. One need only read 1 Sam 24-26 to see how this Psalm abounds in unmistakeable references to this portion of David's life. The superscribed statement of the events that gave rise to its composition point to this.

    Such statements are found exclusively only by the Davidic Psalms. (Note: Viz. 7, 59, 56, 34, 52, 57, 142, 54 (belonging to the time of the persecution under Saul), 3, 63 (to the persecution under Absolom), 51 (David's adultery), 60 (the Syro-Ammonitish war).)

    The inscription runs: Shiggajon of David, which he sang to Jahve on account of the sayings of Cush a Benjamite. `al-dib|reey is intentionally chosen instead of `al which has other functions in these superscriptions. Although d|bar and dib|reey can mean a thing, business, affairs (Ex 22:8; 1 Sam 10:2, and freq.) and `al-dib|reey "in reference to" (Deut 4:21; Jer 7:22) or "on occasion of" (Jer 14:1), still we must here keep to the most natural signification: "on account of the words (speeches)." Csh (LXX falsely Chousi' = kuwshiy ; Luther, likewise under misapprehension, "the Moor") must have been one of the many servants of Saul, his kinsman, one of the talebearers like Doeg and the Ziphites, who shamefully slandered David before Saul, and roused him against David. The epithet ben-y|miyniy (as in 1 Sam 9:1,21, cf. 'iysh-y|miyniy 2 Sam 20:1) describes him as "a Benjamite" and does not assume any knowledge of him, as would be the case if it were habin|y|miyniy, or rather (in accordance with biblical usage) benhay| miyniy . And this accords with the actual fact, for there is no mention of him elsewhere in Scripture history. The statement wgw' `ldbry is hardly from David's hand, but written by some one else, whether from tradition or from the hymym dbry of David, where this Psalm may have been interwoven with the history of its occasion.

    Whereas there is nothing against our regarding l|daawid shigaayown , or at least shgywn, as a note appended by David himself.

    Since shigaayown (after the form chizaayown a vision) belongs to the same class as superscribed appellations like miz|mowr and mas|kiyl , and the Tephilla of Habakkuk, Hab 3:1 (vid., my Commentary), has the addition `al-shig|yonowt, shgywn must be the name of a kind of lyric composition, and in fact a kind described according to the rhythm of its language or melody. Now since shaagaah means to go astray, wander, reel, and is cognate with shaaga` (whence comes shigaa`own madness, a word formed in the same manner) shgywn may mean in the language of prosody a reeling poem, i.e., one composed in a most excited movement and with a rapid change of the strongest emotions, therefore a dithyrambic poem, and shig|yonowt dithyrambic rhythms, variously and violently mixed together. Thus Ewald and Rdiger understand it, and thus even Tarnov, Geier, and other old expositors who translate it cantio erratica. What we therefore look for is that this Psalm shall consist, as Ainsworth expresses it (1627), "of sundry variable and wandering verses," that it shall wander through the most diverse rhythms as in a state of intoxication-an expectation which is in fact realized. The musical accompaniment also had its part in the general effect produced. Moreover, the contents of the Psalm corresponds to this poetic musical style. It is the most solemn pathos of exalted self-consciousness which is expressed in it. And in common with Hab it gives expression to the joy which arises from zealous anger against the enemies of God and from the contemplation of their speedy overthrow. Painful unrest, defiant self-confidence, triumphant ecstasy, calm trust, prophetic certainty-all these states of mind find expression in the irregular arrangement of the strophes of this Davidic dithyramb, the ancient customary Psalm for the feast of Purim (Sofrim xviii. 2).

    PSALMS 7:1-2

    (7:2-3) O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me: Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.

    With this word of faith, love, and hope chaaciytiy b|kaa (as in Ps 141:8), this holy captatio benevolentiae, David also begins in 11:1; 16:1; 31:2, cf. 71:1. The perf. is inchoative: in Thee have I taken my refuge, equivalent to: in Thee do I trust. The transition from the multitude of his persecutors to the sing. in v. 3 is explained most naturally, as one looks at the inscription, thus: that of the many the one who is just at the time the worst of all comes prominently before his mind. The verb Taarap from the primary signification carpere (which corresponds still more exactly to chrp ) means both to tear off and to tear in pieces (whence T|reepaah that which is torn in pieces); and paaraq from its primary signification frangere means both to break loose and to break in pieces, therefore to liberate, e.g., in 136:24, and to break in small pieces, 1 Kings 19:11. The persecutors are conceived of as wild animals, as lions which rend their prey and craunch its bones. Thus blood-thirsty are they for his soul, i.e., his life. After the painful unrest of this first strophe, the second begins the tone of defiant self-consciousness.

    PSALMS 7:3-5

    (7:4-6) According to the inscription zo't points to the substance of those slanderous sayings of the Benjamite. With b|kapaay 'im-yesh-`aawel one may compare David's words to Saul raa`aah b|yaadiy 'eeyn 1 Sam 24:12; 26:18; and from this comparison one will at once see in a small compass the difference between poetical and prose expression. shol|miy (Targ. sh|laamiy lib|`eel) is the name he gives (with reference to Saul) to him who stands on a peaceful, friendly footing with him, cf. the adject. shaalowm , Ps 55:21, and shaalowm 'iysh , 41:10. The verb gaamal , cogn. gaamar , signifies originally to finish, complete, (root gm , km, cf. kiymaah to be or to make full, to gather into a heap). One says Towb gaamal and ra` gaamal , and also without a material object `aalay gaamal or g|maalaniy benefecit or malefecit mihi. But we join gaamal|tiy with raa` according to the Targum and contrary to the accentuation, and not with shol|miy (Olsh., Bttch., Hitz.), although sholeem beside m|shaleem , as e.g., dobeer beside m|dabeer might mean "requiting."

    The poet would then have written: raa` gom|liy shilam|tiy 'im i.e., if I have retaliated upon him that hath done evil to me. In v. 5 we do not render it according the meaning to hileets which is usual elsewhere: but rather I rescued... (Louis de Dieu, Ewald 345, a, and Hupfeld). Why cannot hileets in accordance with its primary signification expedire, exuere (according to which even the signification of rescuing, taken exactly, does not proceed from the idea of drawing out, but of making loose, exuere vinclis) signify here exuere = spoliare, as it does in Aramaic? And how extremely appropriate it is as an allusion to the incident in the cave, when David did not rescue Saul, but, without indeed designing to take chaliytsaah , exuviae, cut off the hem of his garment! As Hengstenberg observes, "He affirms his innocence in the most general terms, thereby showing that his conduct towards Saul was not anything exceptional, but sprang from his whole disposition and mode of action."

    On the 1 pers. fut. conv. and ah, vid., on Ps 3:6. reeyqaam belongs to tsowrariy , like 25:3; 69:5.

    In the apodosis, v. 6, the fut. Kal of raadap is made into three syllables, in a way altogether without example, since, by first making the Sheb audible, from yir|dop it is become yiradop (like yitsachaq Gen 21:6, tihalak| Ps 73:9; Ex 9:23, shimaa`aah 39:13), and this is then sharpened by an euphonic Dag. forte. (Note: The Dag. is of the same kind as the Dag. in g|maliym among nouns; Arabic popular dialect farass (my horse), vid., Wetzstein's Inschriften S. 366.)

    Other ways of explaining it, as that by Cahjg = ytrdp, or by Kimchi as a mixed form from Kal and Piel, (Note: Pinsker's view, that the pointing yiradop is designed to leave the reader at liberty to choose between the reading yir|dop and y|radeep, cannot be supported. There are no safe examples for the supposition that the variations of tradition found expression in this way.) have been already refuted by Baer, Thorath Emeth, p. 33. This dactylic jussive form of Kal is followed by the regular jussives of Hiph. yaseeg and yash|ken . The rhythm is similar so that in the primary passage Ex 15:9, which also finds its echo in Ps 18:38-viz. iambic with anapaests inspersed. By its parallelism with nap|shiy and chayaay , k|bowdiy acquires the signification "my soul," as Saadia, Gecatilia and Aben-Ezra have rendered it-a signification which is secured to it by Psalms 16:9; 30:13; 57:9; 108:2, Gen 49:6. Man's soul is his doxa, and this it is as being the copy of the divine doxa (Bibl. Psychol. S. 98, tr. p. 119, and frequently). Moreover, "let him lay in the dust" is at least quite as favourable to this sense of kbwdy as to the sense of personal and official dignity (Ps 3:4; 4:3). To lay down in the dust is equivalent to: to lay in the dust of death, 22:16. `aapaar shok|neey , Isa 26:19, are the dead. According to the biblical conception the soul is capable of being killed (Num 35:11), and mortal (Num 23:10). It binds spirit and body together and this bond is cut asunder by death. David will submit willingly to death in case he has ever acted dishonourably.

    Here the music is to strike up, in order to give intensity to the expression of this courageous confession. In the next strophe is affirmation of innocence rises to a challenging appeal to the judgment-seat of God and a prophetic certainty that that judgment is near at hand.

    PSALMS 7:6-8

    (7:7-9) In the consciousness of his own innocence he calls upon Jahve to sit in judgment and to do justice to His own. His vision widens and extends from the enemies immediately around to the whole world in its hostility towards Jahve and His anointed one. In the very same way special judgments and the judgment of the world are portrayed side by side, as it were on one canvas, in the prophets. The truth of this combination lies in the fact of the final judgment being only the finale of that judgment which is in constant execution in the world itself. The language here takes the highest and most majestic flight conceivable. By quwmaah (Milra, ass in Ps 3:8), which is one of David's words of prayer that he has taken from the lips of Moses (9:20; 10:12), he calls upon Jahve to interpose.

    The parallel is hinaasee' lift Thyself up, show thyself in Thy majesty, 94:2, Isa 33:10.

    The anger, in which He is to arise, is the principle of His judicial righteousness. With this His anger He is to gird Himself (Ps 76:11) against the ragings of the oppressors of God's anointed one, i.e., taking vengeance on their many and manifold manifestations of hostility. `ab|rowt is a shorter form of the construct (instead of `eb|rowt Job 40:11, cf. 21:31) of `eb|raah which describes the anger as running over, breaking forth from within and passing over into words and deeds (cf. Arab. Arab. f__, used of water: it overflows the dam, of wrath: it breaks forth). It is contrary to the usage of the language to make mish|paaT the object to `uwraah in opposition to the accents, and it is unnatural to regard it as the accus. of direction = lamshpT (Ps 35:23), as Hitzig does. The accents rightly unite 'eelay `uwraah : awake (stir thyself) for me i.e., to help me ('eelay like liq|laa'tiy, 59:5). The view, that tsiuwiytaa is then precative and equivalent to tsauweeh : command judgment, is one that cannot be established according to syntax either here, or in 71:3. It ought at least to have been w|tsiuwiytaa with Waw consec. On the other hand the relative rendering: Thou who hast ordered judgment (Maurer, Hengst.), is admissible, but unnecessary. We take it by itself in a confirmatory sense, not as a circumstantial clause: having commanded judgment (Ewald), but as a coordinate clause: Thou hast indeed enjoined the maintaining of right (Hupfeld).

    The psalmist now, so to speak, arranges the judgment scene: the assembly of the nations is to form a circle round about Jahve, in the midst of which He will sit in judgment, and after the judgment He is to soar away (Gen 17:22) aloft over it and return to the heights of heaven like a victor after the battle (see 68:19). Although it strikes one as strange that the termination of the judgment itself is not definitely expressed, yet the rendering of Hupfeld and others: sit Thou again upon Thy heavenly judgment-seat to judge, is to be rejected on account of the shuwbaah (cf. on the other hand 21:14) which is not suited to it; lamaarowm shwb can only mean Jahve's return to His rest after the execution of judgment. That which vv. 7 and 8 in the boldness of faith desire, the beginning of v. 9 expresses as a prophetic hope, from which proceeds the prayer, that the Judge of the earth may also do justice to him (shaap|teeniy vindica me, as in Ps 26:1; 35:24) according to his righteousness and the purity of which he is conscious, as dwelling in him. `aalay is to be closely connected with tumiy , just as one says `aalay nap|shiy (Psychol. S. 152 tr. p. 180). That which the individual as ego, distinguishes from itself as being in it, as subject, it denotes by `aalay . In explaining it elliptically: "come upon me" (Ew., Olsh., Hupf.) this psychologically intelligible usage of the language is not recognised. On tom vid., on 25:21; 26:1.

    PSALMS 7:9-10

    (7:10-11) In this strophe we hear the calm language of courageous trust, to which the rising and calmly subsiding caesural schema is particularly adapted. He is now concerned about the cessation of evil: Oh let it come to an end (gaamar intransitive as in Ps 12:2; 77:9).... His prayer is therefore not directed against the individuals as such but against the wickedness that is in them. This Psalm is the key to all Psalms which contain prayers against one's enemies. Just in the same manner uwt|kowneen is intended to express a wish; it is one of the comparatively rare voluntatives of the 2 pers. (Ew. 229): and mayst Thou be pleased to establish.... To the termination of evil which is desired corresponds, in a positive form of expression, the desired security and establishment of the righteous, whom it had injured and whose continuance was endangered by it. uwbocheen is the beginning of a circumstantial clause, introduced by w, but without the personal pronoun, which is not unfrequently omitted both in the leading participial clause, as in Isa 29:8 (which see), and in the minor participial clause as here (cf. Ps 55:20): cum sis = quoniam es. The reins are the seat of the emotions, just as the heart is the seat of the thoughts and feelings.

    Reins and heart lie naked before God-a description of the only kardiognoo'stees , which is repeated in Jer 11:20; 20:12, Apoc. 2:23.

    In the thesis the adjective is used with 'elohiym in the sing. as in Ps 78:56, cf. 58:12. God is the righteous God, and by his knowledge of the inmost part He is fully capable of always showing Himself both righteous in anger and righteous in mercy according to the requirements and necessity of the case. Therefore David can courageously add `al-'elohiym maaginiy, my shield doth God carry; l| 989:19) would signify: He has it, it (my shield) belongs to Him, `al (1 Chron 18:7) signifies: He bears it, or if one takes shield in the sense of protection: He has taken my protection upon Himself, has undertaken it (as in 62:8, cf. Judg 19:20), as He is in general the Saviour of all who are devoted to Him with an upright heart, i.e., a heart sincere, guileless (cf. 32 with v. 2). tsadiym is intentionally repeated at the end of the first two lines-the favourite palindrome, found more especially in Isa 40-56. And to the mixed character of this Psalm belongs the fact of its being both Elohimic and Jehovic. From the calm language of heartfelt trust in God the next strophe passes over into the language of earnest warning, which is again more excited and somewhat after the style of didactic poetry.

    PSALMS 7:11-13

    (7:12-14) If God will in the end let His wrath break forth, He will not do it without having previously given threatenings thereof every day, viz., to the ungodly, cf. Isa 66:14; Mal 1:4. He makes these feel His za`am beforehand in order to strike a wholesome terror into them. The subject of the conditional clause yaashuwb 'im-lo' is any ungodly person whatever; and the subject of the principal clause, as its continuation in v. 14 shows, is God. If a man (any one) does not repent, then Jahve will whet His sword (cf. Deut 32:41). This sense of the words accords with the connection; whereas with the rendering: "forsooth He (Elohim) will again whet His sword" (Bttch., Ew., Hupf.) yaashuwb , which would moreover stand close by yil|Towsh (cf. e.g., Gen 30:31), is meaningless; and the 'im-lo' of asseveration is devoid of purpose. Judgment is being gradually prepared, as the fut. implies; but, as the perff. imply, it is also on the other hand like a bow that is already strung against the sinner with the arrow pointed towards him, so that it can be executed at any moment. kowneen of the making ready, and heekiyn of the aiming, are used alternately. low , referring to the sinner, stands first by way of emphasis as in Gen 49:10; 1 Sam 2:3, and is equivalent to 'eelaayw , Ezek 4:3. "Burning" arrows are fire-arrows (ziqiym , ziyqowt , malleoli); and God's fire-arrows are the lightnings sent forth by Him, Ps 18:15; Zech 9:14. The fut. yip|`aal denotes the simultaneous charging of the arrows aimed at the sinner, with the fire of His wrath. The case illustrated by Cush is generalised: by the sword and arrows the manifold energy of the divine anger is symbolised, and it is only the divine forbearance that prevents it from immediately breaking forth. The conception is not coarsely material, but the vividness of the idea of itself suggests the form of its embodiment.

    PSALMS 7:14-17

    (7:15-18) This closing strophe foretells to the enemy of God, as if dictated by the judge, what awaits him; and concludes with a prospect of thanksgiving and praise. Man brings forth what he has conceived, he reaps what he has sown. Starting from this primary passage, we find the punishment which sin brings with it frequently represented under these figures of haadaah and yaalad (howliyd , chibeel , chiyl ), zaara` and qaatsar , and first of all in Job 15:35. The act, guilt, and punishment of sin appear in general as notions that run into one another. David sees in the sin of his enemies their self-destruction. It is singular, that travail is first spoken of, and then only afterwards pregnancy. For chibeel signifies, as in Song 8:5, oodi'nein , not: to conceive (Hitz.). The Arab. habila (synonym of hamala) is not to conceive in distinction from being pregnant, but it is both: to be and to become pregnant.

    The accentuation indicates the correct relationship of the three members of the sentence. First of all comes the general statement: Behold he shall travail with, i.e., bring forth with writhing as in the pains of labour, 'aawen , evil, as the result which proceeds from his wickedness. Then, by this thought being divided into its two factors (Hupf.) it goes on to say: that is, he shall conceive (concipere) `aamal , and bear sheqer .

    The former signifies trouble, molestia, just as poneeri'a signifies that which makes po'non ; the latter falsehood, viz., self-deception, delusion, vanity, inasmuch as the burden prepared for others, returns as a heavy and oppressive burden upon the sinner himself, as is said in v. 17; cf. Isa 59:4, where 'aawen instead of sheqer denotes the accursed wages of sin which consist in the unmasking of its nothingness, and in the undeceiving of its self-delusion.

    He diggeth a pit for himself, is another turn of the same thought, Ps 57:7; Eccl 10:8. V. 16a mentions the digging, and 16b the subsequent falling into the pit; the aorist wayipol is, for instance, like v. 13b, Ps 16:9; 29:10. The attributive yip|`aal is virtually a genitive to shachat , and is rightly taken by Ges. 124, 3, a as present: in the midst of the execution of the work of destruction prepared for others it becomes his own. The trouble, `aamaal , prepared for others returns upon his own head (b|ro'show , clinging to it, just as `al-ro'show signifies descending and resting upon it), and the violence, chaamaac , done to others, being turned back by the Judge who dwells above (Mic 1:12), descends upon his own pate (qaad|qaadow with o by q, as e.g., in Gen 2:23). Thus is the righteousness of God revealed in wrath upon the oppressor and in mercy upon him who is innocently oppressed. Then will the rescued one, then will David, give thanks unto Jahve, as is due to Him after the revelation of His righteousness, and will sing of the name of Jahve the Most High (`el|yown as an appended name of God is always used without the art., e.g., Ps 57:3). In the revelation of Himself He has made Himself a name. He has, however, revealed Himself as the almighty Judge and Deliverer, as the God of salvation, who rules over everything that takes place here below. It is this name, which He has made by His acts, that David will then echo back to Him in his song of thanksgiving.

    The Praise of the Creator's Glory Sung by the Starry Heavens to Puny Man Ps. 7 closed with a similar prospect of his enemies being undeceived by the execution of the divine judgments to Ps 6. The former is the pendant or companion to the latter, and enters into detail, illustrating it by examples.

    Now if at the same time we call to mind the fact, that Ps 6, if it be not a morning hymn, at any rate looks back upon sleepless nights of weeping, then the idea of the arrangement becomes at once clear, when we find a hymn of the night following Ps 6 with its pendant, Ps 7. David composes even at night; Jahve's song, as a Korahite psalmist says of himself in 42:9, was his companionship even in the loneliness of the night. The omission of any reference to the sun in v. 4 shows that Ps 8 is a hymn of this kind composed in the night, or at least one in which the writer transfers himself in thought to the night season. The poet has the starry heavens before him, he begins with the glorious revelation of Jahve's power on earth and in the heavens, and then pauses at man, comparatively puny man, to whom Jahve condescends in love and whom He has made lord over His creation.

    Ewald calls it a flash of lightning cast into the darkness of the creation.

    Even Hitzig acknowledges David's authorship here; whereas Hupfeld is silent, and Olshausen says that nothing can be said about it. The idea, that David composed it when a shepherd boy on the plains of Judah, is rightly rejected again by Hitzig after he has been at the pains to support it. (This thought is pleasingly worked out by Nachtigal, Psalmen gesungen vor David's Thronbesteigung, 1797, after the opinion of E. G. von Bengel, cum magna veri specie.) For, just as the Gospels do not contain any discourses of our Lord belonging to the time prior to His baptism, and just as the New Testament canon does not contain any writings of the Apostles from the time prior to Pentecost, so the Old Testament canon contains no Psalms of David belonging to the time prior to his anointing. It is only from that time, when he is the anointed one of the God of Jacob, that he becomes the sweet singer of Israel, on whose tongue is the word of Jahve, 2 Sam 23:1f.

    The inscription runs: To the Precentor, on the Gittith, a Psalm of David.

    The Targum translates it super cithara, quam David de Gath attulit.

    According to which it is a Philistine cithern, just as there was (according to Athenaeus and Pollux) a peculiar Phoenician and Carian flute played at the festivals of Adonis, called gi'ggras, and also an Egyptian flute and a Doric lyre. All the Psalms bearing the inscription `al-hagitiyt (8, 81, 84) are of a laudatory character. The gittith was, therefore, an instrument giving forth a joyous sound, or (what better accords with its occurring exclusively in the inscriptions of the Psalms), a joyous melody, perhaps a march of the Gittite guard,2 Sam 15:18 (Hitzig).

    Kurtz makes this Psalm into four tetrastichic strophes, by taking v. 2 a b and v. 10 by themselves as the opening and close of the hymn, and putting v. 2 c (Thou whose majesty...) to the first strophe. But 'asher is not rightly adapted to begin a strophe; the poet, we think, would in this case have written hwdw tnh 'shr 'th.

    PSALMS 8:1-2

    (8:2-3) O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.

    Here, for the first time, the subject speaking in the Psalm is not one individual, but a number of persons; and who should they be but the church of Jahve, which (as in Neh 10:30) can call Jahve its Lord ('adoneeynuw , like 'adonaay from 'adoniym plur. excellentiae, Ges. 108, 2); but knowing also at the same time that what it has become by grace it is called to be for the good of the whole earth? The sheem of God is the impress (cognate Arabic wasm, a sign, Greek see'ma) of His nature, which we see in His works of creation and His acts of salvation, a nature which can only be known from this visible and comprehensible representation (nomen = gnomen). (Note: Cf. Oehler's art. Name in Herzog's Real-Encyklopdie.)

    This name of God is certainly not yet so known and praised everywhere, as the church to which it has been made known by a positive revelation can know and praise it; but, nevertheless, it, viz., the divine name uttered in creation and its works, by which God has made Himself known and capable of being recognised and named, ifs 'adiyr amplum et gloriosum, everywhere through out the earth, even if it were entirely without any echo. The clause with 'asher must not be rendered:

    Who, do Thou be pleased to put Thy glory upon the heavens (Gesenius even: quam tuam magnificentiam pone in caelis), for such a use of the imperat. after 'shr is unheard of; and, moreover, although it is true a thought admissible in its connection with the redemptive history (Ps 57:6,12) is thus obtained, it is here, however, one that runs counter to the fundamental tone, and to the circumstances, of the Psalm. For the primary thought of the Psalm is this, that the God, whose glory the heavens reflect, has also glorified Himself in the earth and in man; and the situation of the poet is this, that he has the moon and stars before his eyes: how then could he wish that heaven to be made glorious whose glory is shining into his eyes! It is just as impracticable to take t|naah as a contraction of naat|naah , like tataah 2 Sam 22:41, = naatataah , as Ammonius and others, and last of all Bhl, have done, or with Thenius (Stud. u. Krit. 1860 S. 712f.) to read it so at once.

    For even if the thought: "which (the earth) gives (announces) Thy glory all over the heavens" is not contrary to the connection, and if `oz naatan , Ps 68:34, and kaabowd naatan , Jer 13:16, can be compared with this howd naatan , still the phrase `al howd naatan means nothing but to lay majesty on any one, to clothe him with it, Num 27:20; 1 Chron 29:25; Dan 11:21, cf. Ps 21:6; and this is just the thought one looks for, viz., that the name of the God, who has put His glory upon the heavens (148:13) is also glorious here below. We must, therefore, take t|naah , although it is always the form of the imper. elsewhere, as infin., just as r|daah occurs once in Gen 46:3 as infin. (like the Arab. rida a giving to drink, lida a bringing forth-forms to which leedaah and the like in Hebrew certainly more exactly correspond). howd|kaa t|naah signifies the setting of Thy glory (prop. to' tithe'nai tee'n do'xan sou ) just like 'et-h' dee`aah the knowledge of Jahve, and Obad. v. 5, qinekaa siym , probably the setting of thy nest, Ges. 133. 1. It may be interpreted: O Thou whose laying of Thy glory is upon the heavens, i.e., Thou who hast chosen this as the place on which Thou hast laid Thy glory (Hengst.). In accordance with this Jerome translates it: qui posuisti gloriam tuam super caelos. Thus also the Syriac version with the Targum: dejabt (dyhbt) shubhoch 'al shemajo, and Symmachus: ho's e'taxas to'n e'paino'n sou hupera'noo too'n ouranoo'n . This use of the nomen verbale and the genitival relation of 'asher to howd|kaa t|naah , which is taken as one notion, is still remarkable.

    Hitzig considers that no reasonable man would think and write thus: but thereby at the same time utterly condemns his own conjecture hahowd|kaa tan (whose extending of glory over the heavens). This, moreover, goes beyond the limits of the language, which is only acquainted with tan as the name of an animal. All difficulty would vanish if one might, with Hupfeld, read naatataah . But tnh has not the slightest appearance of being a corruption of ntth . It might be more readily supposed that t|naah is an erroneous pointing for taanaah (to stretch or extend, cf. Hos 8:10 to stretch forth, distribute):

    Thou whose glory stretches over the heavens-an interpretation which is more probable than that it is, with Paulus and Kurtz, to be read tunaah : Thou whose glory is praised (pass. of the tinaah in Judg 5:11; 11:40, which belongs to the dialect of Northern Palestine), instead of which one would more readily expect y|tuneh . The verbal notion, which is tacitly implied in Ps 113:4; 148:13, would then be expressed here.

    But perhaps the author wrote hwdk t|nh instead of howdk| naatataa , because he wishes to describe the setting out of the heavens with divine splendour (Note: In the first Sidonian inscription 'adiyr occurs as a byname of the heavens ('drm smm).) as being constantly repeated and not as done once for all.

    There now follows, in v. 3, the confirmation of v. 2 a: also all over the earth, despite its distance from the heavens above, Jahve's name is glorious; for even children, yea even sucklings glorify him there, and in fact not mutely and passively by their mere existence, but with their mouth. `owleel (= m|`owleel ), or `owlaal is a child that is more mature and capable of spontaneous action, from `owleel (Poel of `aalal ludere), (Note: According to this derivation `wll (cf. Beduin `'lwl, 'll a young ox) is related to ta`aluwl ; whereas `uwl as a synonym of ywnq signifies one who is supported, sustained. For the radical signification of `uwl according to the Arabic 'l, fut. o. is "to weigh heavy, to be heavy, to lie upon; to have anything incumbent upon one's self, to carry, support, preserve," whence 'ajjil the maintained child of the house, and 'ajjila (Damascene 'la) he who is dependent upon one for support and the family depending upon the paterfamilias for sustenance. Neither Arab. 'l, fut. o., nor gl, fut. i. usually applied to a pregnant woman who still suckles, has the direct signification to suckle. Moreover, the demon Ghul does not receive its name from swallowing up or sucking out (Ges.), but from destroying (Arab. gl, fut. o.).) according to 1 Sam 22:19; 15:3, distinct from yowneeq , i.e., a suckling, not, however, infans, but-since the Hebrew women were accustomed to suckle their children for a long period-a little child which is able to lisp and speak (vid., 2 Macc. 7:27).

    Out of the mouth of beings such as these Jahve has founded for Himself `oz . The LXX translates it the utterance of praise, ai'non ; and `oz certainly sometimes has the meaning of power ascribed to God in praise, and so a laudatory acknowledgment of His might; but this is only when connected with verbs of giving, Ps 29:1; 68:35; 96:7. In itself, when standing alone, it cannot mean this. It is in this passage: might, or victorious power, which God creates for Himself out of the mouths of children that confess Him. This offensive and defensive power, as Luther has observed on this passage, is conceived of as a strong building, `oz as maa`owz (Jer 16:19) i.e., a fortress, refuge, bulwark, fortification, for the foundation of which He has taken the mouth, i.e., the stammering of children; and this He has done because of His enemies, to restrain (hish|biyt to cause any one to sit or lie down, rest, to put him to silence, e.g., Isa 16:10; Ezek 7:24) such as are enraged against Him and His, and are inspired with a thirst for vengeance which expresses itself in curses (the same combination is found in 44:17). Those meant, are the fierce and calumniating opponents of revelation. Jahve has placed the mouth of children in opposition to these, as a strong defensive controversive power. He has chosen that which is foolish and weak in the eyes of the world to put to shame the wise and that which is strong (1 Cor 1:27). It is by obscure and naturally feeble instruments that He makes His name glorious here below. and overcomes whatsoever is opposed to this glorifying.

    PSALMS 8:3-5

    (8:4-6) Stier wrongly translates: For I shall behold. The principal thought towards which the rest tends is v. 5 (parallel are vv. 2 a, 3), and consequently v. is the protasis (par., v. 2 b), and kiy accordingly is = quum, quando, in the sense of quoties. As often as he gazes at the heavens which bear upon themselves the name of God in characters of light (wherefore he says shaameykaa ), the heavens with their boundless spaces (an idea which lies in the plur. shaamayim ) extending beyond the reach of mortal eye, the moon (yaareeach , dialectic wrch, perhaps, as Maurer derives it, from yaarach = yaaraq subflavum esse), and beyond this the innumerable stars which are lost in infinite space (kowkaabiym = kab|kaabiym prop. round, ball-shaped, spherical bodies) to which Jahve appointed their fixed place on the vault of heaven which He has formed with all the skill of His creative wisdom (kowneen to place and set up, in the sense of existence and duration): so often does the thought "what is mortal man...?" increase in power and intensity.

    The most natural thought would be: frail, puny man is as nothing before all this; but this thought is passed over in order to celebrate, with grateful emotion and astonished adoration, the divine love which appears in all the more glorious light-a love which condescends to poor man, the dust of earth. Even if 'enowsh does not come from 'aanash to be fragile, nevertheless, according to the usage of the language, it describes man from the side of his impotence, frailty, and mortality (vid., Ps 103:15; Isa 51:12, and on Gen 4:26). ben-'aadaam, also, is not without a similar collateral reference. With retrospective reference to w|yon|qiym `owl|liym , ben-'aadaam is equivalent to y|luwd-'ishaah in Job 14:1: man, who is not, like the stars, God's directly creative work, but comes into being through human agency born of woman. From both designations it follows that it is the existing generation of man that is spoken of. Man, as we see him in ourselves and others, this weak and dependent being is, nevertheless, not forgotten by God, God remembers him and looks about after him (paaqad of observing attentively, especially visitation, and with the accus. it is generally used of lovingly provident visitation, e.g., Jer 15:15). He does not leave him to himself, but enters into personal intercourse with him, he is the special and favoured object whither His eye turns (cf. Ps 144:3, and the parody of the tempted one in Job 7:17f.).

    It is not until v. 6 that the writer glances back at creation. wat|chac|reehuw (differing from the fut. consec. Job 7:18) describes that which happened formerly. min chicar signifies to cause to be short of, wanting in something, to deprive any one of something (cf. Eccl 4:8). mn is here neither comparative (paullo inferiorem eum fecisti Deo), nor negative (paullum derogasti ei, ne esset Deus), but partitive (paullum derogasti ei divinae naturae); and, without 'elohiym being on that account an abstract plural, paullum Deorum, = Dei (vid., Genesis S. 66f.), is equivalent to paullum numinis Deorum. According to Gen 1:27 man is created 'elohiym b|tselem , he is a being in the image of God, and, therefore, nearly a divine being. But when God says: "let us make man in our image after our likeness," He there connects Himself with the angels.

    The translation of the LXX eela'ttoosas auto'n brachu' ti par' agge'lous, with which the Targum and the prevailing Jewish interpretations also harmonize, is, therefore, not unwarranted. Because in the biblical mode of conception the angels are so closely connected with God as the nearest creaturely effulgence of His nature, it is really possible that in mee'elohiym David may have thought of God including the angels. Since man is in the image of God, he is at the same time in the likeness of an angel, and since he is only a little less than divine, he is also only a little less than angelic. The position, somewhat exalted above the angels, which he occupies by being the bond between all created things, in so far as mind and matter are united in him, is here left out of consideration. The writer has only this one thing in his mind, that man is inferior to God, who is ruwach , and to the angels who are ruwchowt (Isa 31:3; Heb 1:14) in this respect, that he is a material being, and on this very account a finite and mortal being; as Theodoret well and briefly observes: too' thneetoo' too'n agge'loon eela'ttootai.

    This is the m|`at in which whatever is wanting to him to make him a divine being is concentrated. But it is nothing more than m|`at . The assertion in v. 6a refers to the fact of the nature of man being in the image of God, and especially to the spirit breathed into him from God; v. 6b, to his godlike position as ruler in accordance with this his participation in the divine nature: honore ac decore coronasti eum. kaabowd is the manifestation of glory described from the side of its weightiness and fulness; howd (cf. heed , heeydaad ) from the side of its far resounding announcement of itself (vid., on Job 3:#20 9:20); haadaar from the side of its brilliancy, majesty, and beauty. w|haadaar howd , Ps 96:6, or also h' howd kibowr hadar, 145:5, is the appellation of the divine doxa, with the image of which man is adorned as with a regal crown. The preceding fut. consec. also stamps t|`at|reehuw and tam|shiyleehuw as historical retrospects. The next strophe unfolds the regal glory of man: he is the lord of all things, the lord of all earthly creatures.

    PSALMS 8:6-8

    (8:7-9) Man is a king, and not a king without territory; the world around, with the works of creative wisdom which fill it, is his kingdom. The words "put under his feet" sound like a paraphrase of the raadaah in Gen 1:26,28, kol is unlimited, as in Job 13:1; 42:2; Isa 44:24. But the expansion of the expression in vv. 8, 9 extends only to the earth, and is limited even there to the different classes of creatures in the regions of land, air, and water. The poet is enthusiastic in his survey of this province of man's dominion. And his lofty poetic language corresponds to this enthusiasm. The enumeration begins with the domestic animals and passes on from these to the wild beasts-together the creatures that dwell on terra firma. tsoneh (tsonee' Num 32:24) from tsaanaah (tsaanaa') Arab. dn (dn'), as also Arab. dn, fut. o., proliferum esse is, in poetry, equivalent to tso'n , which is otherwise the usual name for small cattle. 'alaapiym (in Aramaic, as the name of the letter shows, a prose word) is in Hebrew poetically equivalent to baaqaar ; the oxen which willingly accommodate themselves to the service of man, especially of the husbandman, are so called from 'aalap to yield to.

    Wild animals, which in prose are called haa'aarets chayat , (hasaadeh ) here bear the poetical name saadaay bahamowt , as in Joel 2:22, cf. 1:20, 1 Sam 17:44. saaday (in pause saadaay ) is the primitive form of saadeh , which is not declined, and has thereby obtained a collective signification. From the land animals the description passes on to the fowls of the air and the fishes of the water. tsipowr is the softer word, instead of `owp ; and shaamayim is water. tsipowr is the softer word, instead of `owp ; and shaamayim is used without the art. according to poetical usage, whereas hayaam without the art. would have sounded too scanty and not sufficiently measured. In connection with yamiym the article may be again omitted, just as with shaamayim . `obeer is a collective participle.

    If the following were intended: he (or: since he), viz., man, passes through the paths of the sea (Bttcher, Cassel, and even Aben-Ezra and Kimchi), then it would not have been expressed in such a monostich, and in a form so liable to lead one astray. The words may be a comprehensive designation of that portion of the animal kingdom which is found in the sea; and this also intended to include all from the smallest worm to the gigantic leviathan: hoppo'sa pontopo'rous parepistei'bousi keleu'thous (Apollinaris). If man thus rules over every living thing that is round about him from the nearest to the most remote, even that which is apparently the most untameable: then it is clear that every lifeless created thing in his vicinity must serve him as its king. The poet regards man in the light of the purpose for which he was created.

    PSALMS 8:9

    (8:10) 8:10. He has now demonstrated what he expressed in v. 2, that the name of Jahve whose glory is reflected by the heavens, is also glorious on earth.

    Thus, then, he can as a conclusion repeat the thought with which he began, in a wider and more comprehensive meaning, and weave his Psalm together, as it were, into a wreath.

    It is just this Psalm, of which one would have least expected it, that is frequently quoted in the New Testament and applied to the Messiah.

    Indeed Jesus' designation of Himself by ho uhio's tou' anthroo'pou , however far it may refer back to the Old Testament Scriptures, leans no less upon this Psalm than upon Dan 7:13. The use the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb 2:6-8) makes of vv. 5-7 of this Psalm shows us how the New Testament application to the Messiah is effected. The psalmist regards man as one who glorifies God and as a prince created of God. The deformation of this position by sin he leaves unheeded. But both sides of the mode of regarding it are warranted. On the one hand, we see that which man has become by creation still in operation even in his present state; on the other hand, we see it distorted and stunted. If we compare what the Psalm says with this shady side of the reality, from which side it is incongruous with the end of man's creation, then the song which treats of the man of the present becomes a prophecy of the man of the future.

    The Psalm undergoes this metamorphosis in the New Testament consciousness, which looks more to the loss than to that which remains of the original. In fact, the centre of the New Testament consciousness is Jesus the Restorer of that which is lost. The dominion of the world lost to fallen man, and only retained by him in a ruined condition, is allotted to mankind, when redeemed by Him, in fuller and more perfect reality. This dominion is not yet in the actual possession of mankind, but in the person of Jesus it now sits enthroned at the right hand of God. In Him the idea of humanity is transcendently realised, i.e., according to a very much higher standard than that laid down when the world was founded. He has entered into the state-only a little (brachu' ti ) beneath the angels-of created humanity for a little while (brachu' ti ), in order to raise redeemed humanity above the angels.

    Everything (kol ) is really put under Him with just as little limitation as is expressed in this Psalm: not merely the animal kingdom, not merely the world itself, but the universe with all the ruling powers in it, whether they be in subjection or in hostility to God, yea even the power of death (1 Cor 15:27, cf. Ephes. 1:22). Moreover, by redemption, more than heretofore, the confession which comes from the mouth of little children is become a bulwark founded of God, in order that against it the resistance of the opponents of revelation may be broken. We have an example of this in Matt 21:16, where our Lord points the pharisees and scribes, who are enraged at the Hosanna of the children, to Ps 8:3.

    Redemption demands of man, before everything else, that he should become as a little child, and reveals its mysteries to infants, which are hidden from the wise and intelligent. Thus, therefore, it is mikroi' kai' nee'pioi , whose tongue is loosed by the Spirit of God, who are to put to shame the unbelieving; and all that this Psalm says of the man of the present becomes in the light of the New Testament in its relation to the history of redemption, a prophecy of the Son of man kat' exochee'n , and of the new humanity.

    PSALM Hymn to the Righteous Judge after a Defeat of Hostile Peoples Just as Ps 7 is placed after Ps 6 as exemplifying it, so Ps 9 follows Ps 8 as an illustration of the glorifying of the divine name on earth. And what a beautiful idea it is that Ps 8, the Psalm which celebrates Jahve's name as being glorious in the earth, is introduced between a Psalm that closes with the words "I will sing of the name of Jahve, the Most High" (7:18) and one which begins: "I will sing of Thy name, O Most High!" (9:3).

    The LXX translates the inscription lkn `l-mwt by hupe'r too'n krufi'oon tou' uhiou' (Vulg. pro occultis filii) as though it were `al-`alumowt.

    Luther's rendering is still bolder: of beautiful (perhaps properly: lilywhite) youth. Both renderings are opposed to the text, in which `l occurs only once. The Targum understands bn of the duellist Goliath (= habeenayim 'iysh ); and some of the Rabbis regard lbn even as a transposition of nbl : on the death of Nabal.

    Hengstenberg has revived this view, regarding nbl as a collective designation of all Nabal-like fools. All these and other curious conceits arise from the erroneous idea that these words are an inscription referring to the contents of the Psalm. But, on the contrary, they indicate the tune or melody, and that by means of the familiar words of the song-perhaps some popular song-with which this air had become most intimately associated. At the end of Ps 48 this indication of the air is simply expressed by `al-muwt. The view of the Jewish expositors, who refer labeen to the musician been mentioned in 1 Chron 15:18, has, therefore, some probability in its favour. But this name excites critical suspicion. Why may not a well-known song have begun labeen muwt "dying (is) to the son...," or (if one is inclined to depart from the pointing, although there is nothing to render this suspicious) libeen maawet "Death makes white?"

    Even Hitzig does not allow himself to be misled as to the ancient Davidic origin of Ps 9 and 10 by the fact of their having an alphabetical arrangement. These two Psalms have the honour of being ranked among the thirteen Psalms which are acknowledge by him to be genuine Davidic Psalms. Thus, therefore, the alphabetical arrangement found in other Psalms cannot, in itself, bring us down to "the times of poetic trifling and degenerated taste." Nor can the freedom, with which the alphabetical arrangement is handled in Ps 9 and 10 be regarded as an indication of an earlier antiquity than these times. For the Old Testament poets, even in other instances, do not allow themselves to be fettered by forms of this character (vid., on Ps 145, cf. on 42:2); and the fact, that in Ps 9-10 the alphabetical arrangement is not fully carried out, is accounted for otherwise than by the license in which David, in distinction from later poets, indulged.

    In reality this pair of Psalms shows, that even David was given to acrostic composition. And why should he not be? Even among the Romans, Ennius (Cicero, De Divin. ii. 54 111), who belongs not to the leaden, but to the iron age, out of which the golden age first developed itself, composed in acrostics. And our oldest Germanic epics are clothed in the garb of alliteration, which Vilmar calls the most characteristic and most elevated style that the poetic spirit of our nation has created. Moreover, the alphabetical form is adapted to the common people, as is evident from Augustine's Retract. i. 20. It is not a paltry substitute for the departed poetic spirit, not merely an accessory to please the eye, an outward embellishment-it is in itself indicative of mental power. The didactic poet regards the array of the linguistic elements as the steps by which he leads his pupils up into the sanctuary of wisdom, or as the many-celled casket in which he stores the pearls of the teachings of his wisdom. The lyric writer regards it as the keys on which he strikes every note, in order to give the fullest expression to his feelings. Even the prophet does not disdain to allow the order of the letters to exert an influence over the course of his thoughts, as we see from Nah 1:3-7. (Note: This observation is due to Pastor Frohnmeyer of Wrtemberg.)

    Therefore, when among the nine (Note: The Psalterium Brunonis (ed. by Cochleus, 1533) overlooks Ps 9-10, reckoning only seven alphabetical Psalms.) alphabetical Psalms (9, 10, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, 145) four bear the inscription ldwd (9, 25, 34, 145), we shall not at once regard them as non- Davidic just because they indicate an alphabetical plan which is more or less fully carried out.

    This is not the place to speak of the relation of the anonymous Ps 10 to Ps 9, since Ps 9 is not in any way wanting in internal roundness and finish.

    It is thoroughly hymnic. The idea that v. 14 passes from thanksgiving into supplication rests on a misinterpretation, as we shall presently see. This Psalm is a thoroughly national song of thanksgiving for victory by David, belonging to the time when Jahve was already enthroned on Zion, and therefore, to the time after the ark was brought home. Was it composed after the triumphant termination of the Syro-Ammonitish war?-The judgment of extermination already executed, 9:8f., harmonises with what is recorded in 2 Sam 12:31; and the gwym , who are actually living within the borders of Israel, appear to be Philistines according to the annalistic passage about the Philistine feuds, 2 Sam 21:15ff., cf. Ps 8:1 in connection with 1 Sam 13:6.

    PSALMS 9:1-2

    (9:2-3) I will praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; I will shew forth all thy marvellous works. I will be glad and rejoice in thee: I will sing praise to thy name, O thou most High.

    In this first strophe of the Psalm, which is laid out in tetrastichs-the normative strophe-the alphabetical form is carried out in the fullest possible way: we have four lines, each of which begins with ' . It is the prelude of the song. The poet rouses himself up to a joyful utterance of Jahve's praise. With his whole heart (Ps 138:1), i.e., all his powers of mind and soul as centred in his heart taking part in the act, will he thankfully and intelligently confess God, and declare His wondrous acts which exceed human desire and comprehension (26:7); he will rejoice and be glad in Jahve, as the ground of his rejoicing and as the sphere of his joy; and with voice and with harp he will sing of the name of the Most High. `el|yown is not an attributive of the name of God (Hitz.: Thine exalted name), but, as it is everywhere from Gen 14:18-22 onward (e.g., Ps 97:9), an attributive name of God. As an attributive to shim|kaa one would expect to find haa`el|yown .

    PSALMS 9:3-4

    (9:4-5) The call upon himself to thanksgiving sounds forth, and the b-strophe continues it by expressing the ground of it. The preposition b| in this instance expresses both the time and the reason together (as in Ps 76:10; Chron 28:6); in Latin it is recedentibus hostibus meis retro. 'aachowr serves to strengthen the notion of being driven back, as in Ps 56:10, cf. 44:11; and just as, in Latin, verbs compounded of re are strengthened by retro. In v. 4b finite verbs take the place of the infinitive construct; here we have futt. with a present signification, just as in 2 Chron 16:7 we find a praet. intended as perfect. For the rendering which Hitzig adopts: When mine enemies retreat backwards, they stumble... is opposed both by the absence of any syntactic indication in v. 4b of an apodosis (cf. Ps 27:2); and also by the fact that yikaash|luw is well adapted to be a continuation of the description of 'aachowr shuwb (cf. John 18:6), but is tame as a principal clause to the definitive clause 'chwr 'wyby bswb.

    Moreover, 'aachowr does not signify backwards (which would rather be 'achoraniyt Gen 9:23; 1 Sam 4:18), but back, or into the rear. The min of mipaaneykaa is the min of the cause, whence the action proceeds. What is intended is God's angry countenance, the look of which sets his enemies on fire as if they were fuel (Ps 21:10), in antithesis to God's countenance as beaming with the light of His love.

    Now, while this is taking place, and because of its taking place, will be sing praise to God. From v. 2 we see that the Psalm is composed directly after the victory and while the destructive consequences of it to the vanquished are still in operation. David sees in it all an act of Jahve's judicial power.

    To execute any one's right, mish|paaT (Mic 7:9), to bring to an issue any one's suit or lawful demand, diyn (140:13), is equivalent to: to assist him and his good cause in securing their right. The phrases are also used in a judicial sense without the suffix. The genitive object after these principal words never denotes the person against whom, but the person on whose behalf, the third party steps forward with his judicial authority. Jahve has seated Himself upon His judgment-seat as a judge of righteousness (as in Jer 11:20), i.e., as a judge whose judicial mode of procedure is righteousness, justice, (Note: Also Prov 8:16 is probably to be read tsedeq kaal-shok|Tiy, with Norzi, according to the Targum, Syriac version, and old Codices; at any rate this is an old various reading, and one in accordance with the sense, side by side with 'erets kl-shpTy.) and has decided in his favour. In l| yaashab (as in Ps 132:11), which is distinguished in this respect from `al yashab (47:9), the idea of motion, considere, comes prominently forward.

    PSALMS 9:5-6

    (9:6-7) The strophe with g, which is perhaps intended to represent d and h as well, continues the confirmation of the cause for thanksgiving laid down in v. 4. He does not celebrate the judicial act of God on his behalf, which he has just experienced, alone, but in connection with, and, as it were, as the sum of many others which have preceded it. If this is the case, then in v. beside the Ammonites one may at the same time (with Hengstenb.) think of the Amalekites (1 Sam 8:12), who had been threatened since the time of Moses with a "blotting out of their remembrance" (Ex 17:14; Deut 25:19, cf. Num 24:20). The divine threatening is the word of omnipotence which destroys in distinction from the word of omnipotence that creates. raashaa` in close connection with gowyim is individualising, cf. v. 18 with vv. 16, 17. waa`ed is a sharpened pausal form for waa`ad, the Pathach going into a Segol (qTn ptch ); perhaps it is in order to avoid the threefold a-sound in w`d l`wlm (Ngelsbach 8 extr.).

    In v. 7 haa'owyeeb (with Azla legarme) appears to be a vocative. In that case naatash|taa ought also to be addressed to the enemy. But if it be interpreted: "Thou hast destroyed thine own cities, their memorial is perished," destroyed, viz., at the challenge of Israel, then the thought is forced; and if we render it: "the cities, which thou hast destroyed, perished is the remembrance of them," i.e., one no longer thinks of thine acts of conquest, then we have a thought that is in itself awkward and one that finds no support in any of the numerous parallels which speak of a blotting out and leaving no trace behind. But, moreover, in both these interpretations the fact that zik|raam is strengthened by heemaah is lost sight of, and the twofold masculine heemaah zik|raam is referred to `aariym (which is carelessly done by most expositors), whereas `iyr , with but few exceptions, is feminine; consequently hmh zkrm, so far as this is not absolutely impossible, must be referred to the enemies themselves (cf. Ps 34:17; 109:15). h'wyb might more readily be nom. absol.: "the enemy-it is at end for ever with his destructions," but chaar|baah never has an active but always only a neuter signification; or: "the enemy-ruins are finished for ever," but the signification to be destroyed is more natural for taamam than to be completed, when it is used of ruinae. Moreover, in connection with both these renderings the retrospective pronoun (chaar|bowtaayw) is wanting, and this is also the case with the reading charaabowt (LXX, Vulg., Syr.), which leaves it uncertain whose swords are meant.

    But why may we not rather connect h'wyb at once with tamuw as subject? In other instances tamuw is also joined to a singular collective subject, e.g., Isa 16:4; here it precedes, like haa'oreeb in Judg 20:37. laanetsach chaaraabowt is a nominative of the product, corresponding to the factitive object with verbs of making: the enemies are destroyed as ruins for ever, i.e., so that they are become ruins; or, more in accordance with the accentuation: the enemy, destroyed as ruins are they for ever. With respect to what follows the accentuation also contains hints worthy of our attention. It does not take naatash|taa (with the regular Pathach by Athnach after Olewejored, vid., on Ps 2:7) as a relative clause, and consequently does not require hmh zkrm to be referred back to `rym .

    We interpret the passage thus: and cities (viz., such as were hostile) thou hast destroyed (naatash evellere, exstirpare), perished is their (the enemies') memorial. Thus it also now becomes intelligible, why zik|raam , according to the rule Ges. 121, 3, is so remarkably strengthened by the addition of heemaah (cf. Num 14:32; 1 Sam 20:42; Prov 22:19; 23:15; Ezek 34:11). Hupfeld, whose interpretation is exactly the same as ours, thinks it might perhaps be the enemies themselves and the cities set over against one another. But the contrast follows in v. 8: their, even their memorial is perished, while on the contrary Jahve endures for ever and is enthroned as judge. This contrast also retrospectively gives support to the explanation, that zkrm refers not to the cities, but to h'wyb as a collective. With this interpretation of v. 7 we have no occasion to read meeheemaah zik|raam (Targ.), nor meeheemaah zeeker (Paul., Hitz.). The latter is strongly commended by Job 11:20, cf. Jer 10:2; but still it is not quite admissible, since zeeker here is not subjective (their own remembrance) but objective (remembrance of them). But may not `aariym perhaps here, as in Ps 139:20, mean zealots = adversaries (from `iyr fervere, zelare)? We reply in the negative, because the Psalm bears neither an Aramaising nor a North Palestinian impress. Even in connection with this meaning, the harshness of the `rym without any suffix would still remain. But, that the cities that are, as it were, plucked up by the root are cities of the enemy, is evident from the context.

    PSALMS 9:7-8

    (9:8-9) Without a trace even of the remembrance of them the enemies are destroyed, while on the other hand Jahve endureth for ever. This strophe is the continuation of the preceding with the most intimate connection of contrast (just as the b-strophe expresses the ground for what is said in the preceding strophe). The verb yaashab has not the general signification "to remain" here (like `aamad to endure), but just the same meaning as in Ps 29:10. Everything that is opposed to Him comes to a terrible end, whereas He sits, or (which the fut. implies) abides, enthroned for ever, and that as Judge: He hath prepared His throne for the purpose of judgment. This same God, who has just given proof that He lives and reigns, will by and by judge the nations still more comprehensively, strictly, and impartially. teekeel, a word exclusively poetic and always without the article, signifies first (in distinction from 'erets the body of the earth and 'adaamaah the covering or soil of the earth) the fertile (from yaabal ) surface of the globe, the oikoume'nee . It is the last Judgment, of which all preceding judgments are harbingers and pledges, that is intended. In later Psalms this Davidic utterance concerning the future is repeated.

    PSALMS 9:9-10

    (9:10-11) Thus judging the nations Jahve shows Himself to be, as a second wstrophe says, the refuge and help of His own. The voluntative with Waw of sequence expresses that which the poet desires for his own sake and for the sake of the result mentioned in v. 11. mis|gaab , a high, steep place, where one is removed from danger, is a figure familiar to David from the experiences of his time of persecution. dak| (in pause daak| ) is properly one who is crushed (from daakak| = daakaa' , daakaah to crush, break in pieces, daaqaq to pulverize), therefore one who is overwhelmed to the extreme, even to being completely crushed. The parallel is batsaaraah l|`itowt with the datival l| (as probably also in Ps 10:1). `itowt from `at (time, and then both continuance, 81:16, and condition) signifies the public relations of the time, or even the vicissitudes of private life, 31:16; and batsaaraah is not hatsaaraah with b| (Bttch.), which gives an expression that is meaninglessly minute ("for times in the need"), but one word, formed from bitseer (to cut off, Arab. to see, prop. to discern keenly), just like baqaashaah from biqeesh , prop. a cutting off, or being cut off, i.e., either restraint, especially motionlessness (= batsoret , Jer 17:8, plur. batsaarowt Jer 14:1), or distress, in which the prospect of deliverance is cut off.

    Since God is a final refuge for such circumstances of hopelessness in life, i.e., for those who are in such circumstances, the confidence of His people is strengthened, refreshed, and quickened. They who know His name, to them He has now revealed its character fully, and that by His acts; and they who inquire after Him, or trouble and concern themselves about Him (this is what daarash signifies in distinction from biqeesh ), have now experienced that He also does not forget them, but makes Himself known to them in the fulness of His power and mercy.

    PSALMS 9:11-12

    (9:12-13) Thus then the z-strophe summons to the praise of this God who has done, and will still do, such things. The summons contains a moral claim, and therefore applies to all, and to each one individually. Jahve, who is to be praised everywhere and by every one, is called tsiyown yosheeb , which does not mean: He who sits enthroned in Zion, but He who inhabiteth Zion, Ges. 138, 1. Such is the name by which He is called since the time when His earthly throne, the ark, was fixed on the castle hill of Jerusalem, Ps 76:3. It is the epithet applied to Him during the period of the typical kingship of promise. That Jahve's salvation shall be proclaimed from Zion to all the world, even outside Israel, for their salvation, is, as we see here and elsewhere, an idea which throbs with life even in the Davidic Psalms; later prophecy beholds its realisation in its wider connections with the history of the future. That which shall be proclaimed to the nations is called `aliylowtaayw , a designation which the magnalia Dei have obtained in the Psalms and the prophets since the time of Hannah's song,1 Sam 2:3 (from `aalal , root `l , to come over or upon anything, to influence a person or a thing, as it were, from above, to subject them to one's energy, to act upon them).

    With kiy , quod, in v. 13, the subject of the proclamation of salvation is unfolded as to its substance. The praett. state that which is really past; for that which God has done is the assumption that forms the basis of the discourse in praise of God on account of His mighty acts.

    They consist in avenging and rescuing His persecuted church-persecuted even to martyrdom. The 'owtaam , standing by way of emphasis before its verb, refers to those who are mentioned afterwards (cf. v. 21): the Chethb calls them `aniyiym , the Keri `anaawiym . Both words alternate elsewhere also, the Ker at one time placing the latter, at another the former, in the place of the one that stands in the text. They are both referable to `anaah to bend (to bring low, Isa 25:5). The neuter signification of the verb `aanaah = `aanaw, Arab.'n, fut. o., underlies the noun `aanaaw (cf. shaaleew ), for which in Num 12:3 there is a Ker `aanaayw with an incorrect Jod (like shaaleeyw Job 21:23).

    This is manifest from the substantive `anaawaah , which does not signify affliction, but passiveness, i.e., humility and gentleness; and the noun `aaniy is passive, and therefore does not, like `aanaaw , signify one who is lowly-minded, in a state of `anaawaah , but one who is bowed down by afflictions, `aaniy . But because the twin virtues denoted by `anaawaah are acquired in the school of affliction, there comes to be connected with `aaniy -but only secondarily-the notion of that moral and spiritual condition which is aimed at by dispensations of affliction, and is joined with a suffering life, rather than with one of worldly happiness and prosperity-a condition which, as Num 12:3 shows, is properly described by `aanaaw (tapeino's and prau's ). It shall be proclaimed beyond Israel, even among the nations, that the Avenger of blood, daamiym doreesh , thinks of them (His dor|shiym), and has been as earnest in His concern for them as they in theirs for Him. daamiym always signifies human blood that is shed by violence and unnaturally; the plur. is the plural of the product discussed by Dietrich, Abhandl. S. 40. daarash to demand back from any one that which he has destroyed, and therefore to demand a reckoning, indemnification, satisfaction for it, Gen 9:5, then absolutely to punish,2 Chron 24:22.

    PSALMS 9:13-14

    (9:14-15) To take this strophe as a prayer of David at the present time, is to destroy the unity and hymnic character of the Psalm, since that which is here put in the form of prayer appears in what has preceded and in what follows as something he has experienced. The strophe represents to us how the `aniyiym (`anaawiym ) cried to Jahve before the deliverance now experienced. Instead of the form chaaneeniy used everywhere else the resolved, and as it were tremulous, form chaan|neeniy is designedly chosen. According to a better attested reading it is ichn|neeniy (Pathach with Gaja in the first syllable), which is regarded by Chajug and others as the imper. Piel, but more correctly (Ewald 251, c) as the imper.

    Kal from the intransitive imperative form chanan . m|rowmamiy is the vocative, cf. Ps 17:7. The gates of death, i.e., the gates of the realm of the dead (sh|'owl , Isa 38:10), are in the deep; he who is in peril of death is said to have sunk down to them; he who is snatched from peril of death is lifted up, so that they do not swallow him up and close behind him.

    The church, already very near to the gates of death, cried to the God who can snatch from death. Its final purpose in connection with such deliverance is that it may glorify God. The form t|hilaateykaa is sing. with a plural suffix just like sin|'aateykaa Ezek 35:11, 'ash|maateeynuw Ezra 9:15. The punctuists maintained (as `atsaatayik| in Isa 47:13 shows) the possibility of a plural inflexion of a collective singular. In antithesis to the gates of death, which are represented as beneath the ground, we have the gates of the daughter of Zion standing on high. tsiyown is gen. appositionis (Ges. 116, 5).

    The daughter of Zion (Zion itself) is the church in its childlike, bride-like, and conjugal relation to Jahve. In the gates of the daughter of Zion is equivalent to: before all God's people, Ps 116:14. For the gates are the places of public resort and business. At this period the Old Testament mind knew nothing of the songs of praise of the redeemed in heaven. On the other side of the grave is the silence of death. If the church desires to praise God, it must continue in life and not die.

    PSALMS 9:15-16

    (9:16-17) And, as this E-strophe says, the church is able to praise God; for it is rescued from death, and those who desired that death might overtake it, have fallen a prey to death themselves. Having interpreted the h-strophe as the representation of the earlier `aniyiym tsa`aqat we have no need to supply dicendo or dicturus, as Seb. Schmidt does, before this strophe, but it continues the praett. preceding the ch-strophe, which celebrate that which has just been experienced. The verb Taab` (root Eb, whence also Taabal ) signifies originally to press upon anything with anything flat, to be pressed into, then, as here and in Ps 69:3,15, to sink in. Taamaanuw zuw (pausal form in connection with Mugrash) in the parallel member of the verse corresponds to the attributive `aasuw (cf. yip|`aal , 7:16). The union of the epicene zuw with reshet by Makkeph proceeds from the view, that zuw is demonstrative as in 12:8: the net there (which they have hidden). The punctuation, it is true, recognises a relative zuw , 17:9; 68:29, but it mostly takes it as demonstrative, inasmuch as it connects it closely with the preceding noun, either by Makkeph (32:8; 62:12; 142:4; 143:8) or by marking the noun with a conjunctive accent (10:2; 31:5; 132:12). The verb laakad (Arabic to hang on, adhere to, IV to hold fast to) has the signification of seizing and catching in Hebrew.

    In v. 17 Ben Naphtali points nowdaa` with aa: Jahve is known (part. Niph.); Ben Asher nowda` , Jahve has made Himself known (3 pers. praet. Niph. in a reflexive signification, as in Ezek 38:23). The readings of Ben Asher have become the textus receptus. That by which Jahve has made Himself known is stated immediately: He has executed judgment or right, by ensnaring the evil-doer (raashaa` , as in v. 6) in his own craftily planned work designed for the destruction of Israel. Thus Gussetius has already interpreted it. nowqeesh is part. Kal from naaqash . If it were part. Niph. from yaaqash the ee, which occurs elsewhere only in a few `` verbs, as naameem liquefactus, would be without an example. But it is not to be translated, with Ges. and Hengst.: "the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands," in which case it would have to be pointed nowqash (3 praet. Niph.), as in the old versions.

    Jahve is the subject, and the suffix refers to the evil-doer. The thought is the same as in Job 34:11; Isa 1:31. This figure of the net, reshet (from yaarash capere), is peculiar to the Psalms that are inscribed ldwd. The music, and in fact, as the combination clh hgywn indicates, the playing of the stringed instruments (Ps 92:4), increases here; or the music is increased after a solo of the stringed instruments. The song here soars aloft to the climax of triumph.

    PSALMS 9:17-18

    (9:18-19) For the needy shall not alway be forgotten: the expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever.

    Just as in vv. 8ff. the prospect of a final universal judgment was opened up by Jahve's act of judgment experienced in the present, so here the grateful retrospect of what has just happened passes over into a confident contemplation of the future, which is thereby guaranteed. The LXX translates yaashuwbuw by apostrafee'toosan, Jer. convertantur, a meaning which it may have (cf. e.g., 2 Chron 18:25); but why should it not be anastrafee'toosan, or rather: anastrafee'sontai, since v. 19 shows that v. 18 is not a wish but a prospect of that which is sure to come to pass? To be resolved into dust again, to sink away into nothing (redactio in pulverem, in nihilum) is man's return to his original condition-man who was formed from the dust, who was called into being out of nothing. To die is to return to the dust, Ps 104:29, cf. Gen 3:19, and here it is called the return to Shel, as in Job 30:23 to death, and in 90:3 to atoms, inasmuch as the state of shadowy existence in Hades, the condition of worn out life, the state of decay is to a certain extent the renewal (Repristination) of that which man was before he cam into being.

    As to outward form lish|'owlaah may be compared with liyshu`aataah in Ps 80:3; the l in both instances is that of the direction or aim, and might very well come before sh'wlh, because this form of the word may signify both en ha'dou and eis ha'dou (cf. mibaabelaah Jer 27:16). R. Abba ben Zabda, in Genesis Rabba cap. 50, explains the double sign of the direction as giving intensity to it: in imum ambitum orci. The heathen receive the epithet of 'elohiym sh|keecheey (which is more neuter than shok|cheey , Ps 50:22); for God has not left them without a witness of Himself, that they could not know of Him, their alienation from God is a forgetfulness of Him, the guilt of which they have incurred themselves, and from which they are to turn to God (Isa 19:22). But because they do not do this, and even rise up in hostility against the nation and the God of the revelation that unfolds the plan of redemption, they will be obliged to return to the earth, and in fact to Hades, in order that the persecuted church may obtain its longed for peace and its promised dominion.

    Jahve will at last acknowledge this ecclesia pressa; and although its hope seems like to perish, inasmuch as it remains again and again unfulfilled, nevertheless it will not always continue thus. The strongly accented lo' rules both members of v. 19, as in Ps 35:19; 38:2, and also frequently elsewhere (Ewald 351, a). 'eb|yown , from 'aabaah to wish, is one eager to obtain anything = a needy person. The Arabic 'b, which means the very opposite, and according to which it would mean "one who restrains himself," viz., because he is obliged to, must be left out of consideration.

    PSALMS 9:19-20

    (9:20-21) Put them in fear, O LORD: that the nations may know themselves to be but men. Selah.

    By reason of the act of judgment already witnessed the prayer now becomes all the more confident in respect of the state of things which is still continually threatened. From y the poet takes a leap to q which, however, seems to be a substitute for the k which one would expect to find, since the following Psalm begins with l. David's quwmaah (Ps 3:8; 7:7) is taken from the lips of Moses, Num 10:35. "Jahve arises, comes, appears" are kindred expressions in the Old Testament, all of which point to a final personal appearing of God to take part in human history from which He has now, as it were, retired into a state of repose becoming invisible to human eyes. Hupfeld and others wrongly translate "let not man become strong." The verb `aazaz does not only mean to be or become strong, but also to feel strong, powerful, possessed of power, and to act accordingly, therefore: to defy, Ps 52:9, like `az defiant, impudent (post-biblical `azuwt shamelessness). 'enowsh , as in 2 Chron 14:10, is man, impotent in comparison with God, and frail in himself.

    The enemies of the church of God are not unfrequently designated by this name, which indicates the impotence of their pretended power (Isa 51:7,12). David prays that God may repress the arrogance of these defiant ones, by arising and manifesting Himself in all the greatness of His omnipotence, after His forbearance with them so long has seemed to them to be the result of impotence. He is to arise as the Judge of the world, judging the heathen, while they are compelled to appear before Him, and, as it were, defile before Him (`al-p|neey), He is to lay mowraah on them. If "razor" be the meaning it is equivocally expressed; and if, according to Isa 7:20, we associate with it the idea of an ignominious rasure, or of throat-cutting, it is a figure unworthy of the passage. The signification master (LXX, Syr., Vulg., and Luther) rests upon the reading mowreh , which we do not with Thenius and others prefer to the traditional reading (even Jerome translates: pone, Domine, terrorem eis); for mowraah , which according to the Masora is instead of mowraa' (like mik|laah Hab 3:17 for mik|laa'), is perfectly appropriate.

    Hitzig objects that fear is not a thing which one lays upon any one; but mwr' means not merely fear, but an object, or as Hitzig himself explains it in Mal 2:5 a "lever," of fear. It is not meant that God is to cause them to be overcome with terror (`al ), nor that He is to put terror into them (b|), but that He is to make them (l| in no way differing from 231:4; Ps 140:6; Job 14:13) an object of terror, from which to their dismay, as the wish is further expressed in v. 21b, they shall come to know (Hos 9:7) that they are mortal men. As in Ps 10:12; 49:12; 50:21; 64:6; Gen 12:13; Job 35:14; Amos 5:12; Hos 7:2, yed|`uw is followed by an only half indirect speech, without kiy or 'asher . celaah has Dag. forte conj. according to the rule of the mrchyq 'ty (concerning which vid., on Ps 52:5), because it is erroneously regarded as an essential part of the text.

    Plaintive and Supplicatory Prayer under the Pressure of Heathenish Foes at Home and Abroad PSALM 10:1-2 Why standest thou afar off, O LORD? why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?

    This Psalm and Ps 33 are the only ones that are anonymous in the First book of the Psalms. But Ps 10 has something peculiar about it. The LXX gives it with Ps 9 as one Psalm, and not without a certain amount of warrant for so doing. Both are laid out in tetrastichs; only in the middle portion of Ps 10 some three line strophes are mixed with the four line.

    And assuming that the q-strophe, with which Ps 9 closes, stands in the place of a k-strophe which one would look for after the y-strophe, then Ps 10, beginning with l, continues the order of the letters. At any rate it begins in the middle of the alphabet, whereas Ps 9 begins at the beginning.

    It is true the l-strophe is then followed by strophes without the letters that come next in order; but their number exactly corresponds to the letters between l and q, r, sh , t with which the last four strophes of the Psalm begin, viz., six, corresponding to the letters m, n, c, `, p, ts, which are not introduced acrostically.

    In addition to this it is to be remarked that Ps 9 and 10 are most intimately related to one another by the occurrence of rare expressions, as batsaaraah l|`itowt and dak| ; by the use of words in the same sense, as 'enowsh and gowyim ; by striking thoughts, as "Jahve doth not forget" and "Arise;" and by similarities of style, as the use of the oratio directa instead of obliqua, 9:21; 10:13. And yet it is impossible that the two Psalms should be only one. Notwithstanding all their community of character they are also radically different. Ps 9 is a thanksgiving Psalm, Ps 10 is a supplicatory Psalm. In the latter the personality of the psalmist, which is prominent in the former, keeps entirely in the background. The enemies whose defeat Ps 9 celebrates with thanksgiving and towards whose final removal it looks forward are gowyim , therefore foreign foes; whereas in Ps 10 apostates and persecutors of his own nation stand in the foreground, and the gwym are only mentioned in the last two strophes.

    In their form also the two Psalms differ insofar as Ps 10 has no musical mark defining its use, and the tetrastich strophe structure of Ps 9, as we have already observed, is not carried out with the same consistency in Ps 10. And is anything really wanting to the perfect unity of Ps 9? If it is connected with Ps 10 and they are read together uno tenore, then the latter becomes a tail-piece which disfigures the whole. There are only two things possible: Ps 10 is a pendant to Ps 9 composed either by David himself, or by some other poet, and closely allied to it by its continuance of the alphabetical order. But the possibility of the latter becomes very slight when we consider that Ps 10 is not inferior to Ps 9 in the antiquity of the language and the characteristic nature of the thoughts. Accordingly the mutual coincidences point to the same author, and the two Psalms must be regarded as "two co-ordinate halves of one whole, which make a higher unity" (Hitz.). That hard, dull, and tersely laconic language of deep-seated indignation at moral abominations for which the language has, as it were, no one word, we detect also elsewhere in some Psalms of David and of his time, those Psalms, which we are accustomed to designate as Psalms written in the indignant style (in grollendem Stil).

    Verse 1-2. The Psalm opens with the plaintive inquiry, why Jahve tarries in the deliverance of His oppressed people. It is not a complaining murmuring at the delay that is expressed by the question, but an ardent desire that God may not delay to act as it becomes His nature and His promise. laamaah , which belongs to both members of the sentence, has the accent on the ultima, as e.g., before `azab|taanay in Ps 22:2, and before haree`otaah in Ex 5:22, in order that neither of the two gutturals, pointed with a, should be lost to the ear in rapid speaking (vid., on Ps 3:8, and Luzzatto on Isa 11:2, `aalaayw naachaah ). (Note: According to the Masora laamaah without Dag. is always Milra with the single exception of Job 7:20, and yaamaah with Dag. is Milel; but, when the following closely connected word begins with one of the letters 'h` it becomes Milra, with five exceptions, viz., Ps 49:6; 1 Sam 28:15; 2 Sam 14:31 (three instances in which the guttural of the second word has the vowel i), and 2 Sam 2:22, and Jer 15:18. In the Babylonian system of pointing, lmh is always written without Dag. and with the accent on the penultimate, vid., Pinsker, Einleitung in das Babylonish-hebrishce Punktationssystem, S. 182-184.)

    For according to the primitive pronunciation (even before the Masoretic) it is to be read: lam h Adonaj; so that consequently h and ' are coincident. The poet asks why in the present hopeless condition of affairs (on batsaaraah vid., on Ps 9:10) Jahve stands in the distance (b|raachowq , only here, instead of meeraachowq ), as an idle spectator, and why does He cover (ta`|liym with orthophonic Dagesh, in order that it may not be pronounced ta`aliym ), viz., His eyes, so as not to see the desperate condition of His people, or also His ears (Lam 3:56) so as not to hear their supplication. For by the insolent treatment of the ungodly the poor burns with fear (Ges., Stier, Hupf.), not vexation (Hengst.). The assault is a pu'roosis , 1 Peter 4:12. The verb daalaq which calls to mind daleqet , pureto's , is perhaps chosen with reference to the heat of feeling under oppression, which is the result of the persecution, of the (bow (OT:871a)) 'acharaayw d|loq of the ungodly. There is no harshness in the transition from the singular to the plural, because `aaniy and raashaa` are individualising designations of two different classes of men. The subject to yitaap|shuw is the `aniyiym , and the subject to chashaabuw is the r|shaa`iym . The futures describe what usually takes place. Those who, apart from this, are afflicted are held ensnared in the crafty and malicious devices which the ungodly have contrived and plotted against them, without being able to disentangle themselves. The punctuation, which places Tarcha by zuw , mistakes the relative and interprets it: "in the plots there, which they have devised."

    PSALMS 10:3-4

    For the wicked boasteth of his heart's desire, and blesseth the covetous, whom the LORD abhorreth.

    The prominent features of the situation are supported by a detailed description. The praett. express those features of their character that have become a matter of actual experience. hileel , to praise aloud, generally with the accus., is here used with `al of the thing which calls forth praise. Far from hiding the shameful desire or passion (Ps 112:10) of his soul, he makes it an object and ground of high and sounding praise, imagining himself to be above all restraint human or divine. Hupfeld translates wrongly: "and he blesses the plunderer, he blasphemes Jahve."

    But the raashaa` who persecutes the godly, is himself a botseea` , a covetous or rapacious person; for such is the designation (elsewhere with betsa` Prov 1:19, or ra` betsa` Hab 2:9) not merely of one who "cuts off" (Arab. bd'), i.e., obtains unjust gain, by trading, but also by plunder, pleone'ktees . The verb beereek| (here in connection with Mugrash, as in Num 23:20 with Tiphcha beereek| ) never directly signifies maledicere in biblical Hebrew as it does in the alter Talmudic (whence hasheem bir|kat blasphemy, B. Sanhedrin 56a, and frequently), but to take leave of any one with a benediction, and then to bid farewell, to dismiss, to decline and abandon generally, Job 1:5, and frequently (cf. the word remercier, abdanken; and the phrase "das Zeitliche segnen" = to depart this life). The declaration without a conjunction is climactic, like Isa 1:4; Amos 4:5; Jer 15:7. ni'eets , properly to prick, sting, is sued of utter rejection by word and deed. (Note: Pasek stands between n'ts and yhwh , because to blaspheme God is a terrible thought and not to be spoken of without hesitancy, cf. the Pasek in Ps 74:18; 89:52; Isa 37:24 (2 Kings 19:23).)

    In v. 4, "the evil-doer according to his haughtiness" (cf. Prov 16:18) is nom. absol., and 'elohiym 'eeyn bal-yid|rosh (contrary to the accentuation) is virtually the predicate to kaal-m|zimowtaayw. This word, which denotes the intrigues of the ungodly, in v. 2, has in this verse, the general meaning: thoughts (from zmm, Arab. zmm, to join, combine), but not without being easily associated with the secondary idea of that which is subtly devised. The whole texture of his thoughts is, i.e., proceeds from and tends towards the thought, that he (viz., Jahve, whom he does not like to name) will punish with nothing (bal the strongest form of subjective negation), that in fact there is no God at all. This second follows from the first; for to deny the existence of a living, acting, all-punishing (in one word: a personal) God, is equivalent to denying the existence of any real and true God whatever (Ewald).

    PSALMS 10:5

    His ways are always grievous; thy judgments are far above out of his sight: as for all his enemies, he puffeth at them.

    This strophe, consisting of only three lines, describes his happiness which he allows nothing to disturb. The signification: to be lasting (prop. stiff, strong) is secured to the verb chiyl (whence chayil ) by Job 20:21. He takes whatever ways he chooses, they always lead to the desired end; he stands fast, he neither stumbles nor goes astray, cf. Jer 12:1. The Chethb drkw (d|raakaaw ) has no other meaning than that give to it by the Ker (cf. Ps 24:6; 58:8). Whatever might cast a cloud over his happiness does not trouble him: neither the judgments of God, which are removed high as the heavens out of his sight, and consequently do not disturb his conscience (cf. 28:5, Isa 5:12; and the opposite, 18:23), nor his adversaries whom he bloweth upon contemptuously. maarowm is the predicate: altissime remota. And b| heepiyach, to breathe upon, does not in any case signify: actually to blow away or down (to express which naashab or naashap would be used), but either to "snub," or, what is more appropriate to v. 5b, to blow upon them disdainfully, to puff at them, like hipyach in Mal 1:13, and flare rosas (to despise the roses) in Prudentius. The meaning is not that he drives his enemies away without much difficulty, but that by his proud and haughty bearing he gives them to understand how little they interfere with him.

    PSALMS 10:6-7

    He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.

    Then in his boundless carnal security he gives free course to his wicked tongue. That which the believer can say by reason of his fellowship with God, bal-'emowT (Ps 30:7; 16:8), is said by him in godless self-confidence.

    He looks upon himself in age after age, i.e., in the endless future, as b|raa` lo' 'asher , i.e., as one who ('asher as in Isa 8:20) will never be in evil case (b|raa` as in Ex 5:19; 2 Sam 16:8). It might perhaps also be interpreted according to Zech 8:20,23 (vid., Khler, in loc.): in all time to come (it will come to pass) that I am not in misfortune. But then the personal pronoun ('aniy or huw' ) ought not be omitted; whereas with our interpretation it is supplied from 'emowT , and there is no need to supply anything if the clause is taken as an apposition: in all time to come he who.... In connection with such unbounded self-confidence his mouth is full of 'aalaah , cursing, execratio (not perjury, perjurium, a meaning the word never has), mir|mowt , deceit and craft of every kind, and tok| , oppression, violence. And that which he has under his tongue, and consequently always in readiness for being put forth (Ps 140:4, cf. 66:17), is trouble for others, and in itself matured wickedness. Paul has made use of this v. 7 in his contemplative description of the corruptness of mankind, Rom 3:14.

    PSALMS 10:8

    He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.

    The ungodly is described as a lier in wait; and one is reminded by it of such a state of anarchy, as that described in Hos 6:9 for instance. The picture fixes upon one simple feature in which the meanness of the ungodly culminates; and it is possible that it is intended to be taken as emblematical rather than literally. chaatseer (from chaatsar to surround, cf. Arab. hdr, htsr, and especially hdr) is a farm premises walled in (Arab. hadar, hadr, hadra), then losing the special characteristic of being walled round it comes to mean generally a settled abode (with a house of clay or stone) in opposition to a roaming life in tents (cf. Lev 25:31; Gen 25:16). In such a place where men are more sure of falling into his hands than in the open plain, he lies in wait (yaashab , like Arab. q'd lh, subsedit = insidiatus est ei), murders unobserved him who had never provoked his vengeance, and his eyes yits|ponuw l|heel|kaah. tsaapaah to spie, Ps 37:32, might have been used instead of tsaapaan; but tsaapan also obtains the meaning, to lie in ambush (56:7; 1:11,18) from the primary notion of restraining one's self (Arab. dfn, fut. i. in Beduin Arabic: to keep still, to be immoveably lost in thought, vid., on Job 24:1), which takes a transitive turn in tsaapan "to conceal." eechl|kaah, the dative of the object, is pointed just as though it came from chayil : Thy host, i.e., Thy church, O Jahve. The pausal form accordingly is cheelekaah with Segol, in v. 14, not with Tsere as in incorrect editions.

    And the appeal against this interpretation, which is found in the plur. chlk'ym v. 10, is set aside by the fact that this plural is taken as a double word: host (cheel = cheeyl = chayil as in Obad. v. 20) of the troubled ones (kaa'iym, not as Ben-Labrat supposes, for n|kaa'iym , but from kaa'eh weary, and mellow and decayed), as the Ker (which is followed by the Syriac version) and the Masora direct, and accordingly it is pointed cheel|kaa'iym with Tsere. The punctuation therefore sets aside a word which was unintelligible to it, and cannot be binding on us. There is a verb haalak| , which, it is true, does not occur in the Old Testament, but in the Arabic, from the root Arab. hk, firmus fuit, firmum fecit (whence also Arab. hkl, intrans. to be firm, ferme, i.e., closed), it gains the signification in reference to colour: to be dark (cognate with chaakal, whence chak|liyliy ) and is also transferred to the gloom and blackness of misfortune. (Note: Cf. Samachschari's Golden Necklaces, Proverb 67, which Fleischer translates: "Which is blacker: the plumage of the raven, which is black as coal, or thy life, O stranger among strangers?" The word "blacker" is here expressed by Arab. ahlaku, just as the verb Arab. halika, with its infinitives halak or hulkat and its derivatives is applied to sorrow and misery.)

    From this an abstract is formed chelek| or cholek| (like chopesh ): blackness, misfortune, or also of a defective development of the senses: imbecility; and from this an adjective chel|keh = chel|kay, or also (cf. chaap|shiy , `ul|peh Ezek 31:15 = one in a condition of languishing, `olep) chaal|keh = chaal|kay, plur. chaal|kaa'iym, after the form duwdaa'iym , from duwday , Ew. 189, g.

    PSALMS 10:9

    He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den: he lieth in wait to catch the poor: he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into his net.

    The picture of the raashaa` , who is become as it were a beast of prey, is now worked out further. The lustrum of the lion is called cok| Jer 25:38, or cukaah Job 38:40: a thicket, from caakak| , which means both to interweave and to plait over = to cover (without any connection with sok| a thorn, Arab. shk, a thistle).

    The figure of the lion is reversed in the second line, the `aaniy himself being compared to the beast of prey and the raashaa` to a hunter who drives him into the pit-fall and when he has fallen in hastens to drag him away (maashak| , as in Ps 28:3; Job 24:22) in, or by means of (Hos. 11:4, Job 40:25), his net, in which he has become entangled.

    PSALMS 10:10-11

    He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones.

    The comparison to the lion is still in force here and the description recurs to its commencement in the second strophe, by tracing back the persecution of the ungodly to its final cause. Instead of the Chethb wdkh (w|daakaah perf. consec.), the Ker reads yid|keh more in accordance with the Hebrew use of the tenses. Job 38:40 is the rule for the interpretation. The two futures depict the settled and familiar lying in wait of the plunderer. True, the Kal daakaah in the signification "to crouch down" finds no support elsewhere; but the Arab. dakka to make even (cf. Arab. rtsd, firmiter inhaesit loco, of the crouching down of beasts of prey, of hunters, and of foes) and the Arab. dagga, compared by Hitzig, to move stealthily along, to creep, and dugjeh a hunter's hiding-place exhibit synonymous significations. The tapeinoo'sei auto'n of the LXX is not far out of the way.

    And one can still discern in it the assumption that the text is to be read yaashoach w|daakeh: and crushed he sinks (Aquila: ho de' lasthei's kamfthee'setai); but even daakeh is not found elsewhere, and if the poet meant that, why could he not have written nid|keh ? (cf. moreover Judg 5:27). If daakaah is taken in the sense of a position in which one is the least likely to be seen, then the first two verbs refer to the sculker, but the third according to the usual schema (as e.g., Ps 124:5) is the predicate to chel|kaa'iym (chaal|kaa'iym) going before it. Crouching down as low as possible he lies on the watch, and the feeble and defenceless fall into his strong ones, `atsuwmaayw , i.e., claws.

    Thus the ungodly slays the righteous, thinking within himself: God has forgotten, He has hidden His face, i.e., He does not concern Himself about these poor creatures and does not wish to know anything about them (the denial of the truth expressed in 9:13,19); He has in fact never been one who sees, and never will be. These two thoughts are blended; bal with the perf. as in 21:3, and the addition of laanetsach (cf. 94:7) denies the possibility of God seeing now any more than formerly, as being an absolute absurdity. The thought of a personal God would disturb the ungodly in his doings, he therefore prefers to deny His existence, and thinks: there is only fate and fate is blind, only an absolute and it has no eyes, only a notion and that cannot interfere in the affairs of men.

    PSALMS 10:12-13

    Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up thine hand: forget not the humble.

    The six strophes, in which the consecutive letters from m to ts are wanting, are completed, and now the acrostic strophes begin again with q.

    In contrast to those who have no God, or only a lifeless idol, the psalmist calls upon his God, the living God, to destroy the appearance that He is not an omniscient Being, by arising to action. We have more than one name of God used here; 'eel is a vocative just as in Ps 16:1; 83:2; 139:17,23. He is to lift up His hand in order to help and to punish (yaad naasaa' , whence comes the imperat. n|saa' = saa' , cf. n|caah 4:7, like yaad shaalach 138:7 and yaad naaTaah Ex 7:5 elsewhere). Forget not is equivalent to: fulfil the shaakach lo' of Ps 9:13, put to shame the 'eel shaakach of the ungodly, v. 11! Our translation follows the Ker `anaawiym . That which is complained of in vv. 3, 4 is put in the form of a question to God in v. 13: wherefore (`al-meh, instead of which we find `al-maah in Num 22:32; Jer 9:11, because the following words begin with letters of a different class) does it come to pass, i.e., is it permitted to come to pass? On the perf. in this interrogative clause vid., Ps 11:3. maduwa` inquires the cause, laamaah the aim, and `l-mh the motive, or in general the reason: on what ground, since God's holiness can suffer no injury to His honour? On tid|rosh lo' with kiy , the oratio directa instead of obliqua, vid., on 9:21.

    PSALMS 10:14

    Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief and spite, to requite it with thy hand: the poor committeth himself unto thee; thou art the helper of the fatherless.

    Now comes the confirmation of his cry to God: It is with Him entirely different from what the ungodly imagine. They think that He will not punish; but He does see (cf. 2 Chron 24:22), and the psalmist knows and confesses it: raa'itaah (defective = raa'iytaah 35:22), Thou hast seen and dost see what is done to Thine own, what is done to the innocent. This he supports by a conclusion a genere ad speciem thus: the trouble which is prepared for others, and the sorrow (ka`ac , as in Eccl 7:3) which they cause them, does not escape the all-seeing eye of God, He notes it all, to give it into (lay it in) His hand. "To give anything into any one's hand" is equivalent to, into his power (1 Kings 20:28, and frequently); but here God gives (lays) the things which are not to be administered, but requited, into His own hand. The expression is meant to be understood according to Ps 56:9, cf. Isa 49:16: He is observant of the afflictions of His saints, laying them up in His hand and preserving them there in order, in His own time, to restore them to His saints in joy, and to their enemies in punishment. Thus, therefore, the feeble and helpless (read chel|keh or chaal|keh; according to the Masoretic text cheelekaah Thy host, not cheeleekaah , which is contrary to the character of the form, as pausal form for eechl|kaah) can leave to Him, viz., all his burden (y|haabow , Ps 55:23), everything that vexes and disquiets him.

    Jahve has been and will be the Helper of the fatherless. yaatowm stands prominent by way of emphasis, like 'owtaam 9:13, and Bakius rightly remarks in voce pupilli synecdoche est, complectens omnes illos, qui humanis praesidiis destituuntur.

    PSALMS 10:15-16

    Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man: seek out his wickedness till thou find none.

    The desire for Jahve's interposition now rises again with fresh earnestness.

    It is a mistake to regard daarash and maatsaa' as correlative notions. In the phrase to seek and not find, when used of that which has totally disappeared, we never have daarash , but always biqeesh , Ps 37:36; Isa 41:12; Jer 50:20, and frequently. The verb daarash signifies here exactly the same as in vv. 4, 13, and Ps 9:13: "and the wicked (nom. absol. as in v. 4)-mayst Thou punish his wickedness, mayst Thou find nothing more of it." It is not without a meaning that, instead of the form of expression usual elsewhere (37:36; 20:8), the address to Jahve is retained: that which is no longer visible to the eye of God, not merely of man, has absolutely vanished out of existence. This absolute conquest of evil is to be as surely looked for, as that Jahve's universal kingship, which has been an element of the creed of God's people ever since the call and redemption of Israel (Ex 15:18), cannot remain without being perfectly and visibly realised.

    His absolute and eternal kingship must at length be realised, even in all the universality and endless duration foretold in Zech 14:9; Dan 7:14, Apoc. 11:15. Losing himself in the contemplation of this kingship, and beholding the kingdom of God, the kingdom of good, as realised, the psalmist's vision stretches beyond the foes of the church at home to its foes in general; and, inasmuch as the heathen in Israel and the heathen world outside of Israel are blended together into one to his mind, he comprehends them all in the collective name of gowyim , and sees the land of Jahve (Lev 25:23), the holy land, purified of all oppressors hostile to the church and its God.

    It is the same that is foretold by Isaiah (Isa 52:1), Nahum (Nah 2:1), and in other passages, which, by the anticipation of faith, here stands before the mind of the suppliant as an accomplished fact-viz. the consummation of the judgment, which has been celebrated in the hymnic half (Ps 9) of this double Psalm as a judgment already executed in part.

    PSALMS 10:17-18

    LORD, thou hast heard the desire of the humble: thou wilt prepare their heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to hear:

    Still standing on this eminence from which he seems to behold the end, the poet basks in the realisation of that which has been obtained in answer to prayer. The ardent longing of the meek and lowly sufferers for the arising, the parusia of Jahve (Isa 26:8), has now been heard by Him, and that under circumstances which find expression in the following futt., which have a past signification: God has given and preserved to their hearts the right disposition towards Himself (heekiyn , as in Ps 78:8; Job 11:13, Sir. 2:17hetoima'zein kardi'as , post-biblical kiuween (Note: B. Berachoth 31a: the man who prays must direct his heart steadfastly towards God (lashaamayim libow y|kauween).) and to be understood according to 1 Sam 7:3; 2 Chron 20:33, cf. naakown leeb Ps 51:12; 78:37; it is equivalent to "the single eye" in the language of the New Testament), just as, on the other hand, He has set His ear in the attitude of close attention to their prayer, and even to their most secret sighings (hiq|shiyb with 'ozen , as in Prov 2:2; to stiffen the ear, from qaashab , Arab. qasuba, root qs to be hard, rigid, firm from which we also have qaashaah , Arab. qs, qaashach, Arab. qsh, qsn, cf. on Isa 21:7).

    It was a mutual relation, the design of which was finally and speedily to obtain justice for the fatherless and oppressed, yea crushed, few, in order that mortal man of the earth may no longer (bal , as in Isa 14:21, and in post-biblical Hebrew bal and l|bal instead of pen ) terrify.

    From the parallel conclusion, Ps 9:20-21, it is to be inferred that 'enowsh does not refer to the oppressed but to the oppressor, and is therefore intended as the subject; and then the phrase min-haa'aarets also belongs to it, as in 17:14, people of the world, 80:14 boar of the woods, whereas in Prov 30:14 mee'erets belongs to the verb (to devour from off the earth). It is only in this combination that min-haa'aarets 'enowsh forms with la`arots a significant paronomasia, by contrasting the conduct of the tyrant with his true nature: a mortal of the earth, i.e., a being who, far removed from any possibility of vying with the God who is in heaven, has the earth as his birth-place.

    It is not min-haa'adaamaah, for the earth is not referred to as the material out of which man is formed, but as his ancestral house, his home, his bound, just as in the expression of John ho oo'n ek tee's gee's , John 3:31 (Lat. ut non amplius terreat homo terrenus). A similar play of words was attempted before in Ps 9:20 'enowsh 'al-yaa`oz.

    The Hebrew verb `aarats signifies both to give way to fear, Deut 7:21, and to put in fear, Isa 2:19,21; 47:12. It does mean "to defy, rebel against," although it might have this meaning according to the Arabic 'rd (to come in the way, withstand, according to which Wetzstein explains `aaruwts Job 30:6, like Arab. 'ird, "a valley that runs slantwise across a district, a gorge that blocks up the traveller's way" (Note: Zeitschrift fr Allgem. Erdkunde xviii. (1865) 1, S. 30.)). It is related to Arab. 'rts, to vibrate, tremble (e.g., of lightning).

    Refusal to Flee When in a Perilous Situation.

    PSALM 11:1-3

    In the LORD put I my trust: how say ye to my soul, Flee as a bird to your mountain?

    Ps. 11, which likewise confidently sets the all-seeing eye of Jahve before the ungodly who carry out their murderous designs under cover of the darkness, is placed after Ps 10. The life of David (to whom even Hitzig and Ewald ascribe this Psalm) is threatened, the pillars of the state are shaken, they counsel the king to flee to the mountains. These are indications of the time when the rebellion of Absolom was secretly preparing, but still clearly discernible. Although hurrying on with a swift measure and clear in the principal thoughts, still this Psalm is not free from difficult points, just as it is with all the Psalms which contain similar dark passages from the internal condition of Israel. The gloomy condition of the nation seems to be reflected in the very language. The strophic plan is not easily discernible; nevertheless we cannot go far wrong in dividing the Psalm into two seven line strophes with a two line epiphonema.

    Verse 1-3. David rejects the advice of his friends to save his life by flight.

    Hidden in Jahve (Ps 16:1; 36:8) he needs no other refuge. However wellmeant and well-grounded the advice, he considers it too full of fear and is himself too confident in God, to follow it. David also introduces his friends as speaking in other passages in the Psalms belonging to the period of the Absolom persecution, 3:3; 4:7. Their want of courage, which he afterwards had to reprove and endeavour to restore, showed itself even before the storm had burst, as we see here. With the words "how can you say" he rejects their proposal as unreasonable, and turns it as a reproach against them. If the Chethb, nuwduw, is adopted, then those who are well-disposed, say to David, including with him his nearest subjects who are faithful to him: retreat to your mountain, (ye) birds (tsipowr collective as in 8:9; 148:10); or, since this address sounds too derisive to be appropriate to the lips of those who are supposed to be speaking here: like birds (comparatio decurtata as in 22:14; 58:9; 24:5; 21:8). har|kec which seems more natural in connection with the vocative rendering of tspwr (cf. Isa 18:6 with Ezek 39:4) may also be explained, with the comparative rendering, without any need for the conjecture tspwr kmw hr (cf. Deut 33:19), as a retrospective glance at the time of the persecution under Saul: to the mountains, which formerly so effectually protected you (cf. 1 Sam 26:20; 23:14).

    But the Ker, which is followed by the ancient versions, exchanges nwdw for guwdiy, cf sh|chiy Isa 51:23. Even reading it thus we should not take tspwr , which certainly is epicoene, as vocative: flee to your mountain, O bird (Hitz.); and for this reason, that this form of address is not appropriate to the idea of those who profer their counsel. But we should take it as an equation instead of a comparison: fly to your mountain (which gave you shelter formerly), a bird, i.e., after the manner of a bird that flies away to its mountain home when it is chased in the plain. But this Ker appears to be a needless correction, which removes the difficulty of nwdw coming after lnpshy , by putting another in the place of this synallage numeri. (Note: According to the above rendering: "Flee ye to your mountain, a bird" it would require to be accented tspwz hrkm nwdw (as a transformation from tspwr hrkm nawdw vid., Baer's Accentssystem XVIII. 2). The interpunction as we have it, tspwr hrkm nwdw, harmonises with the interpretation of Varenius as of Lb Spira (Pentateuch-Comm. 1815): Fugite (o socii Davidis), mons vester (h. e. praesidium vestrum, Ps 30:8, cui innitimini) est avis errans.)

    In v. 2 the faint-hearted ones give as the ground of their advice, the fearful peril which threatens from the side of crafty and malicious foes. As hineeh implies, this danger is imminent. The perfect overrides the future: they are not only already in the act of bending the bow, they have made ready their arrow, i.e., their deadly weapon, upon the string (yeter = meeytaar , Ps 21:13, Arab. watar, from yaataar , watara, to stretch tight, extend, so that the thing is continued in one straight line) and even taken aim, in order to discharge it (yaaraah with l| of the aim, as in 54:5, with acc. of the object) in the dark (i.e., secretly, like an assassin) at the upright (those who by their character are opposed to them). In v. 3 the faint-hearted still further support their advice from the present total subversion of justice. hashaatowt are either the highest ranks, who support the edifice of the state, according to Isa 19:10, or, according to 82:5, Ezek 30:4, the foundations of the state, upon whom the existence and well-being of the land depends. We prefer the latter, since the king and those who are loyal to him, who are associated in thought with tsadiyq , are compared to the shtwt. The construction of the clause beginning with kiy is like Job 38:41. The fut. has a present signification. The perf. in the principal clause, as it frequently does elsewhere (e.g., Ps 39:8; 60:11; Gen 21:7; Num 23:10; Job 12:9; Kings 20:9) in interrogative sentences, corresponds to the Latin conjunctive (here quid fecerit), and is to be expressed in English by the auxiliary verbs: when the bases of the state are shattered, what can the righteous do? he can do nothing. And all counter-effort is so useless that it is well to be as far from danger as possible.

    PSALMS 11:4-6

    The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD's throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.

    The words of David's counsellors who fear for him are now ended. And David justifies his confidence in God with which he began his song. Jahve sits enthroned above all that takes place on earth that disheartens those of little faith. At an infinite distance above the earth, and also above Jerusalem, now in rebellion, is a qodesh heeykal , Ps 18:7; 29:9, and in this holy temple is Jahve, the Holy One. Above the earth are the heavens, and in heaven is the throne of Jahve, the King of kings. And this temple, this palace in the heavens, is the place whence issues the final decision of all earthly matters, Hab 2:20; Mic 1:2. For His throne above is also the super-terrestrial judgment-seat, Ps 9:8; 103:19. Jahve who sits thereon is the all-seeing and omniscient One. chaazaah prop. to split, cf. cernere, is used here according to its radical meaning, of a sharp piercing glance. baachan prop. to try metals by fire, of a fixed and penetrating look that sees into a thing to the foundation of its inmost nature. The mention of the eyelids is intentional. When we observe a thing closely or ponder over it, we draw the eyelids together, in order that our vision may be more concentrated and direct, and become, as it were, one ray piercing through the object. Thus are men open to the all-seeing eyes, the all-searching looks of Jahve: the just and the unjust alike. He tries the righteous, i.e., He knows that in the depth of his soul there is an upright nature that will abide all testing (17:3; 23:10), so that He lovingly protects him, just as the righteous lovingly depends upon Him. And His soul hates (i.e., He hates him with all the energy of His perfectly and essentially holy nature) the evil-doer and him that delights in the violence of the strong towards the weak. And the more intense this hatred, the more fearful will be the judgments in which it bursts forth.

    PSALMS 11:7

    For the righteous LORD loveth righteousness; his countenance doth behold the upright.

    Ver. 7, which assumes a declaration of something that is near at hand, is opposed to our rendering the voluntative form of the fut., yam|Teer , as expressive of a wish. The shorter form of the future is frequently indicative in the sense of the future, e.g., Ps 72:13, or of the present, e.g., 58:5, or of the past, 18:12. Thus it here affirms a fact of the future which follows as a necessity from vv. 4, 5. Assuming that pahiym might be equivalent to pechaamiym, even then the Hebrew pechaam , according to the general usage of the language, in distinction from gachelet , does not denote burning, but black coals. It ought therefore to have been 'eesh pachameey. Hitzig reads pichiym from piyach ashes; but a rain of ashes is no medium of punishment.

    Bttcher translates it "lumps" according to Ex 39:3; Num 17:3; but in these passages the word means thin plates.

    We adhere to the signification snares, Job 22:10, cf. 21:17, Prov 27:5; and following the accentuation, we understand it to be a means of punishment by itself. First of all descends a whole discharge of missiles which render all attempt at flight impossible, viz., lightnings; for the lightning striking out its course and travelling from one point in the distance, bending itself like a serpent, may really be compared to a snare, or noose, thrown down from above. In addition to fire and brimstone (Gen 19:24) we have also zil|`aapowt ruwach . The LXX renders it pneu'ma kataigi'dos, and the Targum `aal|`uwlaa' za`apaa', procella turbinea. The root is not l`p, which cannot be sustained as a cognate form of lhb, l'b to burn, but z`p, which (as Sam. Ps 5:10 shows) exactly corresponds to the Latin aestuare which combines in itself the characteristics of heat and violent motion, therefore perhaps: a wind of flames, i.e., the deadly simoom, which, according to the present division of the verse is represented in connection with w|gaap|riyt 'eesh , as the breath of the divine wrath pouring itself forth like a stream of brimstone, Isa 30:33.

    It thus also becomes clear how this can be called the portion of their cup, i.e., what is adjudged to them as the contents of their cup which they must drain off. m|naat (only found in the Davidic Psalms, with the exception of 2 Chron 31:4) is both absolutivus and constructivus according to Olshausen (108, c, 165, i), and is derived from manajath, or manawath, which the original feminine termination ath, the final weak radical being blended with it. According to Hupfeld it is constr., springing from min|yat, like q|tsaat (in Dan. and Neh.) form qats|wat. But probably it is best to regard it as = m|naawet or m|naayet, like g|lowt = g|leowt.

    Verse 7. Thus then Jahve is in covenant with David. Even though he cannot defend himself against his enemies, still, when Jahve gives free course to His hatred in judgment, they will then have to do with the powers of wrath and death, which they will not be able to escape. When the closing distich bases this different relation of God towards the righteous and the unrighteous and this judgment of the latter on the righteousness of God, we at once perceive what a totally different and blessed end awaits the righteous. As Jahve Himself is righteous, so also on His part (1 Sam 12:7; Mic 6:5, and frequently) and on the part of man (Isa 33:15) He loves ts|daaqowt , the works of righteousness. The object of 'aahab (= 'oheeb ) stands at the head of the sentence, as in Ps 99:4, cf. 10:14. In v. 7b yaashaar designates the upright as a class, hence it is the more natural for the predicate to follow in the plur. (cf. 9:7; 8:19) than to precede as elsewhere (Prov 28:1; Isa 16:4).

    The rendering: "His countenance looks upon the upright man" (Hengst. and others) is not a probable one, just because one expects to find something respecting the end of the upright in contrast to that of the ungodly. This rendering is also contrary to the general usage of the language, according to which pnym is always used only as that which is to be seen, not as that which itself sees. It ought to have been `eeyneeymow , Ps 33:18; 34:16; Job 36:7. It must therefore be translated according to Ps 17:15; 140:13: the upright (quisquis probus est) shall behold His countenance. The pathetic form paaneeymow instead of paanaayw was specially admissible here, where God is spoken of (as in Deut 33:2, cf. Isa 44:15). It ought not to be denied any longer that mo is sometimes (e.g., Job 20:23, cf. Ps 22:2; 27:23) a dignified singular suffix. To behold the face of God is in itself impossible to mortals without dying.

    But when God reveals Himself in love, then He makes His countenance bearable to the creature. And to enjoy this vision of God softened by love is the highest honour God in His mercy can confer on a man; it is the blessedness itself that is reserved for the upright, 140:14. It is not possible to say that what is intended is a future vision of God; but it is just as little possible to say that it is exclusively a vision in this world. To the Old Testament conception the future `wlm is certainly lost in the night of Shel. But faith broke through this night, and consoled itself with a future beholding of God, Job 19:26. The redemption of the New Testament has realised this aspiration of faith, since the Redeemer has broken through the night of the realm of the dead, has borne on high with Him the Old Testament saints, and translated them into the sphere of the divine love revealed in heaven.

    Lament and Consolation in the Midst of Prevailing Falsehood Ps. 11 is appropriately followed by Ps 12, which is of a kindred character: a prayer for the deliverance of the poor and miserable in a time of universal moral corruption, and more particularly of prevailing faithlessness and boasting. The inscription: To the Precentor, on the Octave, a Psalm of David points us to the time when the Temple music was being established, i.e., the time of David-incomparably the best age in the history of Israel, and yet, viewed in the light of the spirit of holiness, an age so radically corrupt. The true people of Jahve were even then, as ever, a church of confessors and martyrs, and the sighing for the coming of Jahve was then not less deep than the cry "Come, Lord Jesus!" at the present time.

    This Ps 12 together with Ps 2 is a second example of the way in which the psalmist, when under great excitement of spirit, passes over into the tone of one who directly hears God's words, and therefore into the tone of an inspired prophet. Just as lyric poetry in general, as being a direct and solemn expression of strong inward feeling, is the earliest form of poetry: so psalm-poetry contains in itself not only the mashal, the epos, and the drama in their preformative stages, but prophecy also, as we have it in the prophetic writings of its most flourishing period, has, as it were, sprung from the bosom of psalm-poetry. It is throughout a blending of prophetical epic and subjective lyric elements, and is in many respects the echo of earlier psalms, and even in some instances (as e.g., Isa 12; Hab 3:1) transforms itself into the strain of a psalm. Hence Asaph is called hachozeh in 2 Chron 29:30, not from the special character of his Psalms, but from his being a psalmist in general; for Jeduthun has the same name given to him in 2 Chron 35:15, and nibaa' in 1 Chron 25:2f. (cf. profeeteu'ein , Luke 1:67) is used directly as an epithet for psalmsinging with accompaniment-a clear proof that in prophecy the cooperation of a human element is no less to be acknowledged, that the influence of a divine element in psalm-poesy.

    The direct words of Jahve, and the psalmist's Amen to them, form the middle portion of this Psalm-a six line strophe, which is surrounded by four line strophes.

    PSALMS 12:1-2

    (12:2-3) Help, LORD; for the godly man ceaseth; for the faithful fail from among the children of men. They speak vanity every one with his neighbour: with flattering lips and with a double heart do they speak.

    The sigh of supplication, howshiy`aah , has its object within itself: work deliverance, give help; and the motive is expressed by the complaint which follows. The verb gaamar to complete, means here, as in Ps 7:10, to have an end; and the hap leg paacac is equivalent to 'aapeec in 77:9, to come to the extremity, to cease. It is at once clear from the predicate being placed first in the plur., that 'emuwniym in this passage is not an abstractum, as e.g., in Prov 13:17; moreover the parallelism is against it, just as in 31:24. chaaciyd is the pious man, as one who practises checed towards God and man. 'eemuwn , primary form 'emuwn (plur. 'emwnym; whereas from 'aamuwn we should expect 'amuwniym )-used as an adjective (cf. on the contrary Deut 32:20) here just as in 31:24, 2 Sam 20:19-is the reliable, faithful, conscientious man, literally one who is firm, i.e., whose word and meaning is firm, so that one can rely upon it and be certain in relation to it. (Note: The Aryan root man to remain, abide (Neo-Persic mnden), also takes a similar course, signifying usually "to continue in any course, wait, hope." So the old Persic man, Zend upaman, cf. me'nein with its derivatives which are applied in several ways in the New Testament to characterise pi'stis .)

    We find similar complaints of the universal prevalence of wickedness in Mic 7:2; Isa 57:1; Jer 7:28, and elsewhere. They contain their own limitation. For although those who complain thus without pharisaic selfrighteousness would convict themselves of being affected by the prevailing corruption, they are still, in their penitence, in their sufferings for righteousness' sake, and in their cry for help, a standing proof that humanity has not yet, without exception, become a massa perdita. That which the writer especially laments, is the prevailing untruthfulness. Men speak shaaw|' (= shaawe' from show' ), desolation and emptiness under a disguise that conceals its true nature, falsehood (Ps 41:7), and hypocrisy (Job 35:13), he'kastos pro's to'n pleesi'on autou' (LXX, cf. Ephes. 4:25, where the greatness of the sin finds its confirmation according to the teaching of the New Testament: ho'ti esme'n allee'loon me'lee ). They speak lips of smoothnesses (chalaaqowt , plural from chel|qaah , laevitates, or from chaalaaq , laevia), i.e., the smoothest, most deceitful language (accusative of the object as in Isa 19:18) with a double heart, inasmuch, namely, as the meaning they deceitfully express to others, and even to themselves, differs from the purpose they actually cherish, or even (cf. 1 Chron 12:33 wlb lb bl', and James 1:8 di'psuchos , wavering) inasmuch as the purpose they now so flatteringly put forth quickly changes to the very opposite.

    PSALMS 12:3-4

    (12:4-5) In this instance the voluntative has its own proper signification: may He root out (cf. Ps 109:15, and the oppositive 11:6). Flattering lips and a vaunting tongue are one, insofar as the braggart becomes a flatterer when it serves his own selfish interest. 'asher refers to lips and tongue, which are put for their possessors. The Hiph. hig|biyr may mean either to impart strength, or to give proof of strength. The combination with l|, not b|, favours the former: we will give emphasis to our tongue (this is their self-confident declaration). Hupfeld renders it, contrary to the meaning of the Hiph.: over our tongue we have power, and Ewald and Olshausen, on the ground of an erroneous interpretation of Dan 9:27, render: we make or have a firm covenant with our tongue. They describe their lips as being their confederates ('eet as in 2 Kings 9:32), and by the expression "who is lord over us" they declare themselves to be absolutely free, and exalted above all authority. If any authority were to assert itself over them, their mouth would put it down and their tongue would thrash it into submission. But Jahve, whom this making of themselves into gods challenges, will not always suffer His own people to be thus enslaved.

    PSALMS 12:5-6

    (12:6-7) In v. 6 the psalmist hears Jahve Himself speak; and in v. 7 he adds his Amen. The two min in v. 6 denote the motive, `ataah the decisive turning-point from forebearance to the execution of judgment, and yo'mar the divine determination, which has just now made itself audible; cf. Isaiah's echo of it, Isa 33:10. Jahve has hitherto looked on with seeming inactivity and indifference, now He will arise and place in yeesha` , i.e., a condition of safety (cf. bachayiym siym Ps 66:9), him who languishes for deliverance. It is not to be explained: him whom he, i.e., the boaster, blows upon, which would be expressed by bow () yaapiyach , cf. 10:5; but, with Ewald, Hengstenberg, Olshausen, and Bttcher, according to Hab 2:3, where l| heepiyach occurs in the sense of panting after an object: him who longs for it. yaapiyach is, however, not a participial adjective = yaapeeach, but the fut., and low () yaapiyach is therefore a relative clause occupying the place of the object, just as we find the same thing occurring in Job 24:19; Isa 41:2,25, and frequently. Hupfeld's rendering: "in order that he may gain breath (respiret)" leaves 'shyt without an object, and accords more with Aramaic and Arabic than with Hebrew usage, which would express this idea by low () yaanuwach or low yir|wach.

    In v. 7 the announcement of Jahve is followed by its echo in the heart of the seer: the words ('imarowt instead of 'im|rowt by changing the Sheb which closes the syllable into an audible one, as e.g., in 'ash|reey ) of Jahve are pure words, i.e., intended, and to be fulfilled, absolutely as they run without any admixture whatever of untruthfulness.

    The poetical 'im|raah (after the form zim|raah ) serves preeminently as the designation of the divine power-words of promise. The figure, which is indicated in other instances, when God's word is said to be ts|ruwpaah (Ps 18:31; 119:140; Prov 30:5), is here worked out: silver melted and thus purified laa'aarets ba`aliyl . `aliyl signifies either a smelting-pot from `aalal , Arab. gll, immittere, whence also `ol (Hitz.); or, what is more probable since the language has the epithets kuwr and mats|reep for this: a workshop, from `aalal , Arab. 'll, operari (prop. to set about a thing), first that which is wrought at (after the form m|`iyl , p|ciyl , sh|biyl), then the place where the work is carried on. From this also comes the Talm. ba`aliyl = b|gaaluwy manifeste, occurring in the Mishna Rosh ha-Shana 1. 5 and elsewhere, and which in its first meaning corresponds to the French en effet. (Note: On this word with reference to this passage of the Psalm vid., Steinschneider's Hebr. Bibliographie 1861, S. 83.)

    According to this, the l in laa'aarets is not the l of property: in a fining-pot built into the earth, for which l'rts without anything further would be an inadequate and colourless expression. But in accordance with the usual meaning of l'rts as a collateral definition it is: smelted (purified) down to the earth. As Olshausen observes on this subject, "Silver that is purified in the furnace and flows down to the ground can be seen in every smelting hut; the pure liquid silver flows down out of the smelting furnace, in which the ore is piled up." For it cannot be l of reference: "purified with respect to the earth," since 'rts does not denote the earth as a material and cannot therefore mean an earthy element.

    We ought then to read laa'aabets, which would not mean "to a white brilliancy," i.e., to a pure bright mass (Bttch.), but "with respect to the stannum, lead" (vid., on Isa 1:25). The verb zaaqaq to strain, filter, cause to ooze through, corresponds to the German seihen, seigen, old High German shan, Greek sakkei'n sakki'zein), to clean by passing through a cloth as a strainer, saq . God's word is solid silver smelted and leaving all impurity behind, and, as it were, having passed seven times through the smelting furnace, i.e., the purest silver, entirely purged from dross. Silver is the emblem of everything precious and pure (vid., Bhr, Symbol. i. 284); and seven is the number indicating the completion of any process (Bibl. Psychol. S. 57, transl. p. 71).

    PSALMS 12:7-8

    (12:8-9) The supplicatory complaint contained in the first strophe has passed into an ardent wish in the second; and now in the fourth there arises a consolatory hope based upon the divine utterance which was heard in the third strophe. The suffix eem in v. 8a refers to the miserable and poor; the suffix ennu in v. 8b (him, not: us, which would be pointed ttsreenuw , and more especially since it is not preceded by tish|m|reenuw) refers back to the man who yearns for deliverance mentioned in the divine utterance, v. 6. The "preserving for ever" is so constant, that neither now nor at any future time will they succumb to this generation. The oppression shall not become a thorough depression, the trial shall not exceed their power of endurance. What follows in v. 9 is a more minute description of this depraved generation. dowr is the generation whole and entire bearing one general character and doing homage to the one spirit of the age (cf. e.g., Prov 30:11-14, where the characteristics of a corrupt age are portrayed). zuw (always without the article, Ew. 293, a) points to the present and the character is has assumed, which is again described here finally in a few outlines of a more general kind than in vv. 3-5.

    The wicked march about on every side (hit|haleek| used of going about unopposed with an arrogant and vaunting mien), when (while) vileness among (l) the children of men rises to eminence (ruwm as in Prov 11:11, cf. m|shol Prov 29:2), so that they come to be under its dominion. Vileness is called zuluwt from zaalal (cogn. daalal ) to be supple and lax, narrow, low, weak and worthless. The form is passive just as is the Talm. ziyluwt (from ziyl = z|liyl), and it is the epithet applied to that which is depreciated, despised, and to be despised; here it is the opposite of the disposition and conduct of the noble man, naadiyb , Isa 32:8-a baseness which is utterly devoid not only of all nobler principles and motives, but also of all nobler feelings and impulses. The k| of k|rum is not the expression of simultaneousness (as e.g., in Prov 10:25): immediately it is exalted-for then v. 9 would give expression to a general observation, instead of being descriptive-but k|rum is equivalent to b|rum, only it is intentionally used instead of the latter, to express a coincidence that is based upon an intimate relation of cause and effect, and is not merely accidental.

    The wicked are puffed up on all sides, and encompass the better disposed on every side as their enemies. Such is the state of things, and it cannot be otherwise at a time when men allow meanness to gain the ascendency among and over them, as is the case at the present moment. Thus even at last the depressing view of the present prevails in the midst of the confession of a more consolatory hope. The present is gloomy. But in the central hexastich the future is lighted up as a consolation against this gloominess. The Psalm is a ring and this central oracle is its jewel.

    Suppliant Cry of One Who Is Utterly Undone The yaaruwm of the personal cry with which David opens Ps harmonizes with k|rum of the general lament which he introduces into Ps 12; and for this reason the collector has coupled these two Psalms together. Hitzig assigns Ps 13 to the time when Saul posted watchers to hunt David from place to place, and when, having been long and unceasingly persecuted, David dared to cherish a hope of escaping death only by indefatigable vigilance and endurance. Perhaps this view is correct.

    The Psalm consists of three strophes, or if it be preferred, three groups of decreasing magnitude. A long deep sigh is followed, as from a relieved breast, by an already much more gentle and half calm prayer; and this again by the believing joy which anticipates the certainty of being answered.

    This song as it were casts up constantly lessening waves, until it becomes still as the sea when smooth as a mirror, and the only motion discernible at last is that of the joyous ripple of calm repose.

    PSALMS 13:1-2

    (13:2-3) How long wilt thou forget me, O LORD? for ever? how long wilt thou hide thy face from me? How long shall I take counsel in my soul, having sorrow in my heart daily? how long shall mine enemy be exalted over me?

    The complicated question: till when, how long...for ever (as in Ps 74:10; 79:5; 89:47), is the expression of a complicated condition of soul, in which, as Luther briefly and forcibly describes it, amidst the feeling of anguish under divine wrath "hope itself despairs and despair nevertheless begins to hope." The self-contradiction of the question is to be explained by the conflict which is going on within between the flesh and the spirit.

    The dejected heart thinks: God has forgotten me for ever. But the spirit, which thrusts away this thought, changes it into a question which sets upon it the mark of a mere appearance not a reality: how long shall it seem as though Thou forgettest me for ever? It is in the nature of the divine wrath, that the feeling of it is always accompanied by an impression that it will last for ever; and consequently it becomes a foretaste of hell itself. But faith holds fast the love that is behind the wrath; it sees in the display of anger only a self-masking of the loving countenance of the God of love, and longs for the time when this loving countenance shall be again unveiled to it.

    Thrice does David send forth this cry of faith out of the inmost depths of his spirit. To place or set up contrivances, plans, or proposals in his soul, viz., as to the means by which he may be able to escape from this painful condition, is equivalent to, to make the soul the place of such thoughts, or the place where such thoughts are fabricated (cf. Prov 26:24). One such `eetsaah chases the other in his soul, because he recognises the vanity of one after another as soon as they spring up. With respect to the yowmaam which follows, we must think of these cares as taking possession of his soul in the night time; for the night leaves a man alone with his affliction and makes it doubly felt by him. It cannot be proved from Ezek 30:16 (cf. Zeph 2:4 batsaahaarayim), that yowmaam like yowm (Jer 7:25, short for ywm ywm ) may mean "daily" (Ew. 313, a). ywmm does not mean this here, but is the antithesis to lay|laah which is to be supplied in thought in v. 3a. By night he proposes plan after plan, each one as worthless as the other; and by day, or all the day through, when he sees his distress with open eyes, sorrow (yaagown ) is in his heart, as it were, as the feeling the night leaves behind it and as the direct reflex of his helpless and hopeless condition. He is persecuted, and his foe is in the ascendant. ruwm is both to be exalted and to rise, raise one's self, i.e., to rise to position and arrogantly to assume dignity to one's self (sich brsten). The strophe closes with 'ad-aana which is used for the fourth time.

    PSALMS 13:3-4

    (13:4-5) In contrast to God's seeming to have forgotten him and to wish neither to see nor know anything of his need, he prays: habiyTaah (cf. Isa 63:15). In contrast to his being in perplexity what course to take and unable to help himself, he prays: `aniniy, answer me, who cry for help, viz., by the fulfilment of my prayer as a real, actual answer. In contrast to the triumphing of his foe: `eeynay haa'iyraah , in order that the triumph of his enemy may not be made complete by his dying. To lighten the eyes that are dimmed with sorrow and ready to break, is equivalent to, to impart new life (Ezra 9:8), which is reflected in the fresh clear brightness of the eye (1 Sam 14:27,29). The lightening light, to which hee'iyr points, is the light of love beaming from the divine countenance, Ps 31:17. Light, love, and life are closely allied notions in the Scriptures. He, upon whom God looks down in love, continues in life, new powers of life are imparted to him, it is not his lot to sleep the death, i.e., the sleep of death, Jer 51:39,57, cf. Ps 76:6. hamaawet is the accusative of effect or sequence: to sleep so that the sleep becomes death (LXX eis tha'naton ), Ew. 281, e. Such is the light of life for which he prays, in order that his foe may not be able at last to say y|kaal|tiyw (with accusative object, as in Jer 38:5) = low (OT:3807a ) yaakol|tiy , 129:2, Gen 32:26, I am able for him, a match for him, I am superior to him, have gained the mastery over him. kiy , on account of the future which follows, had better be taken as temporal (quum) than as expressing the reason (quod), cf. rag|liy b|mowT , Ps 38:17.

    PSALMS 13:5-6

    (13:6) Three lines of joyous anticipation now follow the five of lament and four of prayer. By ya'aniy he sets himself in opposition to his foes. The latter desire his death, but he trusts in the mercy of God, who will turn and terminate his affliction. b| baaTach denotes faith as clinging fast to God, just as b| chaacah denotes it as confidence which hides itself in Him. The voluntative yaageel pre-supposes the sure realisation of the hope. The perfect in v. 6c is to be properly understood thus: the celebration follows the fact that inspires him to song. `al gaamal to do good to any one, as in Ps 116:7; 119:17, cf. the radically cognate (`l ) gaamar 57:3. With the two iambics gamal'alaj the song sinks to rest. In the storm-tossed soul of the suppliant all has now become calm. Though it rage without as much now as everpeace reigns in the depth of his heart.

    The Prevailing Corruption and the Redemption Desired PSALMS 14:1 The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.

    Just as the general lamentation of Ps 12 assumes a personal character in Ps 13, so in Ps 14 it becomes again general; and the personal desire libiy yaageel , 13:6, so full of hope, corresponds to ya`aqob yaageel , which is extended to the whole people of God in 14:7. Moreover, Ps 14, as being a gloomy picture of the times in which the dawn of the divine day is discernible in the background, is more closely allied to Ps 12 than to Ps 13, although this latter is not inserted between them without some recognised reason. In the reprobation of the moral and religious character of the men of the age, which Ps 14 has in common with Ps 12, we at once have a confirmation of the ldwd. But 14:7 does not necessitate our coming down to the time of the Exile.

    In Ps 53 we find this Psalm which is Jehovic, occurring again as Elohimic.

    The position of Ps 14 in the primary collection favours the presumption, that it is the earlier and more original composition. And since this presumption will bear the test of a critical comparison of the two Psalms, we may leave the treatment of Ps 53 to its proper place, without bringing it forward here. It is not as though Ps 14 were intact. It is marked out as seven three-line verses, but vv. 5 and 6, which ought to be the fifth and sixth three lines, are only two; and the original form appears to be destroyed by some deficiency. The difficulty is got over in Ps 53, by making the two two-line verses into one three-line verse, so that it consists only of six three-line verses. And in that Psalm the announcement of judgment is applied to foreign enemies, a circumstance which has influenced some critics and led them astray in the interpretation of Ps 14.

    Verse 1. The perfect 'aamar , as in Ps 1:1; 10:3, is the so-called abstract present (Ges. 126, 3), expressing a fact of universal experience, inferred from a number of single instances. The Old Testament language is unusually rich in epithets for the unwise. The simple, p|tiy , and the silly, k|ciyl , for the lowest branches of this scale; the fool, 'ewiyl , and the madman, howleel , the uppermost. In the middle comes the notion of the simpleton or maniac, naabaal -a word from the verbal stem naabal which, according as that which forms the centre of the group of consonants lies either in nb (Genesis S. 636), or in bl (comp. 'bl , 'wl, 'ml, qml), signifies either to be extended, to relax, to become frail, to wither, or to be prominent, eminere, Arab. nabula; so that consequently naabaal means the relaxed, powerless, expressed in New Testament language: pneu'ma ouk e'chonta .

    Thus Isaiah (Isa 32:6) describes the naabaal : "a simpleton speaks simpleness and his heart does godless things, to practice tricks and to say foolish things against Jahve, to leave the soul of the hungry empty, and to refuse drink to the thirsty." Accordingly naabaal is the synonym of leets the scoffer (vid., the definition in Prov 21:24). A free spirit of this class is reckoned according to the Scriptures among the empty, hollow, and devoid of mind. The thought, 'elohiym 'eeyn , which is the root of the thought and action of such a man, is the climax of imbecility. It is not merely practical atheism, that is intended by this maxim of the naabaal . The heart according to Scripture language is not only the seat of volition, but also of thought. The naabaal is not content with acting as though there were no God, but directly denies that there is a God, i.e., a personal God. The psalmist makes this prominent as the very extreme and depth of human depravity, that there can be among men those who deny the existence of a God. The subject of what follows are, then, not these atheists but men in general, among whom such characters are to be found: they make the mode of action, (their) doings, corrupt, they make it abominable. `aliylaah , a poetical brevity of expression for `aliylowtaam , belongs to both verbs, which have Tarcha and Mercha (the two usual conjunctives of Mugrash) in correct texts; and is in fact not used as an adverbial accusative (Hengstenberg and others), but as an object, since hish|hiyt is just the word that is generally used in this combination with `aliylaah Zeph 3:7 or, what is the same thing, derek| Gen 6:12; and hit|`iyb (cf. 1 Kings 21:26) is only added to give a superlative intensity to the expression.

    The negative: "there is none that doeth good" is just as unrestricted as in Ps 12:2. But further on the psalmist distinguishes between a tsdyq dwr , which experiences this corruption in the form of persecution, and the corrupt mass of mankind. He means what he says of mankind as ko'smos , in which, at first the few rescued by grace from the mass of corruption are lost sight of by him, just as in the words of God, Gen 6:5,12. Since it is only grace that frees any from the general corruption, it may also be said, that men are described just as they are by nature; although, be it admitted, it is not hereditary sin but actual sin, which springs up from it, and grows apace if grace do not interpose, that is here spoken of.

    PSALMS 14:2

    The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God.

    The second tristich appeals to the infallible decision of God Himself. The verb hish|qiyp means to look forth, by bending one's self forward.

    It is the proper word for looking out of a window, 2 Kings 9:30 (cf. Niph.

    Judges 4:28, and frequently), and for God's looking down from heaven upon the earth, 102:20, and frequently; and it is cognate and synonymous with hish|giyach , 33:13, 14; cf. moreover, Song 2:9. The perf. is used in the sense of the perfect only insofar as the divine survey is antecedent to its result as given in v. 3. Just as hish|chiytuw reminds one of the history of the Flood, so does lir|'owt of the history of the building of the tower of Babel, Gen 11:5, cf. Ps 18:21. God's judgment rests upon a knowledge of the matter of fact, which is represented in such passages after the manner of men. God's all-seeing, allpiercing eyes scrutinise the whole human race. Is there one who shows discernment in thought and act, one to whom fellowship with God is the highest good, and consequently that after which he strives?-this is God's question, and He delights in such persons, and certainly none such would escape His longing search. On 'et-'elohiym, to'n Theo'n , vid., Ges. 117, 2.

    PSALMS 14:3

    They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one.

    The third tristich bewails the condition in which He finds humanity. The universality of corruption is expressed in as strong terms as possible. hakol they all (lit., the totality); yach|dw with one another (lit., in its or their unions, i.e., universi); gam-'echaad 'eeyn not a single one who might form an exception. caar (probably not 3 praet. but partic., which passes at once into the finite verb) signifies to depart, viz., from the ways of God, therefore to fall away (aposta'tees ). ne'elach, as in Job 15:16, denotes the moral corruptness as a becoming sour, putrefaction, and suppuration. Instead of gam-'echaad 'eeyn, the LXX translates ouk e'stin he'oos heno's (as though it were `d-'chd, which is the more familiar form of expression). Paul quotes the first three verses of this Psalm (Rom 3:10-12) in order to show how the assertion, that Jews and heathen all are included under sin, is in accordance with the teaching of Scripture. What the psalmist says, applies primarily to Israel, his immediate neighbours, but at the same time to the heathen, as is selfevident.

    What is lamented is neither the pseudo-Israelitish corruption in particular, nor that of the heathen, but the universal corruption of man which prevails not less in Israel than in the heathen world. The citations of the apostle which follow his quotation of the Psalm, from ta'fos aneoogme'nos to ape'nanti too'n ofthalmoo'n autoo'n were early incorporated in the Psalm in the Coinee' of the LXX. They appear as an integral part of it in the Cod. Alex., in the Greco-Latin Psalterium Vernonense, and in the Syriac Psalterium Mediolanense. They are also found in Apollinaris' paraphrase of the Psalms as a later interpolation; the Cod. Vat. has them in the margin; and the words su'ntrimma kai' talaipoori'a en tai's hodoi's autoo'n have found admittance in the translation, which is more Rabbinical than Old Hebrew, b|dar|keeyhem ra` uwpega` ra` mazaal even in a Hebrew codex (Kennicott 649). Origen rightly excluded this apostolic Mosaic work of Old Testament testimonies from his text of the Psalm; and the true representation of the matter is to be found in Jerome, in the preface to the xvi. book of his commentary on Isaiah. (Note: Cf. Plschke's Monograph on the Milanese Psalterium Syriacum, 1835, p. 28-39.)

    PSALMS 14:4

    Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge? who eat up my people as they eat bread, and call not upon the LORD.

    Thus utterly cheerless is the issue of the divine scrutiny. It ought at least to have been different in Israel, the nation of the positive revelation. But even there wickedness prevails and makes God's purpose of mercy of none effect. The divine outburst of indignation which the psalmist hears here, is applicable to the sinners in Israel. Also in Isa 3:13-15 the Judge of the world addresses Himself to the heads of Israel in particular. This one feature of the Psalm before us is raised to the consistency of a special prophetic picture in the Psalm of Asaph, 82. That which is here clothed in the form of a question, yaad|`uw halo', is reversed into an assertion in v. of that Psalm. It is not to be translated: will they not have to feel (which ought to be yeed|`uw ); but also not as Hupfeld renders it: have they not experienced. "Not to know" is intended to be used as absolutely in the signification non sapere, and consequently insipientem esse, as it is in Ps 82:5; 73:22; 92:7; Isa 44:18, cf. 9, 45:20, and frequently.

    The perfect is to be judged after the analogy of novisse (Ges. 126, 3), therefore it is to be rendered: have they attained to no knowledge, are they devoid of all knowledge, and therefore like the brutes, yea, according to Isa 1:2-3 even worse than the brutes, all the workers of iniquity? The two clauses which follow are, logically at least, attributive clauses. The subordination of lechem 'aak|luw to the participle as a circumstantial clause in the sense of lechem ke'ekol is syntactically inadmissible; neither can lchm 'klw, with Hupfeld, be understood of a brutish and secure passing away of life; for, as Olshausen, rightly observes lechem 'aakal does not signify to feast and carouse, but simply to eat, take a meal. Hengstenberg correctly translates it "who eating my people, eat bread," i.e., who think that they are not doing anything more sinful-indeed rather what is justifiable, irreproachable and lawful to them-than when they are eating bread; cf. the further carrying out of this thought in Mic 3:1-3 (especially v. 3 extr.: "just as in the pot and as flesh within the caldron."). Instead of qaaraa'uw lo' h' Jeremiah says in Ps 10:21 (cf. however, 10:25): daaraashuw lo' w|'et-h' . The meaning is like that in Hos 7:7. They do not pray as it becomes man who is endowed with mind, therefore they are like cattle, and act like beasts of prey.

    PSALMS 14:5

    There were they in great fear: for God is in the generation of the righteous.

    When Jahve thus bursts forth in scorn His word, which never fails in its working, smites down these brutish men, who are without knowledge and conscience. The local demonstrative shaam is used as temporal in this passage just as in Ps 66:6; Hos 2:17; Zeph 1:14; Job 23:7; 35:12, and is joined with the perfect of certainty, as in 36:13, where it has not so much a temporal as a local sense. It does not mean "there = at a future time," as pointing into the indefinite future, but "there = then," when God shall thus speak to them in His anger. Intensity is here given to the verb paachad by the addition of a substantival object of the same root, just as is frequently the case in the more elevated style, e.g., Hab 3:9; and as is done in other cases by the addition of the adverbial infinitive. Then, when God's long-suffering changes into wrath, terror at His judgement seizes them and they tremble through and through. This judgment of wrath, however, is on the other hand a revelation of love. Jahve avenges and thus delivers those whom He calls `amiy (My people); and who are here called tsadiyq dowr , the generation of the righteous, in opposition to the corrupted humanity of the time (Ps 12:8), as being conformed to the will of God and held together by a superior spirit to the prevailing spirit of the age. They are so called inasmuch as dowr passes over from the signification generatio to that of genus hominum here and also elsewhere, when it is not merely a temporal, but a moral notion; cf. 24:6; 83:15; 112:2, where it uniformly denotes the whole of the children of God who are in bondage in the world and longing for deliverance, not Israel collectively in antithesis to the Scythians and the heathen in general (Hitzig).

    PSALMS 14:6

    Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor, because the LORD is his refuge.

    The psalmist himself meets the oppressed full of joyous confidence, by reason of the self-manifestation of God in judgment, of which he is now become so confident and which so fills him with comfort. Instead of the sixth tristich, which we expected, we have another distich. The Hiph. heebiysh with a personal object signifies: to put any one to shame, i.e., to bring it about that any one must be ashamed, e.g., Ps 44:8 (cf. 53:6, where the accusative of the person has to be supplied), or absolutely: to act shamefully, as in the phrase used in Proverbs, meeybiysh been (a prodigal son). It appears only here with a neuter accusative of the object, not in the signification to defame (Hitz.)-a meaning it never has (not even in Prov 13:5, where it is blended with hib|'iysh to make stinking, i.e., a reproach, Gen 34:30)-but to confound, put to shame = to frustrate (Hupf.), which is at once the most natural meaning in connection with `atsat .

    But it is not to be rendered: ye put to shame, because..., for to what purpose is this statement with this inapplicable reason in support of it?

    The fut. taabiyshuw is used with a like shade of meaning as in Lev 19:17, and the imperative elsewhere; and kiy gives the reason for the tacitly implied clause, or if a line is really lost from the strophe, the lost clause (cf. Isa 8:9f.): ye will not accomplish it. `eetsah is whatsoever the pious man, who as such suffers reproach, plans to do for the glory of his God, or even in accordance with the will of his God. All this the children of the world, who are in possession of worldly power, seek to frustrate; but viewed in the light of the final decision their attempt is futile:

    Jahve is his refuge, or, literally the place whither he flees to hide himself and finds a hiding or concealment (tseel , Arab. dall, ceeter , Arab. sitr, Arabic also dr). mach|ceehuw has an orthophonic Dag., which obviates the necessity for the reading mach|ceehuw (cf. ta`|liym Ps 10:1, Ta`|mow 34:1, le'|cor 105:22, and similar instances).

    PSALMS 14:7

    Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! when the LORD bringeth back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad.

    This tristich sounds like a liturgical addition belonging to the time of the Exile, unless one is disposed to assign the whole Psalm to this period on account of it. For elsewhere in a similar connection, as e.g., in Ps 126, sh|buwt sh|uwb means to turn the captivity, or to bring back the captives. shuwb has here-as in 126:4; 2:3 (followed by 't ), cf. Ezek 47:7, the Kal being preferred to the Hiph. heeshiyb (Jer 32:44; 33:11) in favour of the alliteration with sh|buwt (from shaabaah to make any one a prisoner of war)-a transitive signification, which Hengstenberg (who interprets it: to turn back, to turn to the captivity, of God's merciful visitation), vainly hesitates to admit.

    But Isa 66:6, for instance, shows that the exiles also never looked for redemption anywhere but from Zion. Not as though they had thought, that Jahve still dwelt among the ruins of His habitation, which indeed on the contrary was become a ruin because He had forsaken it (as we read in Ezekiel); but the moment of His return to His people is also the moment when He entered again upon the occupation of His sanctuary, and His sanctuary, again appropriated by Jahve even before it was actually reared, is the spot whence issues the kindling of the divine judgment on the enemies of Israel, as well as the spot whence issues the brightness of the reverse side of this judgment, viz., the final deliverance, hence even during the Exile, Jerusalem is the point (the kibla) whither the eye of the praying captive was directed, Dan 6:11.

    There would therefore be nothing strange if a psalm-writer belonging to the Exile should express his longing for deliverance in these words: who gives = oh that one would give = oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! But since shbwt shwb also signifies metaphorically to turn misfortune, as in Job 42:10; Ezek 16:53 (perhaps also in Ps 85:2, cf. v. 5), inasmuch as the idea of sh|buwt has been generalised exactly like the German "Elend," exile (Old High German elilenti = sojourn in another country, banishment, homelessness), therefore the inscribed ldwd cannot be called in question from this quarter. Even Hitzig renders: "if Jahve would but turn the misfortune of His people," regarding this Psalm as composed by Jeremiah during the time the Scythians were in the land. If this rendering is possible, and that it is is undeniable, then we retain the inscription ldwd. And we do so the more readily, as Jeremiah's supposed authorship rests upon a non-recognition of his reproductive character, and the history of the prophet's times make no allusion to any incursion by the Scythians.

    The condition of the true people of God in the time of Absolom was really a sh|buwt in more than a figurative sense. But we require no such comparison with contemporary history, since in these closing words we have only the gathering up into a brief form of the view which prevails in other parts of the Psalm, viz., that the "righteous generation" in the midst of the world, and even of the so-called Israel, finds itself in a state of oppression, imprisonment, and bondage. If God will turn this condition of His people, who are His people indeed and of a truth, then shall Jacob rejoice and Israel be glad. It is the grateful duty of the redeemed to rejoice.- And how could they do otherwise!

    The Conditions of Access to God PSALMS 15:1-2 LORD, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in thy holy hill?

    The preceding Psalm distinguished tsdyq dwr , a righteous generation, from the mass of the universal corruption, and closed with a longing for the salvation out of Zion. Ps 15 answers the question: who belongs to this tsdyq dwr , and whom shall the future salvation avail? Ps 24, composed in connection with the removal of the Ark to Zion, is very similar. The state of mind expressed in this Psalm exactly corresponds to the unhypocritical piety and genuine lowliness which were manifest in David in their most beauteous light on that occasion; cf. v. 4b with 2 Sam 6:19; v. 4a with 2 Sam 6:21f. The fact, however, that Zion (Moriah) is called simply haqodesh har in v. 1, rather favours the time of the Absolomic exile, when David was cut off from the sanctuary of his God, whilst it was in the possession of men the very opposite of those described in this Psalm (vid., Ps 4:6). Nothing can be maintained with any certainty except that the Psalm assumes the elevation of Zion to the special designation of "the holy mountain" and the removal of the Ark to the 'ohel erected there (2 Sam 6:17). Isa 33:13-16 is a fine variation of this Psalm.

    Verse 1-2. That which is expanded in the tristichic portion of the Psalm, is all contained in this distichic portion in nuce. The address to God is not merely a favourite form (Hupfeld), but the question is really, as its words imply, directed to God. The answer, however, is not therefore to be taken as a direct answer from God, as it might be in a prophetical connection: the psalmist addresses himself to God in prayer, he as it were reads the heart of God, and answers to himself the question just asked, in accordance with the mind of God. guwr and shaakan which are usually distinguished from each other like paroikei'n and katoikei'n in Hellenistic Greek, are alike in meaning in this instance. It is not a merely temporary guwr (Ps 61:5), but for ever, that is intended. The only difference between the two interchangeable notions is this, the one denotes the finding of an abiding place of rest starting from the idea of a wandering life, the other the possession of an abiding place of rest starting from the idea of settled family life. (Note: In the Arabic jm 'lllh is "one under the protection of God, dwelling as it were in the fortress of God" vid., Fleischer's Samachschari, S. 1, Anm. 1.)

    The holy tabernacle and the holy mountain are here thought of in their spiritual character as the places of the divine presence and of the church of God assembled round the symbol of it; and accordingly the sojourning and dwelling there is not to be understood literally, but in a spiritual sense.

    This spiritual depth of view, first of all with local limitations, is also to be found in Ps 27:4-5; 61:5. This is present even where the idea of earnestness and regularity in attending the sanctuary rises in intensity to that of constantly dwelling therein, 65:5; 84:4-5; while elsewhere, as in 24:3, the outward materiality of the Old Testament is not exceeded. Thus we see the idea of the sanctuary at one time contracting itself within the Old Testament limits, and at another expanding more in accordance with the spirit of the New Testament; since in this matter, as in the matter of sacrifice, the spirit of the New Testament already shows signs of life, and works powerfully through its cosmical veil, without that veil being as yet rent. The answer to the question, so like the spirit of the New Testament in its intention, is also itself no less New Testament in its character: Not every one who saith Lord, Lord, but they who do the will of God, shall enjoy the rights of friendship with Him. But His will concerns the very substance of the Law, viz., our duties towards all men, and the inward state of the heart towards God.

    In the expression taamiym howleek| (here and in Prov 28:18), tmym is either a closer definition of the subject: one walking as an upright man, like raakiyl howleek| one going about as a slanderer, cf. howleek| hayaashaar Mic 2:7 "the upright as one walking;" or it is an accusative of the object, as in ts|daaqowt howleek| Isa 33:15: one who walks uprightness, i.e., one who makes uprightness his way, his mode of action; since tmym may mean integrum = integritas, and this is strongly favoured by b|taamiym hol|kiym , which is used interchangeably with it in Ps 84:12 (those who walk in uprightness). Instead of ts|diqaah `oseeh we have the poetical form of expression tsedeq po`eel . The characterising of the outward walk and action is followed in v. 2b by the characterising of the inward nature: speaking truth in his heart, not: with his heart (not merely with his mouth); for in the phrase b|leeb 'aamar , b| is always the Beth of the place, not of the instrument-the meaning therefore is: it is not falsehood and deceit that he thinks and plans inwardly, but truth (Hitz.). We have three characteristics here: a spotless walk, conduct ordered according to God's will, and a truth-loving mode of thought.

    PSALMS 15:3-5

    He that backbiteth not with his tongue, nor doeth evil to his neighbour, nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour.

    The distich which contains the question and that containing the general answer are now followed by three tristichs, which work the answer out in detail. The description is continued in independent clauses, which, however, have logically the value of relative clauses. The perff. have the signification of abstract presents, for they are the expression of tried qualities, of the habitual mode of action, of that which the man, who is the subject of the question, never did and what consequently it is not his wont to do. raagal means to go about, whether in order to spie out (which is its usual meaning), or to gossip and slander (here, and the Piel in 2 Sam 19:28; cf. raakal , raakiyl ). Instead bil|shonow we have `all| shonow (with Dag. in the second l, in order that it may be read with emphasis and not slurred over), (Note: Vid., the rule for this orthophonic Dag. in the Luther.

    Zeitschrift, 1863, S. 413.) because a word lies upon the tongue ere it is uttered, the speaker brings it up as it were from within on to his tongue or lips, Ps 16:4; 50:16; Ezek 36:3.

    The assonance of raa`aah l|ree`eehuw is well conceived. To do evil to him who is bound to us by the ties of kindred and friendship, is a sin which will bring its own punishment. qaarowb is also the parallel word to reea` in Ex 32:27. Both are here intended to refer not merely to persons of the same nation; for whatever is sinful in itself and under any circumstances whatever, is also sinful in relation to every man according to the morality of the Old Testament. The assertion of Hupfeld and others that naasaa' in conjunction with cher|paah means efferre = effari, is opposed by its combination with `al and its use elsewhere in the phrase chrph ns' "to bear reproach" (Ps 69:8). It means (since ns' is just as much tollere as ferre) to bring reproach on any one, or load any one with reproach.

    Reproach is a burden which is more easily put on than cast off; audacter calumniare, semper aliquid haeret.

    In v. 4a the interpretation "he is little in his own eyes, despised," of which Hupfeld, rejecting it, says that Hitzig has picked it up out of the dust, is to be retained. Even the Targ., Saad., Aben-Ezra, Kimchi, Urbino (in his Grammar, mw`d 'hl ) take b`ynyw nbzh together, even though explaining it differently, and it is accordingly accented by Baer nim|'aac ynaayw b|ee` nib|zeh (Mahpach, Asla Legarme, Rebia magnum). (Note: The usual accentuation nm'c b|`ynyw nbzh forcibly separates b`ynyw from nbzh to which according to its position it belongs. And Heidenheim's accentuation nm'c b`ynyw nbzh is to be rejected on accentuological grounds, because of two like distinctives the second has always a less distinctive value than the first. We are consequently only left to the one given above. The MSS vary.)

    God exalts him who is b|`eeynaayw qaaTaan , 1 Sam 15:17.

    David, when he brought up the ark of his God, could not sufficiently degrade himself (naaqeel ), and appeared b|`eenaayw shaapaal, Sam 6:22. This lowliness, which David also confesses in Ps 131, is noted here and throughout the whole of the Old Testament, e.g., Isa 57:15, as a condition of being well-pleasing before God; just as it is in reality the chief of all virtues. On the other hand, it is mostly translated either, according to the usual accentuation, with which the Beth of b`ynyw is dageshed: the reprobate is despised in his eyes (Rashi, Hupf.), or in accordance with the above accentuation: despised in his eyes is the reprobate (Maurer, Hengst., Olsh., Luzzatto); but this would say but little, and be badly expressed. For the placing together of two participles without an article, and moreover of similar meaning, with the design of the one being taken as subject and the other as predicate, is to be repudiated simply on the ground of style; and the difference among expositors shows how equivocal the expression is.

    On the other hand, when we translate it: "despicable is he in his own eyes, worthy to be despised" (Ges. 134, 1), we can appeal to Ps 14:1, where hish|chiytuw is intensified just in the same way by hit|`iybuw , as nib|zeh is here by nim|'aac ; cf. also Gen 30:31; Job 31:23; Isa 43:4. The antithesis of v. 4b to v. 4a is also thus fully met: he himself seems to himself unworthy of any respect, whereas he constantly shows respect to others; and the standard by which he judges is the fear of God. His own fear of Jahve is manifest from the self-denying strictness with which he performs his vows. This sense of l|haara` nish|ba` is entirely misapprehended when it is rendered: he swears to his neighbour (ra` = reea` ), which ought to be l|ree`eenuw, or: he swears to the wicked (and keeps to what he has thus solemnly promised), which ought to be laaraa` ; for to what purpose would be the omission of the elision of the article, which is extremely rarely (Ps 36:6) not attended to in the classic style of the period before the Exile? The words have reference to Lev 5:4: if any one swear, thoughtlessly pronouncing l|heeyTiyb 'ow l|haara` , to do evil or to do good, etc.

    The subject spoken of is oaths which are forgotten, and the forgetting of which must be atoned for by an asham, whether the nature of the oath be something unpleasant and injurious, or agreeable and profitable, to the person making the vow. The retrospective reference of lhr` to the subject is self-evident; for to injure another is indeed a sin, the vowing and performance of which, not its omission, would require to be expiated. On l|haara` = l|haareea` vid., Ges. 67, rem. 6. The hypothetical antecedent (cf. e.g., 2 Kings 5:13) is followed by yaamir w|lo' is an apodosis. The verb heemiyr is native to the law of vows, which, if any one has vowed an animal in sacrifice, forbids both changing it for its money value (hecheliyp) and exchanging it for another, be it b|Towb 'ow-ra` b|raa` Towb, Lev 27:10,33. The psalmist of course does not use these words in the technical sense in which they are used in the Law. Swearing includes making a vow, and yaamir lo' disavows not merely any exchanging of that which was solemnly promised, but also any alteration of that which was sworn: he does not misuse the name of God in anywise, lashaaw|' .

    In v. 5a the psalmist also has a passage of the Tra before his mind, viz., Lev 25:37, cf. Ex 22:24; Deut 23:20; Ezek 18:8. b|neshek| naatan signifies to give a thing away in order to take usury (neshek| from naashak| to bite, da'knein) for it. The receiver or demander of interest is mashiyk| , the one who pays interest naashuwk|, the interest itself nosheek|. The trait of character described in v. 5b also recalls the language of the Mosaic law: laaqaach lo' shochad , the prohibition Ex 23:8; Deut 16:19; and `al-naaqiy, the curse Deut 27:25: on account of the innocent, i.e., against him, to condemn him. Whether it be as a loan or as a gift, he gives without conditions, and if he attain the dignity of a judge he is proof against bribery, especially with reference to the destruction of the innocent. And now instead of closing in conformity with the description of character already given: such a man shall dwell, etc., the concluding sentence takes a different form, moulded in accordance with the spiritual meaning of the opening question: he who doeth these things shall never be moved (yimowT fut. Niph.), he stands fast, being upheld by Jahve, hidden in His fellowship; nothing from without, no misfortune, can cause his overthrow.

    PSALM Refuge in God, the Highest Good, in the Presence of Distress and of Death The preceding Psalm closed with the words yimowT lo' ; this word of promise is repeated in Ps 16:8 as an utterance of faith in the mouth of David. We are here confronted by a pattern of the unchangeable believing confidence of a friend of God; for the writer of Ps 16 is in danger of death, as is to be inferred from the prayer expressed in v. 1 and the expectation in v. 10. But there is no trace of anything like bitter complaint, gloomy conflict, or hard struggle: the cry for help is immediately swallowed up by an overpowering and blessed consciousness and a bright hope. There reigns in the whole Psalm, a settled calm, an inward joy, and a joyous confidence, which is certain that everything that it can desire for the present and for the future it possesses in its God.

    The Psalm is inscribed ldwd; and Hitzig also confesses that "David may be inferred from its language." Whatever can mark a Psalm as Davidic we find combined in this Psalm: thoughts crowding together in compressed language, which becomes in v. 4 bold even to harshness, but then becomes clear and moves more rapidly; an antiquated, peculiar, and highly poetic impress ('adonay , my Lord, m|naat , nachalaat , shaapeer, towmiyk| ); and a well-devised grouping of the strophes.

    In addition to all these, there are manifold points of contact with indisputably genuine Davidic Psalms (comp. e.g., v. 5 with Ps 11:6; v. with 4:4; v. 11 with 17:15), and with indisputably ancient portions of the Pentateuch (Ex 23:13; 19:6; Gen 49:6). Scarcely any other Psalm shows so clearly as this, what deep roots psalm-poetry has struck into the Tra, both as it regards the matter and the language. Concerning the circumstances of its composition, vid., on Ps 30.

    The superscription l|daawid mik|taam , Ps 16 has in common with Ps 56-60. After the analogy of the other superscriptions, it must have a technical meaning. This at once militates against Hitzig's explanation, that it is a poem hitherto unknown, an ane'kdoton, according to the Arabic mktum, hidden, secret, just as also against the meaning keimee'lion, which says nothing further to help us. The LXX translates it steelografi'a (eis steelografi'an), instead of which the Old Latin version has tituli inscriptio (Hesychius ti'tlos ptuchi'on epi'gramma e'chon). That this translation accords with the tradition is shown by that of the Targum t|riytsaa' g|liypaa' sculptura recta (not erecta as Hupfeld renders it). Both versions give the verb the meaning kaatam insculpere, which is supported both by a comparison with kaatab , cogn. chaatsab, `aatsab , and by chaatam imprimere (sigillum). Moreover, the sin of Israel is called nik|taam in Jer 2:22 (cf. Ps 17:1) as being a deeply impressed spot, not to be wiped out. If we now look more closely into the Michtam Psalms as a whole, we find they have two prevailing features in common. Sometimes significant and remarkable words are introduced by 'aamar|tiy , w|yo'mar , diber , Psalms 16:2; 58:12; 60:8, cf. Isa 38:10-11 (in Hezekiah's psalm, which is inscribed mik|taab = mik|taam as it is perhaps to be read); sometimes words of this character are repeated after the manner of a refrain, as in Ps 56: I will not fear, what can man do to me! in Ps 57: Be Thou exalted, Elohim, above the heavens, Thy glory above all the earth! and in Ps 59:

    For Elohim is my high tower, my merciful God. Hezekiah's psalm unites this characteristic with the other. Accordingly mktm, like epi'gramma , (Note: In modern Jewish poetry mktm is actually the name for the epigram.) appears to mean first of all an inscription and then to be equivalent to an inscription-poem or epigram, a poem containing pithy sayings; since in the Psalms of this order some expressive sentence, after the style of an inscription or a motto on a monument, is brought prominently forward, by being either specially introduced or repeated as a refrain.

    The strophe-schema is 5. 5. 6. 7. The last strophe, which has grown to seven lines, is an expression of joyous hopes in the face of death, which extend onward even into eternity.

    PSALMS 16:1-3

    Preserve me, O God: for in thee do I put my trust.

    Verse 1-3. The Psalm begins with a prayer that is based upon faith, the special meaning of which becomes clear from v. 10: May God preserve him (which He is able to do as being 'eel , the Almighty, able to do all things), who has no other refuge in which he has hidden and will hide but Him. This short introit is excepted from the parallelism; so far therefore it is monostichic-a sigh expressing everything in few words. And the emphatic pronunciation shaam|reeniy shaamereni harmonises with it; for it is to be read thus, just as in Ps 86:2; 119:167 shaamerah (cf. on Isa 38:14 aa`sh|qaah), according to the express testimony of the Masora. (Note: The Masora observes bcpr' grsyn b', i.e., twice in the Psalter shmrh is in the imperative, the o being displaced by Gaja (Metheg) and changed into aa, vid., Baer, Torath Emeth p. 22f. In spite of this the grammarians are not agreed as to the pronunciation of the imperative and infinitive forms when so pointed. Luzzatto, like Lonzano, reads it shomereni.)

    The text of the next two verses (so it appears) needs to be improved in two respects. The reading 'aamar|t| as addressed to the soul (Targ.), cf. Lam 3:24f., is opposed by the absence of any mention of the thing addressed. It rests upon a misconception of the defective form of writing, 'aamar|ti (Ges. 44, rem. 4). Hitzig and Ewald (190, d) suppose that in such cases a rejection of the final vowel, which really occurs in the language of the people, after the manner of the Aramaic ('am|reet or 'im|reet), lies at the bottom of the form. And it does really seem as though the frequent occurrence of this defective form (yd`t = yd`ty Ps 140:13; Job 42:2, bnyt = bnyty 1 Kings 8:48, `syt = `syty Ezek 16:59, cf. 2 Kings 18:20, 'mrt now pointed 'mrtaa, with Isa 36:5) has its occasion at least in some such cutting away of the i, peculiar to the language of the common people; although, if David wrote it so, 'mrt is not intended to be read otherwise than it is in 31:15; 140:7. (Note: Pinsker's view (Einleit. S. 100-102), who considers paa`al|t| to have sprung from pal|leet as the primary form of the 1 pers. sing., from which then came paa`al|tiy and later still paa`al|tiy , is untenable according to the history of the language.)

    First of all David gives expression to his confession of Jahve, to whom he submits himself unconditionally, and whom he sets above everything else without exception. Since the suffix of 'adonaay (properly domini mei = domine mi, Gen 18:3, cf. Ps 19:2), which has become mostly lost sight of in the usage of the language, now and then retains its original meaning, as it does indisputably in 35:23, it is certainly to be rendered also here: "Thou art my Lord" and not "Thou art the Lord." The emphasis lies expressly on the "my." It is the unreserved and joyous feeling of dependence (more that of the little child, than of the servant), which is expressed in this first confession. For, as the second clause of the confession says: Jahve, who is his Lord, is also his benefactor, yea even his highest good. The preposition `al frequently introduces that which extends beyond something else, Gen 48:22 (cf. Ps 89:8; 95:3), and to this passage may be added Gen 31:50; 32:12; Ex 35:22; Num 31:8; Deut 19:9; 22:6, the one thing being above, or co-ordinate with, the other. So also here: "my good, i.e., whatever makes me truly happy, is not above Thee," i.e., in addition to Thee, beside Thee; according to the sense it is equivalent to out of Thee or without Thee (as the Targ., Symm., and Jerome render it), Thou alone, without exception, art my good. In connection with this rendering of the `al , the bal (poetic, and contracted from b|liy ), which is unknown to the literature before David's time, presents no difficulty. As in Prov 23:7 it is short for baltih| yeh. Hengstenberg remarks, "Just as Thou art the Lord! is the response of the soul to the words I am the Lord thy God (Ex 20:2), so Thou only art my salvation! is the response to Thou shalt have no other gods beside Me (`al-paanay)." The psalmist knows no fountain of true happiness but Jahve, in Him he possesses all, his treasure is in Heaven.

    Such is his confession to Jahve. But he also has those on earth to whom he makes confession. Transposing the w we read: w|liq|dowshiym 'asher baa'arets heemaah 'adiyreey kaal-chep|tsiy-baam While Diestel's alteration: "to the saints, who are in his land, he makes himself glorious, and all his delight is in them," is altogether strange to this verse: the above transfer of the Waw (Note: Approved by Kamphausen and by the critic in the Liter. Blatt of the Allgem. Kirchen-Zeitung 1864 S. 107.) suffices to remove its difficulties, and that in a way quite in accordance with the connection. Now it is clear, that lqdwshym, as has been supposed by some, is the dative governed by 'aamar|tiy , the influence of which is thus carried forward; it is clear what is meant by the addition b'rts 'shr , which distinguishes the object of his affection here below from the One above, who is incomparably the highest; it is clear, as to what heemaah defines, whereas otherwise this purely descriptive relative clause heemaah baa'aarets 'asher (which von Ortenberg transposes into baaheemaah 'er|tseh 'asher ) appears to be useless and surprises one both on account of its redundancy (since hmh is superfluous, cf. e.g., Sam 7:9; 2:18) and on account of its arrangement of the words (an arrangement, which is usual in connection with a negative construction, Deut 20:15; 2 Chron 8:7, cf. Gen 9:3; Ezek 12:10); it is clear, in what sense 'dyry alternates with qdwshym, since it is not those who are accounted by the world as 'dyryc on account of their worldly power and possessions (136:18, 2 Chron 23:20), but the holy, prized by him as being also glorious, partakers of higher glory and worthy of higher honour; and moreover, this corrected arrangement of the verse harmonises with the Michtam character of the Psalm. The thought thus obtained, is the thought one expected (love to God and love to His saints), and the one which one is also obliged to wring from the text as we have it, either by translating with De Welte, Maurer, Dietrich and others: "the saints who are in the land, they are the excellent in whom I have all my delight,"-a Waw apodoseos, with which one could only be satisfied if it were w|heemaah (cf. 2 Sam 15:34)-or: "the saints who are in the land and the glorious-all my delight is in them."

    By both these interpretations, l| would be the exponent of the nom. absol. which is elsewhere detached and placed at the beginning of a sentence, and this l of reference (Ew. 310, a) is really common to every style (Num 18:8; Isa 32:1; Eccl 9:4); whereas the l understood of the fellowship in which he stands when thus making confession to Jahve: associating myself with the saints (Hengst.), with (von Lengerke), among the saints (Hupf., Thenius), would be a preposition most liable to be misapprehended, and makes v. 3 a cumbersome appendage of v. 2. But if l be taken as the Lamed of reference then the elliptical construct w|'adiyreey , to which h'rts ought to be supplied, remains a stumbling-block not to be easily set aside. For such an isolation of the connecting form from its genitive cannot be shown to be syntactically possible in Hebrew (vid., on 2 Kings 9:17, Thenius, and Keil); nor are we compelled to suppose in this instance what cannot be proved elsewhere, since klch-ptsy-bm is, without any harshness, subordinate to w'dyry as a genitival notion (Ges. 116, 3). And still in connection with the reading w'dyry, both the formation of the sentence which, beginning with l, leads one to expect an apodosis, and the relation of v. 3 to v. 2, according to which the central point of the declaration must lie just within klch-ptsy-bm, are opposed to this rendering of the words klch-ptsy-km w'dyry.

    Thus, therefore, we come back to the above easy improvement of the text. q|dowshiym are those in whom the will of Jahve concerning Israel, that it should be a holy nation (Ex 19:6; Deut 7:6), has been fulfilled, viz., the living members of the ecclesia sanctorum in this world (for there is also one in the other world, Ps 89:6). Glory, do'xa , is the outward manifestation of holiness. It is ordained of God for the sanctified (cf. Rom 8:30), whose moral nobility is now for the present veiled under the menial form of the `aaniy ; and in the eyes of David they already possess it. His spiritual vision pierces through the outward form of the servant.

    His verdict is like the verdict of God, who is his all in all. The saints, and they only, are the excellent to him. His whole delight is centred in them, all his respect and affection is given to them. The congregation of the saints is his Chephzibah, Isa 62:4 (cf. 2 Kings 21:1).

    PSALMS 16:4-5

    Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten after another god: their drink offerings of blood will I not offer, nor take up their names into my lips.

    As he loves the saints so, on the other hand, he abhors the apostates and their idols. maahaaruw 'acheer is to be construed as an appositional relative clause to the preceding: multi sunt cruciatus (cf. Ps 32:10) eorum, eorum scil. qui alium permutant. The expression would flow on more smoothly if it were yar|buw: they multiply, or increase their pains, who..., so that mhrw 'chr would be the subject, for instance like 'aheebow h' (he whom Jahve loves), Isa 48:14. This v. 4 forms a perfect antithesis to v. 3. In David's eyes the saints are already the glorified, in whom his delight centres; while, as he knows, a future full of anguish is in store for the idolatrous, and their worship, yea, their very names are an abomination to him. The suffixes of nic|keeyheem and sh|mowtaam might be referred to the idols according to Ex 23:13; Hos 2:19, if 'acheer be taken collectively as equivalent to m 'acheeri, as in Job 8:19.

    But it is more natural to assign the same reference to them as to the suffix of `ats|bowtaam , which does not signify "their idols" (for idols are `atsabiym ), but their torments, pains (from `atsebet derived from `itseeb), Ps 147:3; Job 9:28. The thought is similar to 1 Tim 6:10, heautou's perie'peiran odu'nais poiki'lais . 'acheer is a general designation of the broadest kind for everything that is not God, but which man makes his idol beside God and in opposition to God (cf. Isa 42:8; 48:11). maahaaruw cannot mean festinant, for in this signification it is only found in Piel miheer, and that once with a local, but not a personal, accusative of the direction, Nah 2:6. It is therefore to be rendered (and the perf. is also better adapted to this meaning): they have taken in exchange that which is not God (maahar like heemiyr , Ps 106:20; Jer 2:11).

    Perhaps (cf. the phrase 'achareey zaanaah ) the secondary meaning of wooing and fondling is connected with it; for maahar is the proper word for acquiring a wife by paying down the price asked by her father, Ex 22:15. With such persons, who may seem to be 'adiyriym in the eyes of the world, but for whom a future full of anguish is in store, David has nothing whatever to do: he will not pour out drinkofferings as they pour them out. nic|keeyhem has the Dag. lene, as it always has. They are not called midaam as actually consisting of blood, or of wine actually mingled with blood; but consisting as it were of blood, because they are offered with blood-stained hands and blood-guilty consciences. min is the min of derivation; in this instance (as in Amos 4:5, cf. Hos 6:8) of the material, and is used in other instances also for similar virtually adjectival expressions. Ps 10:18; 17:14; 80:14.

    In v. 4c the expression of his abhorrence attains its climax: even their names, i.e., the names of their false gods, which they call out, he shuns taking upon his lips, just as is actually forbidden in the Tra, Ex 23:13 (cf. Const. Apost. V. 10 ei'doolon mneemoneu'ein ono'mata daimonika' ).; He takes the side of Jahve. Whatever he may wish for, he possesses in Him; and whatever he has in Him, is always secured to him by Him. chel|qiy does not here mean food (Bttch.), for in this sense cheeleq (Lev 6:10) and maanaah (1 Sam 1:4) are identical; and parallel passages like 142:6 show what chlqy means when applied to Jahve. According to Ps 11:6, kwcy is also a genitive just like chlqy; cheeleq m|naat is the share of landed property assigned to any one; kowc m|naat the share of the cup according to paternal apportionment.

    The tribe of Levi received no territory in the distribution of the country, from which they might have maintained themselves; Jahve was to be their cheeleq , Num 18:20, and the gifts consecrated to Jahve were to be their food, Deut 10:9; 18:1f. But nevertheless all Israel is basi'leion hiera'teuma , Ex 19:6, towards which even qdwshym and 'drym in v. pointed; so that, therefore, the very thing represented by the tribe of Levi in outward relation to the nation, holds good, in all its deep spiritual significance, of every believer. It is not anything earthly, visible, created, and material, that is allotted to him as his possession and his sustenance, but Jahve and Him only; but in Him is perfect contentment. In v. 5b, towmiyk| , as it stands, looks at first sight as though it were the Hiph. of a verb yaamak| (waamak|). But such a verb is not to be found anywhere else, we must therefore seek some other explanation of the word.

    It cannot be a substantive in the signification of possession (Maurer, Ewald), for such a substantival form does not exist. It might more readily be explained as a participle = towmeek|, somewhat like yowciyp , Isa 29:4; 38:5; Eccl 1:18, = yowceep -a comparison which has been made by Aben-Ezra (Sefath Jether No. 421) and Kimchi (Michlol 11a)-a form of the participle to which, in writing at least, cowbeeyb, 2 Kings 8:21, forms a transition; but there is good reason to doubt the existence of such a form. Had the poet intended to use the part. of tmk, it is more probable he would have written gwrly towm|kiy 'th, just as the LXX translators might have had it before them, taking the Chirek compaginis as a suffix: su' ei' ho apokathistoo'n tee'n kleeronomi'an mou emoi' (Bttcher). For the conjecture of Olshausen and Thenius, towciyp in the sense: "thou art continually my portion" halts both in thought and expression. Hitzig's conjecture tuwmeykaa "thou, thy Tummm are my lot," is more successful and tempting. But the fact that the tumiym are never found (not even in Deut 33:8) without the 'uwriym , is against it. Nevertheless, we should prefer this conjecture to the other explanations, if the word would not admit of being explained as Hiph. from yaamak| (waamak|), which is the most natural explanation. Schultens has compared the Arabic wamika, to be broad, from which there is a Hiphil form Arab. awmaka, to make broad, in Syro-Arabic, that is in use even in the present day among the common people. (Note: The Arabic Lexicographers are only acquainted with a noun wamka, breadth (amplitudo), but not with the verb. And even the noun does not belong to the universal and classical language. But at the present day Arab. 'l-wamk (pronounced wumk), breadth, and wamik are in common use in Damascus; and it is only the verb that is shunned in the better conversational style.-Wetzstein.)

    And since we must at any rate come down to the supposition of something unusual about this twmyk, it is surely not too bold to regard it as a ha'pax gegramm .: Thou makest broad my lot, i.e., ensurest for me a spacious habitation, a broad place, as the possession that falleth to me, (Note: It is scarcely possible for two words to be more nearly identical than gowraal and klee'ros . The latter, usually derived from kla'oo (a piece broken off), is derived from ke'lesthai (a determining of the divine will) in Dderlein's Homer. Glossar, iii. 124.

    But perhaps it is one word with gwrl . Moreover klee'ros signifies 1) the sign by which anything whatever falls to one among a number of persons in conformity with the decision of chance or of the divine will, a pebble, potsherd, or the like. So in Homer, Il. iii. 316, vii. 175, xxiii. 351, Od. x. 206, where casting lots is described with the expression klee'ros . 2) The object that falls to any one by lot, patrimonium, e.g., Od. xiv. 64, Il. xv. 498, oi'kos kai' klee'ros , especially of lands. 3) an inheritance without the notion of the lot, and even without any thought of inheriting, absolutely: a settled, landed property. It is the regular expression for the allotments of land assigned to colonists (kleerou'choi).) a thought, that is expanded in v. 6.

    PSALMS 16:6-8

    The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly heritage.

    The measuring lines (chabaaliym ) are cast (Mic 2:5) and fall to any one just where and as far as his property is assigned to him; so that chebel naapal (Josh 17:5) is also said of the falling to any one of his allotted portion of land. n|`imiym (according to the Masora defective as also in v. 11 n|`imowt ) is a pluralet., the plural that is used to denote a unity in the circumstances, and a similarity in the relations of time and space, Ges. 108, 2, a; and it signifies both pleasant circumstances, Job 36:11, and, as here, a pleasant locality, Lat. amaena (to which n|`imowt in v. 11, more strictly corresponds). The lines have fallen to him in a charming district, viz., in the pleasurable fellowship of God, this most blessed domain of love has become his paradisaic possession. With 'ap he rises from the fact to the perfect contentment which it secures to him: such a heritage seems to him to be fair, he finds a source of inward pleasure and satisfaction in it. nachalaat -according to Ew. 173, d, lengthened from the construct form nachalat (like n|giynat Ps 61:1); according to Hupfeld, springing from nachalaatiy (by the same apocope that is so common in Syriac, perhaps like 'aamar|t| v. 1 from 'aamar|tiy ) just like zim|raat Ex 15:2-is rather, since in the former view there is no law for the change of vowel and such an application of the form as we find in 60:13 (108:13) is opposed to the latter, a stunted form of nachalaataah: the heritage = such a heritage pleases me, lit., seems fair to me (shaapar , cognate root caapar , tsaapar , cognate in meaning bsr , Arab. b_r, to rub, polish, make shining, intr. shaapeer to be shining, beautiful). `aalay of beauty known and felt by him (cf. Est 3:9 with 1 Sam 25:36 `lyw Twb , and the later way of expressing it Dan. 3:32).

    But since the giver and the gift are one and the same, the joy he has in the inheritance becomes of itself a constant thanksgiving to and blessing of the Giver, that He ('shr quippe qui) has counselled him (Ps 73:24) to choose the one thing needful, the good part. Even in the night-seasons his heart keeps watch, even then his reins admonish him (yicar , here of moral incitement, as in Isa 8:11, to warn). The reins are conceived of as the seat of the blessed feeling that Jahve is his possession (vid., Psychol. S. 268; tr. p. 316). He is impelled from within to offer hearth-felt thanks to his merciful and faithful God. He has Jahve always before him, Jahve is the point towards which he constantly directs his undiverted gaze; and it is easy for him to have Him thus ever present, for He is miymiyniy (supply huw' , as in Ps 22:29; 55:20; 112:4), at my right hand (i.e., where my right hand begins, close beside me), so that he has no need to draw upon his power of imagination. The words bal-'emowT, without any conjunction, express the natural effect of this, both in consciousness and in reality: he will not and cannot totter, he will not yield and be overthrown.

    PSALMS 16:9-11

    Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope.

    Thus then, as this concluding strophe, as it were like seven rays of light, affirms, he has the most blessed prospect before him, without any need to fear death. Because Jahve is thus near at hand to help him, his heart becomes joyful (saamch ) and his glory, i.e., his soul (vid., on Ps 7:6) rejoices, the joy breaking forth in rejoicing, as the fut. consec. affirms.

    There is no passage of Scripture that so closely resembles this as 1 Thess 5:23. leeb is pneu'ma (nou's ), kaabowd , psuchee' (vid., Psychol. S. 98; tr. p. 119), baasaar (according to its primary meaning, attrectabile, that which is frail), soo'ma . The ame'mptoos teereethee'nai which the apostle in the above passage desires for his readers in respect of all three parts of their being, David here expresses as a confident expectation; for 'ap implies that he also hopes for his body that which he hopes for his spirit-life centred in the heart, and for his soul raised to dignity both by the work of creation and of grace.

    He looks death calmly and triumphantly in the face, even his flesh shall dwell or lie securely, viz., without being seized with trembling at its approaching corruption. David's hope rests on this conclusion: it is impossible for the man, who, in appropriating faith and actual experience, calls God his own, to fall into the hands of death. For v. 10 shows, that what is here thought of in connection with laabeTach shaakan , dwelling in safety under the divine protection (Deut 33:12,28, cf. Prov 3:24), is preservation from death. shachat is rendered by the LXX diafthora' , as though it came from shaachat diafthei'rein , as perhaps it may do in Job 17:14. But in Ps 7:16 the LXX has bo'thros, which is the more correct: prop. a sinking in, from shuwach to sink, to be sunk, like nachat from nuwach , rachat from ruwach .

    To leave to the unseen world (`aazab prop. to loosen, let go) is equivalent to abandoning one to it, so that he becomes its prey. V. 10bwhere to see the grave (Ps 49:10), equivalent to, to succumb to the state of the grave, i.e., death (89:49; 2:26; 8:51) is the opposite of "seeing life," i.e., experiencing and enjoying it (Eccl 9:9, John. 3:36), the sense of sight being used as the noblest of the senses to denote the sensus communis, i.e., the common sense lying at the basis of all feeling and perception, and figuratively of all active and passive experience (Psychol. S. 234; tr. p. 276)-shows, that what is said here is not intended of an abandonment by which, having once come under the power of death, there is no coming forth again (Bttcher). It is therefore the hope of not dying, that is expressed by David in v. 10. for by chaciyd|kaa David means himself. According to Norzi, the Spanish MSS have chaciyd|ykaa with the Masoretic note ywd ytyr, and the LXX, Targ., and Syriac translate, and the Talmud and Midrash interpret it, in accordance with this Ker. There is no ground for the reading chaciydeykaa , and it is also opposed by the personal form of expression surrounding it. (Note: Most MSS and the best, which have no distinction of Ker and Chethb here, read chaciyd|kaa , as also the Biblia Ven. 1521, the Spanish Polyglott and other older printed copies. Those MSS which give chaciydeykaa (without any Ker), on the other hand, scarcely come under consideration.)

    The positive expression of hope in v. 11 comes as a companion to the negative just expressed: Thou wilt grant me to experience (howdiya` , is used, as usual, of the presentation of a knowledge, which concerns the whole man and not his understanding merely) chayiym 'orach , the path of life, i.e., the path to life (cf. Prov 5:6; 2:19 with ib. Ps 10:17; Matt 7:14); but not so that it is conceived of as at the final goal, but as leading slowly and gradually onwards to life; chayiym in the most manifold sense, as, e.g., in Ps 36:10; Deut 30:15: life from God, with God, and in God, the living God; the opposite of death, as the manifestation of God's wrath and banishment from Him. That his body shall not die is only the external and visible phase of that which David hopes for himself; on its inward, unseen side it is a living, inwrought of God in the whole man, which in its continuance is a walking in the divine life.

    The second part of v. 11, which consists of two members, describes this life with which he solaces himself. According to the accentuation-which marks chyym with Olewejored not with Rebia magnum or Pazer,- s|maachowt s|ba` is not a second object dependent upon towdiy`eeniy , but the subject of a substantival clause: a satisfying fulness of joy is 'et-paaneykaa, with Thy countenance, i.e., connected with and naturally produced by beholding Thy face ('eet preposition of fellowship, as in Ps 21:7; 140:14); for joy is light, and God's countenance, or doxa, is the light of lights. And every kind of pleasurable things, n|`imowt , He holds in His right hand, extending them to His saintsa gift which lasts for ever; netsach equivalent to laanetsach . neetsach , from the primary notion of conspicuous brightness, is duration extending beyond all else-an expression for l|`owlaam , which David has probably coined, for it appears for the first time in the Davidic Psalms. Pleasures are in Thy right hand continually-God's right hand is never empty, His fulness is inexhaustible.

    The apostolic application of this Psalm (Acts 2:29-32; 13:35-37) is based on the considerations that David's hope of not coming under the power of death was not realised in David himself, as is at once clear, to the unlimited extent in which it is expressed in the Psalm; but that it is fulfilled in Jesus, who has not been left to Hades and whose flesh did not see corruption; and that consequently the words of the Psalm are a prophecy of David concerning Jesus, the Christ, who was promised as the heir to his throne, and whom, by reason of the promise, he had prophetically before his mind. If we look into the Psalm, we see that David, in his mode of expression, bases that hope simply upon his relation to Jahve, the everliving One. That it has been granted to him in particular, to express this hope which is based upon the mystic relation of the chcyd to Jahve in such language-a hope which the issue of Jesus' life has sealed by an historical fulfilment-is to be explained from the relation, according to the promise, in which David stands to his seed, the Christ and Holy One of God, who appeared in the person of Jesus. David, the anointed of God, looking upon himself as in Jahve, the God who has given the promise, becomes the prophet of Christ; but this is only indirectly, for he speaks of himself, and what he says has also been fulfilled in his own person.

    But this fulfilment is not limited to the condition, that he did not succumb to any peril that threatened his life so long as the kingship would have perished with him, and that, when he died, the kingship nevertheless remained (Hofmann); nor, that he was secured against all danger of death until he had accomplished his life's mission, until he had fulfilled the vocation assigned to him in the history of the plan of redemption (Kurtz)- the hope which he cherishes for himself personally has found a fulfilment which far exceeds this. After his hope has found in Christ its full realisation in accordance with the history of the plan of redemption, it receives through Christ its personal realisation for himself also. For what he says, extends on the one hand far beyond himself, and therefore refers prophetically to Christ: in decachordo Psalterio-as Jerome boldly expresses it-ab inferis suscitat resurgentem. But on the other hand that which is predicted comes back upon himself, to raise him also from death and Hades to the beholding of God. Verus justitiae sol-says Sontag in his Tituli Psalmorum, 1687-e sepulcro resurrexit, stee'lee seu lapis sepulcralis a monumento devolutus, arcus triumphalis erectus, victoria ab hominibus reportata. En vobis Michtam! En Evangelium!- Flight of an Innocent and Persecuted Man for Refuge in the Lord, Who Knoweth Them That Are His Ps. 17 is placed after Ps 16, because just like the latter (cf. 11:7) it closes with the hope of a blessed and satisfying vision of God. In other respects also the two Psalms have many prominent features in common: as, for instance, the petition shaam|reeniy , 16:1; 17:8; the retrospect on nightly fellowship with God, 16:7; 17:3; the form of address in prayer 'eel , 16:1; 17:6; the verb taamak| , 16:5; 17:5, etc. (vid., Symbolae p. 49), notwithstanding a great dissimilarity in their tone. For Ps 16 is the first of those which we call Psalms written in the indignant style, in the series of the Davidic Psalms. The language of the Psalms of David, which is in other instances so flowing and clear, becomes more harsh and, in accordance with the subject and mood, as it were, full of unresolved dissonances (Ps 17; 140; 58; 36:2f., cf. 10:2-11) when describing the dissolute conduct of his enemies, and of the ungodly in general. The language is then more rough and unmanageable, and wanting in the clearness and transparency we find elsewhere. The tone of the language also becomes more dull and, as it were, a dull murmur. It rolls on like the rumble of distant thunder, by piling up the suffixes mo, aamo, eemo, as in 17:10; 35:16; 64:6,9, where David speaks of his enemies and describes them in a tone suggested by the indignation, which is working with his breast; or in 59:12-14; 56:8; 21:10-13; 140:10; 58:7, where, as in prophetic language, he announces to them of the judgment of God. The more vehement and less orderly flow of the language which we find here, is the result of the inward tumult of his feelings.

    There are so many parallels in the thought and expression of thought of this Psalm in other Davidic Psalms (among those we have already commented on we may instance more especially Ps 7 and 11, and also and 10), that even Hitzig admits the ldwd. The author of the Psalm is persecuted, and others with him; foes, among whom one, their leader, stands prominently forward, plot against his life, and have encompassed him about in the most threatening manner, eager for his death. All this corresponds, line for line, with the situation of David in the wilderness of Maon (about three hours and three quarters S.S.E. of Hebron), as narrated in 1 Sam 23:25f., when Saul and his men were so close upon the heels of David and his men, that he only escaped capture by a most fortunate incident.

    The only name inscribed on this Psalm is t|pilaah (a prayer), the most comprehensive name for the Psalms, and the oldest (Ps 72:20); for shiyr and miz|mowr were only given to them when they were sung in the liturgy and with musical accompaniment. As the title of a Psalm it is found five times (17, 86, 90, 92, 142) in the Psalter, and besides that once, in Hab. Habakkuk's tplh is a hymn composed for music. But in the Psalter we do not find any indication of the Psalms thus inscribed being arranged for music. The strophe schema is 4. 7; 4. 4. 6. 7.

    PSALMS 17:1-2

    Hear the right, O LORD, attend unto my cry, give ear unto my prayer, that goeth not out of feigned lips.

    Verse 1-2. tsedeq is the accusative of the object: the righteousness, intended by the suppliant, is his own (v. 15a). He knows that he is not merely righteous in his relation to man, but also in his relation to God. In all such assertions of pious self-consciousness, that which is intended is a righteousness of life which has its ground in the righteousness of faith.

    True, Hupfeld is of opinion, that under the Old Testament nothing was known either of righteousness which is by faith or of a righteousness belonging to another and imputed. But if this were true, then Paul was in gross error and Christianity is built upon the sand. But the truth, that faith is the ultimate ground of righteousness, is expressed in Gen 15:6, and at other turning-points in the course of the history of redemption; and the truth, that the righteousness which avails before God is a gift of grace is, for instance, a thought distinctly marked out in the expression of Jeremiah tsid|qeenuw h', "the Lord our righteousness."

    The Old Testament conception, it is true, looks more to the phenomena than to the root of the matter (ist mehr phnomenell als wurzelhaft), is (so to speak) more Jacobic than Pauline; but the righteousness of life of the Old Testament and that of the New have one and the same basis, viz., in the grace of God, the Redeemer, towards sinful man, who in himself is altogether wanting in righteousness before God (Ps 143:2). Thus there is no self-righteousness, in David's praying that the righteousness, which in him is persecuted and cries for help, may be heard. For, on the one hand, in his personal relation to Saul, he knows himself to be free from any ungrateful thoughts of usurpation, and on the other, in his personal relation to God free from mir|maah , i.e., self-delusion and hypocrisy. The shrill cry for help, rinaah , which he raises, is such as may be heard and answered, because they are not lips of deceit with which he prays. The actual fact is manifest yhwh lip|neey , therefore may his right go forth mil|paanaayw -just what does happen, by its being publicly proclaimed and openly maintained-from Him, for His eyes, the eyes of Him who knoweth the hearts (11:4), behold meeyshaariym (as in 58:2; 75:3 = b|myshrym, 9:9, and many other passages), in uprightness, i.e., in accordance with the facts of the case and without partiality. myshrym might also be an accusative of the object (cf. 1 Chron 29:17), but the usage of the language much more strongly favours the adverbial rendering, which is made still more natural by the confirmatory relation in which v. 2b stands to 2a.

    PSALMS 17:3-5

    Thou hast proved mine heart; thou hast visited me in the night; thou hast tried me, and shalt find nothing; I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress.

    David refers to the divine testing and illumination of the inward parts, which he has experienced in himself, in support of his sincerity. The preterites in v. 3 express the divine acts that preceded the result baltim| tsa', viz., the testing He has instituted, which is referred to in ts|rap|taaniy and also baachan|taa as a trying of gold by fire, and in paaqad as an investigation (Job 7:18). The result of the close scrutiny to which God has subjected him in the night, when the bottom of a man's heart is at once made manifest, whether it be in his thoughts when awake or in the dream and fancies of the sleeper, was and is this, that He does not find, viz., anything whatever to punish in him, anything that is separated as dross from the gold. To the mind of the New Testament believer with his deep, and as it were microscopically penetrating, insight into the depth of sin, such a confession concerning himself would be more difficult than to the mind of an Old Testament saint. For a separation and disunion of flesh and spirit, which was unknown in the same degree to the Old Testament, has been accomplished in the New Testament consciousness by the facts and operations of redemption revealed in the New Testament; although at the same time it must be remembered that in such confessions the Old Testament consciousness does not claim to be clear from sins, but only from a conscious love of sin, and from a self-love that is hostile to God.

    With zamowtiy David begins his confession of how Jahve found him to be, instead of finding anything punishable in him. This word is either an infinitive like chanowt (Ps 77:10) with the regular ultima accentuation, formed after the manner of the l''h verbs-in accordance with which Hitzig renders it: my thinking does not overstep my mouth-or even 1 pers. praet., which is properly Milel, but does also occur as Milra, e.g., Deut 32:41; Isa 44:16 (vid., on Job 19:17)-according to which Bttcher translates: should I think anything evil, it dare not pass beyond my mouth-or (since zaamam may denote the determination that precedes the act, e.g., Jer 4:28; Lam 2:17): I have determined my mouth shall not transgress. This last rendering is opposed by the fact, that `aabar by itself in the ethical signification "to transgress" (cf. post-biblical `abeeraah para'basis ) is not the usage of the biblical Hebrew, and that when ya`abaar-piy stand close together, py is presumptively the object.

    We therefore give the preference to Bttcher's explanation, which renders zmwty as a hypothetical perfect and is favoured by Prov 30:32 (which is to be translated: and if thou thinkest evil, (lay) thy hand on thy mouth!).

    Nevertheless y`br-py bl is not the expression of a fact, but of a purpose, as the combination of bl with the future requires it to be taken. The psalmist is able to testify of himself that he so keeps evil thoughts in subjection within him, even when they may arise, that they do not pass beyond his mouth, much less that he should put them into action. But perhaps the psalmist wrote piykaa originally, "my reflecting does not go beyond Thy commandment" (according to Num 22:18; 1 Sam 15:24; Prov 8:29)-a meaning better suited, as a result of the search, to the nightly investigation. The l of lip|`ulowt need not be the l of reference (as to); it is that of the state or condition, as in Ps 32:6; 69:22. 'aadaam , as perhaps also in Job 31:33; Hos 6:7 (if 'dm is not there the name of the first man), means, men as they are by nature and habit. s|paateykaa bid|bar does not admit of being connected with lip|`ulowt : at the doings of the world contrary to Thy revealed will (Hofmann and others); for b| paa`al cannot mean: to act contrary to any one, but only: to work upon any one, Job 35:6.

    These words must therefore be regarded as a closer definition, placed first, of the shaamar|tiy which follows: in connection with the doings of men, by virtue of the divine commandment, he has taken care of the paths of the oppressor, viz., not to go in them; 1 Sam 25:21 is an instance in support of this rendering, where shmrty , as in Job 2:6, means: I have kept (Nabal's possession), not seizing upon it myself. Jerome correctly translates vias latronis; for paariyts signifies one who breaks in, i.e., one who does damage intentionally and by violence. The confession concerning himself is still continued in v. 5, for the inf. absol. taamok| , if taken as imperative would express a prayer for constancy, that is alien to the circumstances described. The perfect after bal is also against such a rendering. It must therefore be taken as inf. historicus, and explained according to Job 23:11, cf. Ps 41:13. The noun following the inf. absol., which is usually the object, is the subject in this instance, as, e.g., in Job 40:2; Prov 17:12; Eccl 4:2, and frequently. It is 'ashuwray , and not 'ashuwray , 'shwr (a step) never having the sh dageshed, except in v. 11 and Job 31:7.

    PSALMS 17:6-7

    I have called upon thee, for thou wilt hear me, O God: incline thine ear unto me, and hear my speech.

    It is only now, after his inward parts and his walk have been laid open to Jahve, that he resumes his petition, which is so well justified and so soundly based, and enters into detail. The 'ny (Note: The word is pointed |'aniy , in correct texts, as 'ny always is when it has Munach and Dech follows, e.g., also Ps 116:16.

    This Gaja demands an emphatic intonation of the secondary word in its relation to the principal word (which here is qr'tyk).) found beside q|raa'tiykaa (the perfect referring to that which has just now been put into execution) is meant to imply: such an one as he has described himself to be according to the testimony of his conscience, may call upon God, for God hears such and will therefore also hear him. 'aaz|n|kaa haT exactly corresponds to the Latin au-di (auscul- ta). The Hiph. hip|laah (hip|liy' , 31:22, cf. 4:4) signifies here to work in an extraordinary and marvellous manner.

    The danger of him who thus prays is great, but the mercies of God, who is ready and able to help, are still greater. Oh that He may, then, exhibit all its fulness on his behalf. The form of the address resembles the Greek, which is so fond of participles. If it is translated as Luther translates it: "Show Thy marvellous lovingkindness, Thou Saviour of those who trust in Thee, Against those who so set themselves against Thy right hand," then chowciym is used just as absolutely as in Prov 14:32, and the right hand of God is conceived of as that which arranges and makes firm.

    But "to rebel against God's right (not statuta, but desteram)" is a strange expression. There are still two other constructions from which to choose, viz., "Thou Deliverer of those seeking protection from adversaries, with Thy right hand" (Hitz.), or: "Thou Helper of those seeking protection from adversaries, at Thy right hand" (Aben-Ezra, Tremell.). This last rendering is to be preferred to the two others.

    Since, on the one hand, one says mn mchch , refuge from..., and on the other, b| chaacaah to hide one's self in any one, or in any place, this determining of the verbal notion by the preposition (on this, see above on Ps 2:12) must be possible in both directions. mimit|qowmamiym is equivalent to mmtqwmmeeyhem Job 27:7; and bymynk chwcym, those seeking protection at the strong hand of Jahve. The force of the b is just the same as in connection with hic|tateer , 1 Sam 23:19. In Damascus and throughout Syria-Wetzstein observes on this passage-the weak make use of these words when they surrender themselves to the strong: Arab. an b-qabdt ydk, "I am in the grasp of thy hand (in thy closed hand) i.e., I give myself up entirely to thee." (Note: Cognate in meaning to b chch are Arab. 'sttr b and tadarr b, e.g., Arab. tdrr b-'l-h't mn 'l-rh he shelters (hides) himself by the wall from the wind, or Arab. bl'dt mn 'l-brd, by a fire against the cold, and Arab. 'd, which is often applied in like manner to God's protection. Thus, e.g., (according to Bochri's Sunna) a woman, whom Muhammed wanted to seize, cried out: Arab. a'du b-'llh mnk, I place myself under God's protection against thee, and he replied:

    Arab. 'udti bi-ma'din, thou hast taken refuge in an (inaccessible) asylum (cf. Job, i. 310 n. and ii. 22 n. 2).)

    PSALMS 17:8-9

    Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me under the shadow of thy wings, The covenant relationship towards Himself in which Jahve has placed David, and the relationship of love in which David stands to Jahve, fully justified the oppressed one in his extreme request. The apple of the eye, which is surrounded by the iris, is called 'iyshown , the man (Arabic insn), or in the diminutive and endearing sense of the termination on: the little man of the eye, because a picture in miniature of one's self is seen, as in a glass, when looking into another person's eye. bat-`ayin either because it is as if born out of the eye and the eye has, as it were, concentrated itself in it, or rather because the little image which is mirrored in it is, as it were, the little daughter of the eye (here and Lam 2:18). To the Latin pupilla (pupula), Greek ko'ree, corresponds most closely `ayin baabat, Zech 2:12, which does not signify the gate, aperture, sight, but, as bat shows, the little boy, or more strictly, the little girl of the eye.

    It is singular that 'iyshown here has the feminine bat-aa`yin as the expression in apposition to it. The construction might be genitival: "as the little man of the apple of the eye," inasmuch as the saint knows himself to be so near to God, that, as it were, his image in miniature is mirrored in the great eye of God. But (1) the more ozdinary name for the pupil of the eye is not `ayin bat , but 'iyshown ; and (2) with that construction the proper point of the comparison, that the apple of the eye is an object of the most careful self-preservation, is missed. There is, consequently, a combination of two names of the pupil or apple of the eye, the usual one and one more select, without reference to the gender of the former, in order to give greater definition and emphasis to the figure.

    The primary passage for this bold figure, which is the utterance of loving entreaty, is Deut 32:10, where the dazzling anthropomorphism is effaced by the LXX and other ancient versions; (Note: Vid., Geiger, Urschrift und Ueberstezungen der Bibel, S. 324.) cf. also Sir. 17:22. Then follows another figure, taken from the eagle, which hides its young under its wings, likewise from Deut 32, viz., v. 11, for the figure of the hen (Matt 23:37) is alien to the Old Testament. In that passage, Moses, in his great song, speaks of the wings of God; but the double figure of the shadow of God's wings (here and in Ps 36:8; 57:2; 63:8) is coined by David. "God's wings" are the spreadings out, i.e., the manifestations of His love, taking the creature under the protection of its intimate fellowship, and the "shadow" of these wings is the refreshing rest and security which the fellowship of this love affords to those, who hide themselves beneath it, from the heat of outward or inward conflict.

    From v. 9 we learn more definitely the position in which the psalmist is placed. shaadad signifies to use violence, to destroy the life, continuance, or possession of any one. According to the accentuation b|nepesh is to be connected with 'oy|bay , not with yaqiypuw , and to be understood according to Ez. 25:6: "enemies with the soul" are those whose enmity is not merely superficial, but most deep-seated (cf. ek psuchee's , Eph 6:6; Col 3:23). The soul (viz., the hating and eagerly longing soul, Ps 27:12; 41:3) is just the same as if bnpsh is combined with the verb, viz., the soul of the enemies; and npshy 'ybeey would therefore not be more correct, as Hitzig thinks, than bnpsh 'ybay , but would have a different meaning. They are eager to destroy him (perf. conatus), and form a circle round about him, as ravenous ones, in order to swallow him up.

    PSALMS 17:10-12

    They are inclosed in their own fat: with their mouth they speak proudly.

    Vv. 10-12 tell what sort of people these persecutors are. Their heart is called fat, adeps, not as though cheeleb could in itself be equivalent to leeb , more especially as both words are radically distinct (cheeleb from the root lb , lip; leeb from the root lb , lp to envelope: that which is enveloped, the kernel, the inside), but (without any need for von Ortenberg's conjecture caagaaruw libaamow cheeleb "they close their heart with fat") because it is, as it were, entirely fat (Ps 119:70, cf. 73:7), and because it is inaccessible to any feeling of compassion, and in general incapable of the nobler emotions. To shut up the fat = the heart (cf. klei'ein ta' spla'gchna 1 John 3:17), is equivalent to: to fortify one's self wilfully in indifference to sympathy, tender feeling, and all noble feelings (cf. leeb hish|miyn = to harden, Isa 6:10).

    The construction of piymow (which agrees in sound with piymaah , Job 15:27) is just the same as that of qowliy , 3:5. On the other hand, 'ashuwreenuw (after the form `amuwd and written plene) is neither such an accusative of the means or instrument, nor the second accusative, beside the accusative of the object, of that by which the object is surrounded, that is usually found with verbs of surrounding (e.g., 5:13; 32:7); for "they have surrounded me (us) with our step" is unintelligible. But 'shwrnw can be the accusative of the member, as in Ps 3:8, cf. 22:17, Gen 3:15, for "it is true the step is not a member" (Hitz.), but since "step" and "foot" are interchangeable notions, Ps 73:2, the schee'ma kath' ho'lon kai' me'ros is applicable to the former, and as, e.g., Homer says, Iliad vii. 355: se' ma'lista po'nos fre'nas amfibe'beeken, the Hebrew poet can also say: they have encompassed us (and in fact) our steps, each of our steps (so that we cannot go forwards or backwards with our feet).

    The Ker c|baabuwnuw gets rid of the change in number which we have with the Chethb cbbwny; the latter, however, is admissible according to parallels like Ps 62:5, and corresponds to David's position, who is hunted by Saul and at the present time driven into a strait at the head of a small company of faithful followers. Their eyes-he goes on to say in v. 11b-have they set to fell, viz., us, who are encompassed, to the earth, i.e., so that we shall be cast to the ground. naaTaah is transitive, as in 18:10; 62:4, in the transitively applied sense of 73:2 (cf. 37:31): to incline to fall (whereas in 44:19, Job 31:7, it means to turn away from); and baa'aarets (without any need fore the conjecture baa'orach) expresses the final issue, instead of laa'aarets , 7:6. By the expression dim|yonow one is prominently singled out from the host of the enemy, viz., its chief, the words being: his likeness is as a lion, according to the peculiarity of the poetical style, of changing verbal into substantival clauses, instead of k|'ar|yeeh daamaah .

    Since in Old Testament Hebrew, as also in Syriac and Arabic, k| is only a preposition, not a connective conjunction, it cannot be rendered: as a lion longs to prey, but: as a lion that is greedy or hungry (cf. Arab. ksf, used of sinking away, decline, obscuring or eclipsing, growing pale, and Arab. chsf, more especially of enfeebling, hunger, distinct from chaasap = Arab. k_f, to peel off, make bare) to ravin. In the parallel member of the verse the participle alternates with the attributive clause. k|piyr is (according to Meier) the young lion as being covered with thicker hair.

    PSALMS 17:13-14

    Arise, O LORD, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the wicked, which is thy sword:

    The phrase p|neey qideem, antevertere faciem alicujus, means both to appear before any one with reverence, Ps 95:2 (post-biblical: to pay one's respects to any one) and to meet any one as an enemy, rush on him. The foe springs like a lion upon David, may Jahve-so he prays-as his defence cross the path of the lion and intercept him, and cast him down so that he, being rendered harmless, shall lie there with bowed knees (kaara` , of the lion, Gen 49:9; Num 24:9). He is to rescue his soul from the ungodly char|bekaa . This chrbk| , and also the yaad|kaa which follows, can be regarded as a permutative of the subject (Bttcher, Hupfeld, and Hitzig), an explanation which is commended by Ps 44:3 and other passages. But it is much more probable that more exact definitions of this kind are treated as accusatives, vid., on 3:5. At any rate "sword" and "hand" are meant as the instruments by which the paleeT , rescuing, is effected.

    The force of pal|Taah extends into v. 14, and mimatiym (with a Chateph under the letter that is freed from reduplication, like mimakwn, Ps 33:14) corresponds to meeraashaa` , as yaad|kaa to char|bekaa . The word mmtym (plural of mat , men, Deut 2:34, whence m|tom , each and every one), which of itself gives no complete sense, is repeated and made complete after the interruption cause by the insertion of h' yaad|kaa -a remarkable manner of obstructing and then resuming the thought, which Hofmann (Schriftbeweis ii. 2. 495) seeks to get over by a change in the division of the verse and in the interpunction. cheled , either from chaalad Syriac to creep, glide, slip away (whence chul|daah a weasel, a mole) or from chaalad Talmudic to cover, hide, signifies: this temporal life which glides by unnoticed (distinct from the Arabic chald, chuld, an abiding stay, endless duration); and consequently chedel, limited existence, from chaadal to have an end, alternates with cheled as a play upon the letters, comp. Ps 49:2 with Isa 38:11.

    The combination mchld mtym resembles Ps 10:18; 16:4. What is meant, is: men who have no other home but the world, which passeth away with the lust thereof, men ek tou' ko'smou tou'tou , or uhioi' tou' aioo'nos tou'tou. The meaning of the further description bachayiym chel|qaam (cf. Eccl 9:9) becomes clear from the converse in 16:5. Jahve is the cheeleq of the godly man; and the sphere within which the worldling claims his chlq is hachayiym , this temporal, visible, and material life. This is everything to him; whereas the godly man says: meechayiym chac|d|kaa Towb , Ps 63:4. The contrast is not so much between this life and the life to come, as between the world (life) and God. Here we see into the inmost nature of the Old Testament faith. To the Old Testament believer, all the blessedness and glory of the future life, which the New Testament unfolds, is shut up in Jahve. Jahve is his highest good, and possessing Him he is raised above heaven and earth, above life and death.

    To yield implicitly to Him, without any explicit knowledge of a blessed future life, to be satisfied with Him, to rest in Him, to hide in Him in the face of death, is the characteristic of the Old Testament faith. bchyym chlqm expresses both the state of mind and the lot of the men of the world. Material things which are their highest good, fall also in abundance to their share. The words "whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure" (Chethb: uwts|piyn|kaa the usual participial form, but as a participle an Aramaising form) do not sound as though the poet meant to say that God leads them to repentance by the riches of His goodness, but on the contrary that God, by satisfying their desires which are confined to the outward and sensuous only, absolutely deprives them of all claim to possessions that extend beyond the world and this present temporal life.

    Thus, then, tsaapuwn in this passage is used exactly as ts|puwniym is used in Job 20:26 (from tsaapan to hold anything close to one, to hold back, to keep by one).

    Moreover, there is not the slightest alloy of murmur or envy in the words.

    The godly man who lacks these good things out of the treasury of God, has higher delights; he can exclaim, Ps 31:20: "how great is Thy goodness which Thou hast laid up (tsaapan|taa ) for those who fear Thee!"

    Among the good things with which God fills the belly and house of the ungodly (Job 22:17f.) are also children in abundance; these are elsewhere a blessing upon piety (Ps 127:3f., 128:3f.), but to those who do not acknowledge the Giver they are a snare to self-glorifying, Job 21:11 (cf. Wisdom 4:1). baaniym is not the subject, but an accusative, and has been so understood by all the old translators from the original text, just as in the phrase yaamiym shaaba` to be satisfied with, or weary of, life. On `owlaliym vid., on Ps 8:3. yeter (from yaatar to stretch out in length, then to be overhanging, towering above, projecting, superfluous, redundant) signifies here, as in Job 22:20, riches and the abundance of things possessed.

    PSALMS 17:15

    As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness.

    With 'aniy he contrasts his incomparably greater prosperity with that of his enemies. He, the despised and persecuted of men, will behold God's face b|tsedeq , in righteousness, which will then find its reward (Matt 5:8, Hebr. 12:14), and will, when this hope is realised by him, thoroughly refresh himself with the form of God. It is not sufficient to explain the vision of the divine countenance here as meaning the experience of the gracious influences which proceed from the divine countenance again unveiled and turned towards him. The parallel of the next clause requires an actual vision, as in Num 12:8, according to which Jahve appeared to Moses in the true form of His being, without the intervention of any self-manifestation of an accommodative and visionary kind; but at the same time, as in Ex 33:20, where the vision of the divine countenance is denied to Moses, according to which, consequently, the self-manifestation of Jahve in His intercourse with Moses is not to be thought of without some veiling of Himself which might render the vision tolerable to him.

    Here, however, where David gives expression to a hope which is the final goal and the very climax of all his hopes, one has no right in any way to limit the vision of God, who in love permits him to behold Him (vid., on Ps 11:7), and to limit the being satisfied with His t|muwnaah (LXX tee'n do'xan sou , vid., Psychol. S. 49; transl. p. 61). If this is correct, then b|haaqiyts cannot mean "when I wake up from this night's sleep" as Ewald, Hupfeld and others explain it; for supposing the Psalm were composed just before falling asleep what would be the meaning of the postponement of so transcendent a hope to the end of his natural sleep? Nor can the meaning be to "awake to a new life of blessedness and peace through the sunlight of divine favour which again arises after the night of darkness and distress in which the poet is now to be found" (Kurtz); for to awake from a night of affliction is an unsuitable idea and for this very reason cannot be supported.

    The only remaining explanation, therefore, is the waking up from the sleep of death (cf. Bttcher, De inferis 365-367). The fact that all who are now in their graves shall one day hear the voice of Him that wakes the dead, as it is taught in the age after the Exile (Dan 12:2), was surely not known to David, for it was not yet revealed to him. But why may not this truth of revelation, towards which prophecy advances with such giant strides (Isa 26:19. Ezek 37:1-14), be already heard even in the Psalms of David as a bold demand of faith and as a hope that has struggled forth to freedom out of the comfortless conception of Shel possessed in that age, just as it is heard a few decades later in the master-work of a contemporary of Solomon, the Book of Job? The morning in Ps 49:15 is also not any morning whatever following upon the night, but that final morning which brings deliverance to the upright and inaugurates their dominion.

    A sure knowledge of the fact of the resurrection such as, according to Hofmann (Schriftbeweis ii. 2, 490), has existed in the Old Testament from the beginning, is not expressed in such passages. For laments like Ps 6:6; 30:10; 88:11-13, show that no such certain knowledge as then in existence; and when the Old Testament literature which we now possess allows us elsewhere an insight into the history of the perception of redemption, it does not warrant us in concluding anything more than that the perception of the future resurrection of the dead did not pass from the prophetic word into the believing mind of Israel until about the time of the Exile, and that up to that period faith made bold to hope for a redemption from death, but only by means of an inference drawn from that which was conceived and existed within itself, without having an express word of promise in its favour. (Note: To this Hofmann, loc. cit. S. 496, replies as follows: "We do not find that faith indulges in such boldness elsewhere, or that the believing ones cherish hopes which are based on such insecure grounds." But the word of God is surely no insecure ground, and to draw bold conclusions from that which is intimated only from afar, was indeed, even in many other respects (for instance, respecting the incarnation, and respecting the abrogation of the ceremonial law), the province of the Old Testament faith.)

    Thus it is here also. David certainly gives full expression to the hope of a vision of God, which, as righteous before God, will be vouchsafed to him; and vouchsafed to him, even though he should fall asleep in death in the present extremity (Ps 13:4), as one again awakened from the sleep of death, and, therefore (although this idea does not directly coincide with the former), as one raised from the dead. But this hope is not a believing appropriation of a "certain knowledge," but a view that, by reason of the already existing revelation of God, lights up out of his consciousness of fellowship with Him.

    PSALM David's Hymnic Retrospect of a Life Crowned with Many Mercies Next to a t|pilaah of David comes a shiyraah (nom. unitatis from shiyr ), which is in many ways both in words and thoughts (Symbolae p. 49) interwoven with the former. It is the longest of all the hymnic Psalms, and bears the inscription: To the Precentor, by the servant of Jahve, by David, who spake unto Jahve the words of this song in the day that Jahve had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies and out of the hand of Sal: then he said. The original inscription of the Psalm in the primary collection was probably only ldwd h' l`bd lmntsch, like the inscription of Ps 36. The rest of the inscription resembles the language with which songs of this class are wont to be introduced in their connection in the historical narrative, Ex 15:1; Num 21:17, and more especially Deut 31:30. And the Psalm before us is found again in 2 Sam 22, introduced by words, the manifestly unaccidental agreement of which with the inscription in the Psalter, is explained by its having been incorporated in one of the histories from which the Books of Samuel are extracted-probably the Annals (Dibre ha-Jamim) of David. From this source the writer of the Books of Samuel has taken the Psalm, together with that introduction; and from this source also springs the historical portion of the inscription in the Psalter, which is connected with the preceding by 'asher .

    David may have styled himself in the inscription h' `ebed , just as the apostles call themselves dou'loi Ieesou' Christou' . He also in other instances, in prayer, calls himself "the servant of Jahve," Ps 19:12,14; 144:10; 2 Sam 7:20, as every Israelite might do; but David, who is the first after Moses and Joshua to bear this designation or by-name, could to so in an especial sense. For he, with whom the kingship of promise began, marks an epoch in his service of the work of God no less than did Moses, through whose mediation Israel received the Law, and Joshua, through whose instrumentality they obtained the Land of promise.

    The terminology of psalm-poesy does not include the word shiyraah , but only shiyr . This at once shows that the historical portion of the inscription comes from some other source. b|yowm is followed, not by the infin. hatsiyl : on the day of deliverance, but by the more exactly plusquamperf. hitsiyl : on the day (b|yowm = at the time, as in Gen 2:4, and frequently) when he had delivereda genitival (Ges. 116, 3) relative clause, like Ps 138:3; Ex 6:28; Num 3:1, cf. Ps 56:10. miyad alternates with mikap in this text without any other design than that of varying the expression. The deliverance out of the hand of Saul is made specially prominent, because the most prominent portion of the Psalm, vv. 5-20, treats of it. The danger in which David the was placed, was of the most personal, the most perilous, and the most protracted kind. This prominence was of great service to the collector, because the preceding Psalm bears the features of this time, the lamentations over which are heard there and further back, and now all find expression in this more extended song of praise.

    Only a fondness for doubt can lead any one to doubt the Davidic origin of this Psalm, attested as it is in two works, which are independent of one another. The twofold testimony of tradition is supported by the fact that the Psalm contains nothing that militates against David being the author; even the mention of his own name at the close, is not against it (cf. 1 Kings 2:45). We have before us an Israelitish counterpart to the cuneiform monumental inscriptions, in which the kings of worldly monarchies recapitulate the deeds they have done by the help of their gods. The speaker is a king; the author of the Books of Samuel found the song already in existence as a Davidic song; the difference of his text from that which lies before us in the Psalter, shows that at that time it had been transmitted from some earlier period; writers of the later time of the kings here and there use language which is borrowed from it or are echoes of it (comp. Prov 30:5 with v. 31; Hab 3:19 with v. 34); it bears throughout the mark of the classic age of the language and poetry, and "if it be not David's, it must have been written in his name and by some one imbued with his spirit, and who could have been this contemporary poet and twin-genius?" (Hitzig). All this irresistibly points us to David himself, to whom really belong also all the other songs in the Second Book of Samuel, which are introduced as Davidic (over Saul and Jonathan, over Abner, etc.). This, the greatest of all, springs entirely from the new selfconsciousness to which he was raised by the promises recorded in 2 Sam 7; and towards the end, it closes with express retrospective reference to these promises; for David's certainty of the everlasting duration of his house, and God's covenant of mercy with his house, rests upon the announcement made by Nathan.

    The Psalm divides into two halves; for the strain of praise begins anew with v. 32, after having run its first course and come to a beautiful close in v. 31. The two halves are also distinct in respect of their artificial form.

    The strophe schema of the first is: 6. 8. 8. 6. 8 (not 9). 8. 8. 8. 7. The mixture of six and eight line strophes is symmetrical, and the seven of the last strophe is nothing strange. The mixture in the second half on the contrary is varied. The art of the strophe system appears here, as is also seen in other instances in the Psalms, to be relaxed; and the striving after form at the commencement has given way to the pressure and crowding of the thoughts.

    The traditional mode of writing out this Psalm, as also the Cantica, 2 Sam 22 and Judg 5, is "a half-brick upon a brick, and a brick upon a half-brick" ('rych gby `l wlbnh lbnh gby `l 'yrch): i.e., one line consisting of two, and one of three parts of a verse, and the line consisting of the three parts has only one word on the right and on the left; the whole consequently forms three columns. On the other hand, the song in Deut 32 (as also Josh 12:9ff., Est 9:7-10) is to be written "a half-brick upon a half-brick and a brick upon a brick," i.e., in only two columns, cf. infra p. 168.

    PSALMS 18:1-3

    (18:2-4) The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower.

    The poet opens with a number of endearing names for God, in which he gratefully comprehends the results of long and varied experience. So far as regards the parallelism of the members, a monostich forms the beginning of this Psalm, as in Ps 16; 23; 25 and many others. Nevertheless the matter assumes a somewhat different aspect, if v. 3 is not, with Maurer, Hengstenberg and Hupfeld, taken as two predicate clauses (Jahve is..., my God is...), but as a simple vocative-a rendering which alone corresponds to the intensity with which this greatest of the Davidic hymns opens-God being invoked by h', h', 'eeliy , and each of these names being followed by a predicative expansion of itself, which increases in fulness of tone and emphasis. The 'er|aachm|kaa (with aa, according to Ew. 251, b), which carries the three series of the names of God, makes up in depth of meaning what is wanting in compass.

    Elsewhere we find only the Piel richam of tender sympathising love, but here the Kal is used as an Aramaism. Hence the Jalkut on this passages explains it by ytk rchm'y "I love thee," or ardent, heartfelt love and attachment. The primary signification of softness (root rch, Arab. rh, rch, to be soft, lax, loose), whence rechem , uterus, is transferred in both cases to tenderness of feeling or sentiment. The most general predicate chiz|piy (from chozeq according to a similar inflexion to 'omer , bocer , `omeq , plur. `im|qeey Prov 9:18) is followed by those which describe Jahve as a protector and deliverer in persecution on the one hand, and on the other as a defender and the giver of victory in battle. They are all typical names symbolising what Jahve is in Himself; hence instead of uwm|pal|Tiy it would perhaps have been more correct to point uwmip|laaTiy (and my refuge). God had already called Himself a shield to Abram, Gen 15:1; and He is called tsuwr (cf. 'eben Gen 49:24) in the great Mosaic song, Deut 32:4,37 (the latter verse is distinctly echoed here). cela` from caala` , Arab. sl', findere, means properly a cleft in a rock (Arabic cal|` (Note: Neshwn defines thus: Arab. 'l-sal' is a cutting in a mountain after the manner of a gorge; and Jkt, who cites a number of places that are so called: a wide plain (Arab. fd') enclosed by steep rocks, which is reached through a narrow pass (Arab. _a'b), but can only be descended on foot. Accordingly, in cal|`iy the idea of a safe (and comfortable) hiding-place preponderates; in tsuwriy that of firm ground and inaccessibility. The one figure calls to mind the (well-watered) Edomitish cela` surrounded with precipitous rocks, Isa 16:1; 42:11, the Pe'tra described by Strabo, xvi. 4, 21; the other calls to mind the Phoenician rocky island tsowr , Tsr (Tyre), the refuge in the sea.)), then a cleft rock, and tsuwr , like the Arabic sachr, a great and hard mass of rock (Aramaic Tuwr , a mountain). The figures of the m|tsuwdaah (m|tsowdaah , m|tsad ) and the mis|gaab are related; the former signifies properly specula, a watch-tower, (Note: In Arabic matsdun signifies (1) a high hill (a signification that is wanting in Freytag), (2) the summit of a mountain, and according to the original lexicons it belongs to the root Arab. matsada, which in outward appearance is supported by the synonymous forms Arab. matsadun and matsdun, as also by their plurals Arab. amtsidatun and mutsdnun, wince these can only be properly formed from those singulars on the assumption of the m being part of the root.

    Nevertheless, since the meanings of Arab. matsada all distinctly point to its being formed from the root Arab. mts contained in the reduplicated stem Arab. matstsa, to suck, but the meanings of Arab. matsdun, matsadun, and matsdun do not admit of their being referred to it, and moreover there are instances in which original nn. loci from vv. med. Arab. w and y admit of the prefixed m being treated as the first radical through forgetfulness or disregard of their derivation, and with the retention of its from secondary roots (as Arab. makana, madana, matstsara), it is highly probable that in matsd, matsad and matsd we have an original m|tsaad, m|tsowdaah , m|tsuwdaah .

    These Hebrew words, however, are to be referred to a tsuwd in the signification to look out, therefore properly specula.-Fleischer.) and the latter, a steep height. The horn, which is an ancient figure of victorious and defiant power in Deut 33:17; 1 Sam 2:1, is found here applied to Jahve Himself: "horn of my salvation" is that which interposes on the side of my feebleness, conquers, and saves me. All these epithets applied to God are the fruits of the affliction out of which David's song has sprung, viz., his persecution by Saul, when, in a country abounding in rugged rocks and deficient in forest, he betook himself to the rocks for safety, and the mountains served him as his fortresses. In the shelter which the mountains, by their natural conformations, afforded him at that time, and in the fortunate accidents, which sometimes brought him deliverance when in extreme peril, David recognises only marvellous phenomena of which Jahve Himself was to him the final cause.

    The confession of the God tried and known in many ways is continued in v. 5 by a general expression of his experience. m|hulaal is a predicate accusative to yhwh : As one praised (worthy to be praised) do I call upon Jahve-a rendering that is better suited to the following clause, which expresses confidence in the answer coinciding with the invocation, which is to be thought of as a cry for help, than Olshausen's, "Worthy of praise, do I cry, is Jahve," though this latter certainly is possible so far as the style is concerned (vid., on Isa 45:24, cf. also Gen 3:3; Mic 2:6). The proof of this fact, viz., that calling upon Him who is worthy to be praised, who, as the history of Israel shows, is able and willing to help, is immediately followed by actual help, as events that are coincident, forms the further matter of the Psalm.

    PSALMS 18:4-6

    (18:5-7) In these verses David gathers into one collective figure all the fearful dangers to which he had been exposed during his persecution by Saul, together with the marvellous answers and deliverances he experienced, that which is unseen, which stands in the relation to that which is visible of cause and effect, rendering itself visible to him. David here appears as passive throughout; the hand from out of the clouds seizes him and draws him out of mighty waters: while in the second part of the Psalm, in fellowship with God and under His blessing, he comes forward as a free actor.

    The description begins in vv. 5-7 with the danger and the cry for help which is not in vain. The verb 'aapap according to a tradition not to be doubted (cf. 'owpaan a wheel) signifies to go round, surround, as a poetical synonym of caabab , hiqiyp , kiteer, and not, as one might after the Arabic have thought: to drive, urge. Instead of "the bands of death," the LXX (cf. Acts 2:24) renders it oodi'nes (constrictive pains) thana'tou ; but v. 6b favours the meaning bands, cords, cf. Ps 119:61 (where it is likewise cheb|ly instead of the chab|ly, which one might have expected, Josh 17:5; Job 36:8), death is therefore represented as a hunter with a cord and net, 91:3. b|liya`al , compounded of b|liy and ya`al (from yaa`al , waa`al, root `l ), signifies unprofitableness, worthlessness, and in fact both deep-rooted moral corruption and also abysmal destruction (cf. 2 Cor 6:15, Beli'ar = Beli'al as a name of Satan and his kingdom).

    Rivers of destruction are those, whose engulfing floods lead down to the abyss of destruction (Jonah 2:7). Death, Beljal, and Shel are the names of the weird powers, which make use of David's persecutors as their instruments. Futt. in the sense of imperfects alternate with praett. bi`eet (= Arab. bgt) signifies to come suddenly upon any one (but compare also Arab. b't, to startle, excitare, to alarm), and qideem, to rush upon; the two words are distinguished from one another like berfallen and anfallen. The heeykaal out of which Jahve hears is His heavenly dwelling-place, which is both palace and temple, inasmuch as He sits enthroned there, being worshipped by blessed spirits. l|paanaayw belongs to w|shaw|`aatiy : my cry which is poured forth before Him (as e.g., in Ps 102:1), for it is tautological if joined with taabo' beside b|'aaz|naayw . Before Jahve's face he made supplication and his prayer urged its way into His ears.

    PSALMS 18:7-9

    (18:8-10) There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured: coals were kindled by it.

    As these verses go on to describe, the being heard became manifest in the form of deliverance. All nature stands to man in a sympathetic relationship, sharing his curse and blessing, his destruction and glory, and to God is a (so to speak) synergetic relationship, furnishing the harbingers and instruments of His mighty deeds. Accordingly in this instance Jahve's interposition on behalf of David is accompanied by terrible manifestations in nature. Like the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, Ps 68; 77, and the giving of the Law on Sinai, Ex 19, and like the final appearing of Jahve and of Jesus Christ according to the words of prophet and apostle (Hab; Thess 1:7f.), the appearing of Jahve for the help of David has also extraordinary natural phenomena in its train. It is true we find no express record of any incident in David's life of the kind recorded in 1 Sam 7:10, but it must be come real experience which David here idealises (i.e., seizes at its very roots, and generalises and works up into a grand majestic picture of his miraculous deliverance).

    Amidst earthquake, a black thunderstorm gathers, the charging of which is heralded by the lightning's flash, and its thick clouds descend nearer and nearer to the earth. The aorists in v. 8 introduce the event, for the introduction of which, from v. 4 onwards, the way has been prepared and towards which all is directed. The inward excitement of the Judge, who appears to His servant for his deliverance, sets the earth in violent oscillation. The foundations of the mountains (Isa 24:18) are that upon which they are supported beneath and within, as it were, the pillars which support the vast mass. g`sh (rhyming with r`sh) is followed by the Hithpa. of the same verb: the first impulse having been given they, viz., the earth and the pillars of the mountains, continue to shake of themselves.

    These convulsions occur, because "it is kindled with respect to God;" it is unnecessary to supply 'apow , low (OT:3807a ) chaaraah is a synonym of low (OT:3807a ) cham .

    When God is wrath, according to Old Testament conception, the power of wrath which is present in Him is kindled and blazes up and breaks forth.

    The panting of rage may accordingly also be called the smoke of the fire of wrath (Ps 74:1; 80:5). The smoking is as the breathing out of the fire, and the vehement hot breath which is inhaled and exhaled through the nose of one who is angry (cf. Job 41:12), is like smoke rising from the internal fire of anger. The fire of anger itself "devours out of the mouth," i.e., flames forth out of the mouth, consuming whatever it lays hold of-in men in the form of angry words, with God in the fiery forces of nature, which are of a like kind with, and subservient to, His anger, and more especially in the lightning's flash. It is the lightning chiefly, that is compared here to the blazing up of burning coals. The power of wrath in God, becoming manifest in action, breaks forth into a glow, and before it entirely discharges its fire, it gives warning of action like the lightning's flash heralding the outburst of the storm. Thus enraged and breathing forth His wrath, Jahve bowed the heavens, i.e., caused them to bend towards the earth, and came down, and darkness of clouds (`araapel similar in meaning to o'rfnee, cf. e'rebos) was under His feet: black, low-hanging clouds announced the coming of Him who in His wrath was already on His way downwards towards the earth.

    PSALMS 18:10-12

    (18:11-13) The storm, announcing the approaching outburst of the thunderstorm, was also the forerunner of the Avenger and Deliverer. If we compare v. 11 with Ps 104:3, it is natural to regard k|ruwb as a transposition of r|kuwb (a chariot, Ew. 153, a). But assuming a relationship between the biblical Cherub and (according to Ctesias) the Indo-Persian griffin, the word (from the Zend grab, garew, garefsh, to seize) signifies a creature seizing and holding irrecoverably fast whatever it seizes upon; perhaps in Semitic language the strong creature, from kaarab = Arab. krb, torquere, constringere, whence mukrab, tight, strong). It is a passive form like g|buwl , y|cud , l|buwsh . The cherubim are mentioned in Gen 3:24 as the guards of Paradise (this alone is enough to refute the interpretation recently revived in the Evang. Kirchen-Zeit., 1866, No. 46, that they are a symbol of the unity of the living One, krwb = k|rowb "like a multitude!"), and elsewhere, as it were, as the living mighty rampart and vehicle of the approach of the inaccessible majesty of God; and they are not merely in general the medium of God's personal presence in the world, but more especially of the present of God as turning the fiery side of His doxa towards the world.

    As in the Prometheus of Aeschylus, Oceanus comes flying to'n pterugookee' to'nd' oioono'n gnoo'mee stomi'oon a'ter euthu'noon, so in the present passage Jahve rides upon the cherub, of which the heathenish griffin is a distortion; or, if by a comparison of passages like Ps 104:3; Isa 66:15, we understand David according to Ezekiel, He rides upon the cherub as upon His living throne-chariot (mer|kaabaah ). The throne floats upon the cherubim, and this cherub-throne flies upon the wings of the wind; or, as we can also say: the cherub is the celestial spirit working in this vehicle formed of the spirit-like elements. The Manager of the chariot is Himself hidden behind the thick thunder-clouds. yaashet is an aorist without the consecutive w (cf. yak| Hos 6:1). choshek| is the accusative of the object to it; and the accusative of the predicate is doubled: His covering, His pavilion round about Him. In Job 36:29 also the thunder-clouds are called God's cukaah , and also in 97:2 they are c|biybaayw , concealing Him on all sides and announcing only His presence when He is wroth. In v. 12b the accusative of the object, choshek| , is expanded into "darkness of waters," i.e., swelling with waters (Note: Rab Dimi, B. Taanth 10a, for the elucidation of the passage quotes a Palestine proverb: mwhy cgyyn `nny chshwk mwhy z`yryn `nny nhwr i.e., if the clouds are transparent they will yield but little water, if they are dark they will yield a quantity.) and billows of thick vapour, thick, and therefore dark, masses (`aab in its primary meaning of denseness, or a thicket, Ex 19:9, cf. Jer 4:29) of sh|chaaqiym , which is here a poetical name for fleecy clouds. The dispersion and discharge, according to v. 13, proceeded from neg|dow nogah . Such is the expression for the doxa of God as being a mirroring forth of His nature, as it were, over against Him, as being therefore His brightness, or the reflection of His glory. The doxa is fire and light. On this occasion the forces of wrath issue from it, and therefore it is the fiery forces: heavy and destructive hail (cf. Ex 9:23f., Isa 30:30) and fiery glowing coals, i.e., flashing and kindling lightning. The object `aabaayw stands first, because the idea of clouds, behind which, according to v. 11, the doxa in concealed, is prominently connected with the doxa. It might be rendered: before His brightness His clouds turn into hail..., a rendering which would be more in accordance with the structure of the stichs, and is possible according to Ges. 138, rem. 2. Nevertheless, in connection with the combination of `br with clouds, the idea of breaking through (Lam 3:44) is very natural. If `byw is removed, then `brw signifies "thence came forth hail..." But the mention of the clouds as the medium, is both natural and appropriate.

    PSALMS 18:13-15

    (18:14-16) Amidst thunder, Jahve hurled lightnings as arrows upon David's enemies, and the breath of His anger laid bare the beds of the flood to the very centre of the earth, in order to rescue the sunken one. Thunder is the rumble of God, and as it were the hollow murmur of His mouth, Job 37:2. `el|yown , the Most High, is the name of God as the inapproachable Judge, who governs all things. The third line of v. 14 is erroneously repeated from the preceding strophe. It cannot be supported on grammatical grounds by Ex 9:23, since qowl naatan , edere vocem, has a different meaning from the qolot naatan , dare tonitrua, of that passage. The symmetry of the strophe structure is also against it; and it is wanting both in 2 Sam. and in the LXX. raab , which, as the opposite of m|`at Neh 2:12; Isa 10:7, means adverbially "in abundance," is the parallel to wayish|lach .

    It is generally taken, after the analogy of Gen 49:23, in the sense of baaraq , 144:6: raab in pause = rob (the oo passing over into the broader like `aaz instead of `oz in Gen 49:3) = raabob, cognate with raabaah , raamaah ; but the forms cab, cabuw, here, and in every other instance, have but a very questionable existence, as e.g., rab , Isa 54:13, is more probably an adjective than the third person praet. (cf. Bttcher, Neue Aehrenlese No. 635, 1066). The suffixes eem do not refer to the arrows, i.e., lightnings, but to David's foes. haamam means both to put in commotion and to destroy by confounding, Ex 14:24; 23:27. In addition to the thunder, the voice of Jahve, comes the stormwind, which is the snorting of the breath of His nostrils. This makes the channels of the waters visible and lays bare the foundations of the earth. 'aapiyq (collateral form to 'aapeeq ) is the bed of the river and then the river or brook itself, a continendo aquas (Ges.), and exactly like the Arabic mesk, mesk, mesek (from Arab. msk, the VI form of which, tamsaka, corresponds to hit|'apeeq), means a place that does not admit of the water soaking in, but on account of the firmness of the soil preserves it standing or flowing.

    What are here meant are the water-courses or river beds that hold the water. It is only needful for Jahve to threaten (epitiman Matt 8:26) and the floods, in which he, whose rescue is undertaken here, is sunk, flee (104:7) and dry up (106:9, Nah 1:4). But he is already half engulfed in the abyss of Hades, hence not merely the bed of the flood is opened up, but the earth is rent to its very centre. From the language being here so thoroughly allegorical, it is clear that we were quite correct in interpreting the description as ideal. He, who is nearly overpowered by his foes, is represented as one engulfed in deep waters and almost drowning.

    PSALMS 18:16-19

    (18:17-20) Then Jahve stretches out His hand from above into the deep chasm and draws up the sinking one. The verb shaalach occurs also in prose (2 Sam 6:6) without yaad (57:4, cf. on the other hand the borrowed passage, Ps 144:7) in the signification to reach (after anything). The verb maashaah , however, is only found in one other instance, viz., Ex 2:10, as the root (transferred from the Egyptian into the Hebrew) of the name of Moses, and even Luther saw in it an historical allusion, "He hath made a Moses of me," He hath drawn me out of great (many) waters, which had well nigh swallowed me up, as He did Moses out of the waters of the Nile, in which he would have perished. This figurative language is followed, in v. 18, by its interpretation, just as in Ps 144:7 the "great waters" are explained by neekaar b|neey miyad , which, however, is not suitable here, or at least is too limited.

    With v. 17 the hymn has reached the climax of epic description, from which it now descends in a tone that becomes more and more lyrical. In the combination `aaz 'oy|biy , `aaz is not an adverbial accusative, but an adjective, like Towbaah ruwchakaa Ps 143:10, and ho anee'r agatho's (Hebrerbrief S. 353). kiy introduces the reason for the interposition of the divine omnipotence, viz., the superior strength of the foe and the weakness of the oppressed one. On the day of his 'eeyd , i.e., (vid., on 31:12) his load or calamity, when he was altogether a homeless and almost defenceless fugitive, they came upon him (qideem 17:13), cutting off all possible means of delivering himself, but Jahve became the fugitive's staff (23:4) upon which he leaned and kept himself erect. By the hand of God, out of straits and difficulties he reached a broad place, out of the dungeon of oppression to freedom, for Jahve had delighted in him, he was His chosen and beloved one. chaapeets has the accent on the penult here, and Metheg as a sign of the lengthening (ha`amaadaah) beside the ee, that it may not be read e. (Note: In like manner Metheg is placed beside the ee of the final closed syllable that has lost the tone in chaapeets 22:9, wat|chowleel 90:2, vid., Isaiah S. 594 note.)

    The following strophe tells the reason of his pleasing God and of His not allowing him to perish. This biy (OT:871a ) chaapeets kiy (for He delighted in me) now becomes the primary thought of the song.

    PSALMS 18:20-23

    (18:21-24) On gaamal (like shileem with the accusative not merely of the thing, but also of the person, e.g., 1 Sam 24:18), eu or kakoo's pra'ttein tina', vid., on Ps 7:5. shaamar , to observe = to keep, is used in the same way in Job 22:15. min raasha` is a pregnant expression of the malitiosa desertio. "From God's side," i.e., in His judgment, would be contrary to the general usage of the language (for the min in Job 4:17 has a different meaning) and would be but a chilling addition. On the poetical form miniy , in pause meniy , vid., Ew. 263, b. The fut. in v. 23b, close after the substantival clause v. 23a, is not intended of the habit in the past, but at the present time: he has not wickedly forsaken God, but (kiy = imo, sed) always has God's commandments present before him as his rule of conduct, and has not put them far away out of his sight, in order to be able to sin with less compunction; and thus then (fut. consec.) in relation (`im , as in Deut 18:13, cf. 2 Sam 23:5) to God he was taamiym , with his whole soul undividedly devoted to Him, and he guarded himself against his iniquity (`aawon , from `aawaah , Arab. 'w, to twist, pervert, cf. Arab. gw, of error, delusion, self-enlightenment), i.e., not: against acquiescence in his in-dwelling sin, but: against iniquity becoming in any way his own; mee`awoniy equivalent to mee`awotiy (Dan 9:5), cf. meechayaay = than that I should live, Jonah 4:8. In this strophe, this Psalm strikes a cord that harmonises with Ps 17, after which it is therefore placed. We may compare David's own testimony concerning himself in 1 Sam 26:23f., the testimony of God in 1 Kings 14:8, and the testimony of history in 1 Kings 15:5; 11:4.

    PSALMS 18:24-27

    (18:25-28) What was said in v. 21 is again expressed here as a result of the foregoing, and substantiated in vv. 26, 27. chaaciyd is a friend of God and man, just as pius is used of behaviour to men as well as towards God. taamiym g|bar the man (construct of geber ) of moral and religious completeness (integri = integritatis, cf. Ps 15:2), i.e., of undivided devotion to God. naabaar (instead of which we find leebaab bar elsewhere, 24:4; 73:1) not one who is purified, but, in accordance with the reflexive primary meaning of Niph., one who is purifying himself, hagni'zoon heauto'n, 1 John 3:3. `iqeesh (the opposite of yaashaar ) one who is morally distorted, perverse.

    Freely formed Hithpaels are used with these attributive words to give expression to the corresponding self-manifestation: hit|chaceed, hitameem (Ges. 54, 2, b), hit|baareer, and hit|pateel (to show one's self nip|taal or p|tal|tol ).

    The fervent love of the godly man God requites with confiding love, the entire submission of the upright with a full measure of grace, the endeavour after purity by an unbeclouded charity (cf. Ps 73:1), moral perverseness by paradoxical judgments, giving the perverse over to his perverseness (Rom 1:28) and leading him by strange ways to final condemnation (Isa 29:14, cf. Lev 26:23f.). The truth, which is here enunciated, is not that the conception which man forms of God is the reflected image of his own mind and heart, but that God's conduct to man is the reflection of the relation in which man has placed himself to God; cf. 1 Sam 2:30; 15:23. This universal truth is illustrated and substantiated in v. 28. The people who are bowed down by affliction experience God's condescension, to their salvation; and their haughty oppressors, god's exaltation, to their humiliation. Lofty, proud eyes are among the seven things that Jahve hateth, according to Prov 6:17. The judgment of God compels them to humble themselves with shame, Isa 2:11.

    PSALMS 18:28-30

    (18:29-31) The confirmation of what has been asserted is continued by David's application of it to himself. Hitzig translates the futures in vv. 29f. as imperfects; but the sequence of the tenses, which would bring this rendering with it, is in this instance interrupted, as it has been even in v. 28, by kiy . The lamp, neer (contracted from nawer), is an image of life, which as it were burns on and on, including the idea of prosperity and high rank; in the form niyr (from niwr, nijr) it is the usual figurative word for the continuance of the house of David, 1 Kings 11:36, and frequently. David's life and dominion, as the covenant king, is the lamp which God's favour has lighted for the well-being of Israel, and His power will not allow this lamp (2 Sam 21:17) to be quenched. The darkness which breaks in upon David and his house is always lighted up again by Jahve. For His strength is mighty in the weak; in, with, and by Him he can do all things. The fut. 'aaruts may be all the more surely derived from raatsats (= 'aarots), inasmuch as this verb has the changeable u in the future also in Isa 42:4; Eccl 12:6. The text of 2 Sam 22, however, certainly seems to put "rushing upon" in the stead of "breaking down." With v. 31 the first half of the hymn closes epiphonematically. haa'eel is a nom. absol., like hatsuwr , Deut 32:4. This old Mosaic utterance is re-echoed here, as in 2 Sam 7:22, in the mouth of David. The article of haa'eel points to God as being manifest in past history. His way is faultless and blameless. His word is ts|ruwpaah , not slaggy ore, but purified solid gold, Ps 12:7. Whoever retreats into Him, the God of the promise, is shielded from every danger. Prov 30:5 is borrowed from this passage.

    PSALMS 18:31-34

    (18:32-35) The grateful description of the tokens of favour he has experienced takes a new flight, and is continued in the second half of the Psalm in a more varied and less artificial mixture of the strophes. What is said in v. 31 of the way and word of Jahve and of Jahve Himself, is confirmed in v. 32 by the fact that He alone is 'elowha , a divine being to be reverenced, and He alone is tsuwr , a rock, i.e., a ground of confidence that cannot be shaken. What is said in v. 31 consequently can be said only of Him. mibal|`adeey and zuwlaatiy alternate; the former (with a negative intensive min ) signifies "without reference to" and then absolutely "without" or besides, and the latter (with as a connecting vowel, which elsewhere has also the function of a suffix), from zuwlat (zuwlaah ), "exception."

    The verses immediately following are attached descriptively to 'eloheeynuw , our God (i.e., the God of Israel), the God, who girded me with strength; and accordingly (fut. consec.) made my way taamiym , "perfect," i.e., absolutely smooth, free from stumblings and errors, leading straight forward to a divine goal. The idea is no other than that in v. 31, cf. Job 22:3, except that the freedom from error here is intended to be understood in accordance with its reference to the way of a man, of a king, and of a warrior; cf. moreover, the other text. The verb shiuwaah signifies, like Arab. sww, to make equal (aequare), to arrange, to set right; the dependent passage Hab 3:19 has, instead of this verb, the more uncoloured shiym . The hind, 'ayaalaah or 'ayelet , is the perfection of swiftness (cf. e'lafos and elafro's ) and also of gracefulness among animals. "Like the hinds" is equivalent to like hinds' feet; the Hebrew style leaves it to the reader to infer the appropriate point of comparison from the figure.

    It is not swiftness in flight (De Wette), but in attack and pursuit that is meant-the latter being a prominent characteristic of warriors, according to 2 Sam 1:23; 2:18; 1 Chron 12:8. David does not call the high places of the enemy, which he has made his own by conquest "my high places," but those heights of the Holy Land which belong to him as king of Israel: upon these Jahve preserves him a firm position, so that from them he may rule the land far and wide, and hold them victoriously (cf. passages like Deut 32:13; Isa 58:14). The verb limeed, which has a double accusative in other instances, is here combined with l| of the subject taught, as the aim of the teaching. The verb nicheet (to press down = to bend a bow) precedes the subject "my arms" in the singular; this inequality is admissible even when the subject stands first (e.g., Gen 49:22; Joel 1:20; Zech 6:14). n|chuwshaah qeshet a bow of brazen = of brass, as in Job 20:24. It is also the manner of heroes in Homer and in the Ramjana to press down and bend with their hand a brazen bow, one end of which rests on the ground.

    PSALMS 18:35-36

    (18:36-37) Yet it is not the brazen bow in itself that makes him victorious, but the helpful strength of his God. "Shield of Thy salvation" is that consisting of Thy salvation. maageen has an unchangeable , as it has always.

    The salvation of Jahve covered him as a shield, from which every stroke of the foe rebounded; the right hand of Jahve supported him that his hands might not become feeble in the conflict. In its ultimate cause it is the divine `anaawaah , to which he must trace back his greatness, i.e., God's lowliness, by virtue of which His eyes look down upon that which is on the earth (Ps 113:6), and the poor and contrite ones are His favourite dwelling-place (Isa 57:15; 66:1f.); cf. B. Megilla 31a, "wherever Scripture testifies of the gbwrh of the Holy One, blessed be He, it gives prominence also, in connection with it, to His condescension, `an|w|taanuwtow, as in Deut 10:17 and in connection with it v. 18, Isa 57:15a and 15b, Ps 68:5 and 6."

    The rendering of Luther, who follows the LXX and Vulgate, "When Thou humblest me, Thou makest me great" is opposed by the fact that `anaawaah means the bending of one's self, and not of another.

    What is intended is, that condescension of God to mankind, and especially to the house of David, which was in operation, with an ultimate view to the incarnation, in the life of the son of Jesse from the time of his anointing to his death, viz., the divine chreesto'tees kai' filanthroopi'a (Titus 3:4), which elected the shepherd boy to be king, and did not cast him off even when he fell into sin and his infirmities became manifest.

    To enlarge his steps under any one is equivalent to securing him room for freedom of motion (cf. the opposite form of expression in Prov 4:12).

    Jahve removed the obstacles of his course out of the way, and steeled his ankles so that he stood firm in fight and endured till he came off victorious.

    The praet. m`dw substantiates what, without any other indication of it, is required by the consecutio temporum, viz., that everything here has a retrospective meaning.

    PSALMS 18:37-40

    (18:38-41) Thus in God's strength, with the armour of God, and by God's assistance in fight, he smote, cast down, and utterly destroyed all his foes in foreign and in civil wars. According to the Hebrew syntax the whole of this passage is a retrospect. The imperfect signification of the futures in vv. 38, 39 is made clear from the aorist which appears in v. 40, and from the perfects and futures in what follows it. The strophe begins with an echo of Ex 15:9 (cf. supra Ps 7:6). The poet calls his opponents qaamay , as in v. 49, 44:6; 74:23, cf. qiymaanuw Job 22:20, inasmuch as quwm by itself has the sense of rising up in hostility and consequently one can say qaamay instead of `aalay qaamiym (qowmiym 2 Kings 16:7). (Note: In the language of the Beduins km is war, feud, and kmaan (denominative from km) my enemy (hostis); km also has the signification of a collective of kmaan, and one can equally well say: entum waijn km, you and we are enemies, and: bntn km, there is war between us.)

    The frequent use of this phrase (e.g., 36:13, Lam 1:14) shows that qwm in v. 39a does not mean "to stand (resist)," but "to rise (again)."

    The phrase `orep naatan , however, which in other passages has those fleeing as its subject (2 Chron 29:6), is here differently applied:

    Thou gavest, or madest me mine enemies a back, i.e., those who turn back, as in Ex 23:27. From Ps 21:13 (shekem t|shiyteemow , Symm. ta'xeis autou's apostro'fous) it becomes clear that `orep is not an accusative of the member beside the accusative of the person (as e.g., in Deut 33:11), but an accusative of the factitive object according to Ges. 139, 2.

    PSALMS 18:41-42

    (18:42-43) Their prayer to their gods, wrung from them by their distress, and even to Jahve, was in vain, because it was for their cause, and too late put up to Him. `al = `el ; in Ps 42:2 the two prepositions are interchanged. Since we do not pulverize dust but to dust, k|`aapaar is to be taken as describing the result: so that they became as dust (cf. Job 38:30, kaa'eben , so that it is become like stone, and the extreme of such pregnant brevity of expression in Isa 41:2) before the wind (`alp| neey as in 2 Chron 3:17, before the front). The second figure is to be explained differently: I emptied them out ('ariyqeem from heeriyq) like the dirt of the streets, i.e., not merely: so that they became such, but as one empties it out-thus contemptuously, ignominiously and completely (cf. Isa 10:6; Zech 10:5). The LXX renders it leanoo' from heereeq (root rq to stretch, make thin, cf. tendo tenius, dehnen dnn); and the text of 2 Sam 22 present the same idea in 'adiyqeem.

    PSALMS 18:43-45

    (18:44-46) Thus victorious in God, David became what he now is, viz., the ruler of a great kingdom firmly established both in home and foreign relations. With respect to the gowyim and the verb t|pal|Teeniy which follows, `aam riybeey can only be understood of the conflicts among his own people, in which David was involved by the persecution of Saul and the rebellions of Absolom and Sheba the son of Bichri; and from which Jahve delivered him, in order to preserve him for his calling of world-wide dominion in accordance with the promise. We therefore interpret the passage according to `aam b|riyt in Isa 49:8, and qin|'at-`aam in Isa 26:11; whereas the following `am comes to have a foreign application by reason of the attributive clause lo'- yaada`|tiy (Ges. 123, 3). The Niph. nish|ma` in v. 45 is the reflexive of shaama` , to obey (e.g., Ex 24:7), and is therefore to be rendered: show themselves obedient (= Ithpa. in Dan 7:27). 'ozen l|sheema` implies more than that they obeyed at the word; sheema` means information, rumour, and 'ozen sheema` is the opposite of personal observation (Job 42:5), it is therefore to be rendered: they submitted even at the tidings of my victories; and 2 Sam 8:9f. is an example of this. kicheesh to lie, disown, feign, and flatter, is sued here, as it is frequently, of the extorted humility which the vanquished show towards the conqueror.

    V. 46 completes the picture of the reason of the sons of a foreign country "putting a good face on a bad game." They faded away, i.e., they became weak and faint-hearted (Ex 18:18), incapable of holding out against or breaking through any siege by David, and trembled, surrendering at discretion, out of their close places, i.e., out of their strongholds behind which they had shut themselves in (cf. 142:8). The signification of being alarmed, which in this instance, being found in combination with a local min , is confined to the sense of terrified flight, is secured to the verb chaarag by the Arabic harija (root hr, of audible pressure, crowding, and the like) to be pressed, crowded, tight, or narrow, to get in a strait, and the Targumic d|mowtaa' char|naa' = dmwt' 'eeym|taa' (vid., the Targums on Deut 32:25). Arab. hjl, to limp, halt, which is compared by Hitzig, is far removed as to the sound; and the most natural, but colourless Arab. chrj, to go out of (according to its radical meaning-cf. Arab. chrq, chr', etc.-: to break forth, erumpere), cannot be supported in Hebrew or Aramaic. The yir|g|zuw found in the borrowed passage in Micah, Mic 7:17, favours our rendering.

    PSALMS 18:46-48

    (18:47-49) The hymn now draws towards the end with praise and thanksgiving for the multitude of God's mighty deeds, which have just been displayed. Like the (tsuwry ) baaruwk| which is always doxological, h' chy (vivus Jahve) is meant as a predicate clause, but is read with the accent of an exclamation just as in the formula of an oath, which is the same expression; and in the present instance it has a doxological meaning.

    Accordingly w|yaaruwm also signifies "exalted be," in which sense it is written wyrm (w|yaarum = w|yaarom ) in the other text. There are three doxological utterances drawn from the events which have just been celebrated in song. That which follows, from haa'eel onwards, describes Jahve once more as the living, blessed (eulogeeto'n ), and exalted One, which He has shown Himself to be.

    From wayad|beer we see that hanowteen is to be resolved as an imperfect. The proofs of vengeance, n|qaamowt , are called God's gift, insofar as He has rendered it possible to him to punish the attacks upon his own dignity and the dignity of his people, or to witness the punishment of such insults (e.g., in the case of Nabal); for divine vengeance is a securing by punishment (vindicatio) of the inviolability of the right. It is questionable whether hid|biyr (synonym raadad , Ps 144:2) here and in 47:4 means "to bring to reason" as an intensive of daabar , to drive (Ges.); the more natural meaning is "to turn the back" according to the Arabic adbara (Hitzig), cf. dabar, dabre, flight, retreat; debira to be wounded behind; medbr, wounded in the back. The idea from which hdbyr gains the meaning "to subdue" is that of flight, in which hostile nations, overtaken from behind, sank down under him (45:6); but the idea that is fully worked out in 129:3, Isa 51:23, is by no means remote. With m|pal|Tiy the assertion takes the form of an address. min rowmeem does not differ from Ps 9:14: Thou liftest me up away from mine enemies, so that I hover above them and triumph over them. The climactic 'p , of which poetry is fond, here unites two thoughts of a like import to give intensity of expression to the one idea. The participle is followed by futures: his manifold experience is concentrated in one general ideal expression.

    PSALMS 18:49-50

    (18:50-51) Great deliverance giveth he to his king; and sheweth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore.

    The praise of so blessed a God, who acts towards David as He has promised him, shall not be confined within the narrow limits of Israel.

    When God's anointed makes war with the sword upon the heathen, it is, in the end, the blessing of the knowledge of Jahve for which he opens up the way, and the salvation of Jahve, which he thus mediatorially helps on.

    Paul has a perfect right to quote v. 50 of this Psalm (Rom 15:9), together with Deut 32:43 and Ps 117:1, as proof that salvation belongs to the Gentiles also, according to the divine purpose of mercy. What is said in v. 51 as the reason and matter of the praise that shall go forth beyond Israel, is an echo of the Messianic promises in 2 Sam 7:12-16 which is perfectly reconcileable with the Davidic authorship of the Psalm, as Hitzig acknowledges. And Theodoret does not wrongly appeal to the closing words `ad`-owlaam against the Jews. In whom, but in Christ, the son of David, has the fallen throne of David any lasting continuance, and in whom, but in Christ, has all that has been promised to the seed of David eternal truth and reality? The praise of Jahve, the God of David, His anointed, is, according to its ultimate import, a praising of the Father of Jesus Christ.

    Prayer to God, Whose Revelation of Himself Is Twofold In the inscription of Ps 18 David is called yhwh `bd , and in Ps 19 he gives himself this name. In both Psalms, in the former at the beginning, in the latter at the close, he calls upon Jahve by the name tsuwriy , my rock. These and other points of contact (Symbolae p. 49) have concurred to lead the collector to append Ps 19, which celebrates God's revelation of Himself in nature and in the Law, to Ps 18, which celebrates God's revelation of Himself in the history of David. The view, that in Ps 19 we have before us two torsi blown together from some quarter or other, is founded upon a defective insight into the relationship, which accords with a definite plan, of the two halves vv. 2-7, 8-15, as Hitzig has recently shown in opposition to that view. The poet begins with the praise of the glory of God the Creator, and rises from this to the praise of the mercy of God the Lawgiver; and thus through the praise, springing from wondering and loving adoration, he clears the way to the prayer for justification and sanctification.

    This prayer grows out of the praise of the mercy of the God who has revealed Himself in His word, without coming back to the first part, vv. 2- 7. For, as Lord Bacon says, the heavens indeed tell of the glory of God, but not of His will, according to which the poet prays to be pardoned and sanctified. Moreover, if we suppose the Psalm to be called forth by the aspect of the heavens by day, just as Ps 8 was by the aspect of the heavens by night, then the unity of this praise of the two revelations of God becomes still more clear. It is morning, and the psalmist rejoices on the one hand at the dawning light of day, and on the other he prepares himself for the days' work lying before him, in the light of the Tra. The second part, just like the first part, consists of fourteen lines, and each of them is naturally divided into a six and an eight line strophe. But in the second part, in the place of the short lines comes the caesural schema, which as it were bounds higher, draws deeper breaths and surges as the rise and fall of the waves, for the Tra inspires the psalmist more than does the sun. And it is also a significant fact, that in the first part God is called 'eel according to his relationship of power to the world, and is only mentioned once; whereas in the second part, He is called by His covenant name yhwh , and mentioned seven times, and the last time by a threefold name, which brings the Psalm to a close with a full toned wg'ly tswry yhwh. What a depth of meaning there is in this distinction of the revelation of God, the Redeemer, from the revelation of God, the Creator!

    The last strophe presents us with a sharply sketched soteriology in nuce.

    If we add Ps 32, then we have the whole of the way of salvation in almost Pauline clearness and definiteness. Paul, moreover, quotes both Psalms; they were surely his favourites.

    PSALMS 19:1-3

    (19:2-4) The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.

    Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.

    The heavens, i.e., the superterrestrial spheres, which, so far as human vision is concerned, are lost in infinite space, declare how glorious is God, and indeed 'eel , as the Almighty; and what His hands have made, i.e., what He has produced with a superior power to which everything is possible, the firmament, i.e., vault of heaven stretched out far and wide and as a transparency above the earth (Graeco-Veneta ta'ma =e'ktama, from raaqa` , root rq , to stretch, tei'nein), distinctly expresses. The sky and firmament are not conceived of as conscious beings which the middle ages, in dependence upon Aristotle (vid., Maimonides, More Nebuchim ii. 5), believed could be proved fro this passage, cf. Neh 9:6; Job 38:7. Moreover, Scripture knows nothing of the "music of the spheres" of the Pythagoreans. What is meant is, as the old expositors correctly say, objectivum vocis non articulatae praeconium. The doxa, which God has conferred upon the creature as the reflection of His own, is reflected back from it, and given back to God as it were in acknowledgment of its origin.

    The idea of perpetuity, which lies even in the participle, is expanded in v. 3. The words of this discourse of praise are carried forward in an uninterrupted line of transmission. hibiya` (fr. naaba` , Arab. nb', root nb , to gush forth, nearly allied to which, however, is also the root b`, to spring up) points to the rich fulness with which, as from an inexhaustible spring, the testimony passes on from one day to the next.

    The parallel word chiuwaah is an unpictorial, but poetic, word that is more Aramaic than Hebrew (= higiyd ). 'omesh also belongs to the more elevated style; the gnoosto'n tou' Theou' deposited in the creature, although not reflected, is here called da`at . The poet does not say that the tidings proclaimed by the day, if they gradually die away as the day declines, are taken up by the night, and the tidings of the night by the day; but (since the knowledge proclaimed by the day concerns the visible works of God by day, and that proclaimed by the night, His works by night), that each dawning day continues the speech of that which has declined, and each approaching night takes up the tale of that which has passed away (Psychol. S. 347, tr. p. 408).

    If v. 4 were to be rendered "there is no speech and there are no words, their voice is inaudible," i.e., they are silent, speechless witnesses, uttering no sound, but yet speaking aloud (Hengst.), only inwardly audible but yet intelligible everywhere (Then.): then, v. 5 ought at least to begin with a Waw adversativum, and, moreover, the poet would then needlessly check his fervour, producing a tame thought and one that interrupts the flow of the hymn. To take v. 4 as a circumstantial clause to v. 5, and made to precede it, as Ewald does, "without loud speech...their sound has resounded through all the earth" (341, d), is impossible, even apart from the fact of 'omer not meaning "Loud speech" and qauwaam hardly "their sound." V. 4 is in the form of an independent sentence, and there is nothing whatever in it to betray any designed subordination to v. 5. But if it be made independent in the sense "there is no loud, no articulate speech, no audible voice, which proceeds from the heavens," then v. 5 would form an antithesis to it; and this, in like manner, there is nothing to indicate, and it would at least require that the verb yts' should be placed first.

    Luther's rendering is better: There is no language nor speech, where their voice is not heard, i.e., as Calvin also renders it, the testimony of the heavens to God is understood by the peoples of every language and tongue. But this ought to be laashown 'eeyn or saapaah 'eeyn (Gen 11:1). Hofmann's rendering is similar, but more untenable: "There is no speech and there are no words, that their cry is not heard, i.e., the language of the heavens goes forth side by side with all other languages; and men may discourse ever so, still the speech or sound of the heavens is heard therewith, it sounds above them all." But the words are not nish|ma` b|liy (after the analogy of Gen 31:20), or rather yishaama` b|liy (as in Job 41:8; Hos 8:7). b|liy with the part. is a poetical expression for the Alpha privat. (2 Sam 1:21), consequently nshmaa` kly is "unheard" or "inaudible," and the opposite of nshmaa` , audible, Jer 31:15. Thus, therefore, the only rendering that remains is that of the LXX., Vitringa, and Hitzig: There is no language and no words, whose voice is unheard, i.e., inaudible. Hupfeld's assertion that this rendering destroys the parallelism is unfounded. The structure of the distich resembles Ps 139:4.

    The discourse of the heavens and the firmament, of the day (of the sky by day) and of the night (of the sky by night), is not a discourse uttered in a corner, it is a discourse in speech that is everywhere audible, and in words that are understood by all, a fanero'n , Rom 1:19.

    PSALMS 19:4-6

    (19:5-7) Since 'omer and d|baariym are the speech and words of the heavens, which form the ruling principal notion, comprehending within itself both ywm and lylh, the suffixes of qauwaam and mileeyhem must unmistakeably refer to hshmym in spite of its being necessary to assign another reference to qwlm in v. 4. Jer 31:39 shows how we are to understand qaaw in connection with yaatsaa' . The measuring line of the heavens is gone forth into all the earth, i.e., has taken entire possession of the earth. V. 5b tells us what kind of measuring line is intended, viz., that of their heraldship: their words (from milaah , which is more Aramaic than Hebrew, and consequently more poetic) reach to the end of the world, they fill it completely, from its extreme boundary inwards.

    Isaiah's qaw , Ps 28:10, is inapplicable here, because it does not mean commandment, but rule, and is there used as a word of derision, rhyming with tsaw . The ho ftho'ggos autoo'n of the LXX (ho ee'chos autoo'n Symm.) might more readily be justified, inasmuch as qaaw might mean a harpstring, as being a cord in tension, and then, like to'nos (cf. tonai'a), a tone or sound (Gesenius in his Lex., and Ewald), if the reading qwlm does not perhaps lie at the foundation of that rendering. But the usage of the language presents with signification of a measuring line for qw when used with yts' (Aq. kanoo'n , cf. 2 Cor 10:13); and this gives a new thought, whereas in the other case we should merely have a repetition of what has been already expressed in v. 4. Paul makes use of these first two lines of the strophe in order, with its very words, to testify to the spread of the apostolic message over the whole earth. Hence most of the older expositors have taken the first half of the Psalm to be an allegorical prediction, the heavens being a figure of the church and the sun a figure of the gospel. The apostle does not, however, make a formal citation in the passage referred to, he merely gives a New Testament application to Old Testament language, by taking the all-penetrating praeconium coelorum as figure of the allpenetrating praeconium evangelii; and he is fully justified in so doing by the parallel which the psalmist himself draws between the revelation of God in nature and in the written word.

    The reference of baahem to hshmym is at once opposed by the tameness of the thought so obtained. The tent, viz., the retreat ('ohel , according to its radical meaning a dwelling, from 'hl , cogn. 'wl, to retire from the open country) of the sun is indeed in the sky, but it is more naturally at the spot where the sky and the teebeel q|tseeh meet. Accordingly bhm has the neuter signification "there" (cf. Isa 30:6); and there is so little ground for reading shaam instead of saam , as Ewald does, that the poet on the contrary has written bhm and not shaam , because he has just used saam (Hitzig). The name of the sun, which is always feminine in Arabic, is predominantly masculine in Hebrew and Aramaic (cf. on the other hand Gen. 15:17, Nah. 3:17, Isa. 45:6, Mal. 3:20); just as the Sabians and heathen Arabs had a sun-god (masc.).

    Accordingly in v. 6 the sun is compared to a bridegroom, who comes forth in the morning out of his chupaah . Joel 2:16 shows that this word means a bride-chamber; properly (from chaapap to cover) it means a canopy (Isa 4:5), whence in later Hebrew the bridal or portable canopy (Talmud. gin|naa' beeyt), which is supported by four poles and borne by four boys, at the consecration of the bridal pair, and then also the marriage itself, is called chuppa. The morning light has in it a freshness and cheerfulness, as it were a renewed youth. Therefore the morning sun is compared to a bridegroom, the desire of whose heart is satisfied, who stands as it were at the beginning of a new life, and in whose youthful countenance the joy of the wedding-day still shines. And as at its rising it is like a bridegroom, so in its rapid course (Sir. 43:5) it is like a hero (vid., on 18:34), inasmuch as it marches on its way ever anew, light-giving and triumphant, as often as it comes forth, with g|buwraah (Judg 5:31).

    From one end of heaven, the extreme east of the horizon, is its going forth, i.e., rising (cf. Hos 6:3; the opposite is maabow' going in = setting), and its circuit (t|quwpaah , from quwp = naaqap , Isa 29:1, to revolve) `al-q|tsowtaam, to their (the heavens') end (= `d Deut 4:32), cf. 1 Esdr. 4:34: tachu's too' dro'moo ho hee'lios ho'ti stre'fetai en too' ku'kloo tou' ouranou' kai' pa'lin apotre'chei eis to'n heautou' to'pon en mia' heeme'ra. On this open way there is not nic|taar , anything hidden, i.e., anything that remains hidden, before its heat. chamaah is the enlightening and warming influence of the sun, which is also itself called chamaah in poetry.

    PSALMS 19:7-9

    (19:8-10) No sign is made use of to mark the transition from the one part to the other, but it is indicated by the introduction of the divine name yhwh instead of 'eel . The word of nature declares 'eel (God) to us, the word of Scripture yhwh (Jahve); the former God's power and glory, the latter also His counsel and will. Now follow twelve encomiums of the Law, of which every two are related as antecedent and consequent, rising and falling according to the caesural schema, after the manner of waves. One can discern how now the heart of the poet begins to beat with redoubled joy as he comes to speak of God's word, the revelation of His will. towraah does not in itself mean the law, but a pointing out, instruction, doctrine or teaching, and more particularly such as is divine, and therefore positive; whence it is also used of prophecy, Isa 1:10; 8:16, and prophetically of the New Testament gospel, Isa 2:3.

    But here no other divine revelation is meant than that given by the mediation of Moses, which is become the law, i.e., the rule of life (no'mos ), of Israel; and this law, too, as a whole not merely as to its hortatory and disciplinary character, but also including the promises contained in it.

    The praises which the poet pro~ounces upon the Law, are accurate even from the standpoint of the New Testament. Even Paul says, Rom 7:12,14, "The Law is holy and spiritual, and the commandment holy, and just, and good." The Law merits these praises in itself; and to him who is in a state of favour, it is indeed no longer a law bringing a curse with it, but a mirror of the God merciful in holiness, into which he can look without slavish fear, and is a rule for the direction of his free and willing obedience. And how totally different is the affection of the psalmists and prophets for the Law-an affection based upon the essence and universal morality of the commandments, and upon a spiritual realisation of the letter, and the consolation of the promises-from the pharisaical rabbinical service of the letter and the ceremonial in the period after the Exile!

    The divine Law is called t|miymaah , "perfect," i.e., spotless and harmless, as being absolutely well-meaning, and altogether directed towards the well-being of man. And naapesh m|shiybat restoring, bringing back, i.e., imparting newness of life, quickening the soul (cf. Pil. showbeeb , Ps 23:3), to him, viz., who obeys the will of God graciously declared therein, and enters upon the divine way or rule of salvation. Then in the place of the word twrh we find `eeduwt -as the tables of the Ten Commandments (haa`eeduwt luchowt ) are called-from `uwd (hee`iyd ), which signifies not merely a corroborative, but also a warning and instructive testimony or attestation.

    The testimony of Jahve is ne'emaanaah , made firm, sure, faithful, i.e., raised above all doubt in its declarations, and verifying itself in its threatenings and promises; and hence petiy mach|kiymat , making wise simplicity, or the simple, lit., openness, the open (root pt to spread out, open, Indo-Germ. prat, pet, pat, pad), i.e., easily led astray; to such an one it gives a solid basis and stability, sofi'zei auto'n , Tim 3:15.

    The Law divides into piquwdiym, precepts or declarations concerning man's obligation; these are y|shaariym , straight or upright, as a norma normata, because they proceed from the upright, absolutely good will of God, and as a norma normans they lead along a straight way in the right track. They are therefore leeb m|sam|cheey , their educative guidance, taking one as it were by the hand, frees one from all tottering, satisfies a moral want, and preserves a joyous consciousness of being in the right way towards the right goal. yhwh mits|wat , Jahve's statute (from tsiuwaah statuere), is the tenour of His commandments. The statute is a lamp-it is said in Prov 6:23-and the law a light. So here: it is baaraah , clear, like the light of the sun (Song 6:10), and its light is imparted to other objects: `eeynayim m|'iyrat , enlightening the eyes, which refers not merely to the enlightening of the understanding, but of one's whole condition; it makes the mind clear, and body as well as mind healthy and fresh, for the darkness of the eyes is sorrow, melancholy, and bewilderment.

    In this chain of names for the Law, h' yr't is not the fear of God as an act performed, but as a precept, it is what God's revelation demands, effects, and maintains; so that it is the revealed way in which God is to be feared (Ps 34:12)-in short, it is the religion of Jahve (cf. Prov 15:33 with Deut 17:19). This is T|howraah , clean, pure, as the word which is like to pure gold, by which it is taught, Ps 12:7, cf. Job 28:19; and therefore laa`ad `omedet , enduring for ever in opposition to all false forms of reverencing God, which carry their own condemnation in themselves. h' mish|p|Teey are the jura of the Law as a corpus juris divini, everything that is right and constitutes right according to the decision of Jahve. These judgments are 'emet , truth, which endures and verifies itself; because, in distinction from most others and those outside Israel, they have an unchangeable moral foundation: yach|daaw tsaad|quw , i.e., they are tsadiyqiym , in accordance with right and appropriate (Deut 4:8), altogether, because no reproach of inappositeness and sanctioned injustice or wrong clings to them. The eternal will of God has attained a relatively perfect form and development in the Law of Jahve according to the standard set up as the law of the nation.

    PSALMS 19:10-14

    (19:11-15) With hanechemaadiym (for which, preferring a simple Sheb with the gutturals, Ben-Naphtali writes hanech|maadiym ) the poet sums up the characteristics enumerated; the article is summative, as in hashishiy at the close of the hexahemeron, Gen 1:31. paaz is the finest purified gold, cf. 1 Kings 10:18 with 2 Chron 9:17. tsuwpiym nopet "the discharge (from npt = Arab. nft) of the honeycombs" is the virgin honey, i.e., the honey that flows of itself out of the cells. To be desired are the revealed words of God, to him who possesses them as an outward possession; and to him who has received them inwardly they are sweet. The poet, who is himself conscious of being a servant of God, and of striving to act as such, makes use of these words for the end for which they are revealed: he is niz|haar , one who suffers himself to be enlightened, instructed, and warned by them. gam belongs to nzhr (according to the usual arrangement of the words, e.g., Hos 6:11), just as in v. 14 it belongs to chasok| .

    He knows that b|shaam|raam (with a subjective suffix in an objective sense, cf. Prov 25:7, just as we may also say:) in their observance is, or is included, great reward. `eeqeb is that which follows upon one's heels (`aaqeeb ), or comes immediately after anything, and is used here of the result of conduct. Thus, then, inasmuch as the Law is not only a copy of the divine will, but also a mirror of selfknowledge, in which a man may behold and come to know himself, he prays for forgiveness in respect of the many sins of infirmity-though for the most part unperceived by him-to which, even the pardoned one succumbs. sh|giy'aah (in the terminology of the Law, sh|gaagaah , agno'eema ) comprehends the whole province of the peccatum involuntarium, both the peccatum ignoranitiae and the peccatum infirmitatis. The question delicta quis intelligit is equivalent to the negative clause: no one can discern his faults, on account of the heart of man being unfathomable and on account of the disguise, oftentimes so plausible, and the subtlety of sin. Hence, as an inference, follows the prayer: pronounce me free also minic|taarowt , ab occultis (peccatis, which, however, cannot be supplied on grammatical grounds), equivalent to mee`alumiym (Ps 90:8), i.e., all those sins, which even he, who is most earnestly striving after sanctification, does not discern, although he may desire to know them, by reason of the ever limited nature of his knowledge both of himself and of sin. (Note: In the Arab proverb, "no sin which is persisted in is small, no sin great for which forgiveness is sought of God," Arab. tsgrt, directly means a little and Arab. kbrt, a great sin, vid., Allgem. Literar.

    Zeitschr. 1844, No. 46, p. 363.) niqaah , dikaiou'n , is a vox judicialis, to declare innocent, pronounce free from, to let go unpunished. The prayer for justification is followed in v. 14 by the prayer for sanctification, and indeed for preservation against deliberate sins. From zuwd , ziyd, to seethe, boil over, Hiph. to sin wilfully, deliberately, insolently-opp. of sin arising from infirmity, Ex 21:14; Deut 18:22; 17:12-is formed zeed an insolent sinner, one who does not sin bish|gaagaah , but b|zaadown (cf. Sam 17:28, where David's brethren bring this reproach against him), or raamaah b|yaad , and the neuter collective zeediym (cf. ceeTiym , Ps 101:3; Hos 5:2) peccata proaeretica or contra conscientiam, which cast one out of the state of grace or favour, Num 15:27-31. For if zdym had been intended of arrogant and insolent possessors of power (Ewald), the prayer would have taken some other form than that of "keeping back" (chaasak| as in Sam 25:39 in the mouth of David). zdym, presumptuous sins, when they are repeated, become dominant sins, which irresistibly enslave the man (maashal with a non-personal subject, as in Isa 3:4b, cf. Ps 103:19); hence the last member of the climax (which advances from the peccatum involuntarium to the proaereticum, and from this to the regnans): let them not have dominion over me (biy with Dech in Baer; generally wrongly marked with Munach).

    Then ('aaz ), when Thou bestowest this twofold favour upon me, the favour of pardon and the grace of preservation, shall I be blameless ('eeytaam 1 fut. Kal, instead of 'itam , with y as a characteristic of ee) and absolved (w|niqeeytiy not Piel, as in v. 13, but Niph., to be made pure, absolved) from great transgression. pesha` (Note: The Gaja with mipesha` is intended in this instance, where rb mpsh` are to be read in close connection, to secure distinctness of pronunciation for the unaccented `, as e.g., is a