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1. A feast (eorth). Or festival. What festival is uncertain. It has been identified with the Passover, Pentecost, and the Feast of Tabernacles; also with the Day of Atonement, the Feast of Dedication, and the Feast of Purim.
2. Sheep-market (th probatikh). The word is an adjective pertaining to sheep, which requires to be completed with another word, not with ajgora, market, but with pulh, gate. This gate was near the temple on the east of the city. See Neh. iii. 1, 32; xii. 39. Some editors join the adjective with the following kolumbhqra, pool, making the latter word kolumbhqra (the dative case), and reading the sheep-pool. Wyc., a standing water of beasts.
Pool (kolumbhqra). In the New Testament only in this chapter and ix. 7,
11. Properly, a pool for swimming, from kolumbaw, to dive. In Eccl. ii. 6 (Sept.,) it is used of a reservoir in a garden. The Hebrew word is from the verb to kneel down, and means, therefore, a kneeling-place for cattle or men when drinking. In ecclesiastical language, the baptismal font, and the baptistery itself.
Called (epilegomenh). Strictly, surnamed, the name having perhaps supplanted some earlier name.
Bethesda (bhqesda). Commonly interpreted House of Mercy; others House of the Portico. The readings also vary. Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort give bhqzaqa, Bethzatha, House of the Olive. The site cannot be identified with any certainty. Dr. Robinson thinks it may be the Fountain of the Virgin, the upper fountain of Siloam. See Thomson's "Land and Book," "Southern Palestine and Jerusalem," pp. 458-461.
Porches (stoav). Cloisters, covered porticoes.
3. Great multitude. The best texts omit great.
Impotent (asqevountwn). Rev., sick. Yet the A.V. gives the literal meaning, people without strength. Wyc., languishing.
5. Had an infirmity thirty and eight years. Literally, having thirty and eight years in his infirmity.
Wilt thou (qeleiv). Not merely, do you wish, but are you in earnest? See on Matthew 1. 19. Jesus appeals to the energy of his will. Not improbably he had fallen into apathy through his long sickness. Compare Acts iii. 4; John vii. 17.
To carry (arai). Rev., more correctly, to take up. It is Jesus' own word in ver. 8.
11. He that made - the same (o poihsav - ekeinov). The demonstrative pronoun points with emphasis to the subject of the preceding clause. A characteristic usage of John. See i. 18, 33; ix. 37; x. 1; xii. 48, etc.
12. Then. Omit.
What man is he, etc. "See the cunning of malice. They do not say, 'Who is he that healed thee?' but, 'Who bade thee take up thy bed?'" (Grotius, in Trench, "Miracles.") Take up thy bed. Omit bed. Literally, take up and walk.
13. He that was healed (iaqeiv). Compare ver. 10, and note the different word for healing. See references there.
Who it was (tiv estin). The present tense, who it is.
14. Findeth - said. Note the lively interchange of the tenses, as in ver. 13.
Sin no more (mhketi amartane). No longer continue to sin. See on Matt. i. 21. Jesus thus shows His knowledge that the sickness was the result of sin.
A worse thing. Than even those thirty-eight years of suffering.
Come unto thee (soi genhtai). Rev., better, befall thee. Literally, come to pass.
15. Told (anhggeilen). See on iv. 25. The best texts, however, read eipen, said.
16. Did the Jews persecute. The imperfect tense (ediwkon) might be rendered began to persecute, as this is an opening of hostilities against Jesus, or, more probably, corresponds with the same tense in ejpoiei, he did, or better, was wont to do. Diwkw, to persecute, is originally to run after, to pursue with hostile purpose, and thence to harass.
And sought to kill Him. The best texts omit.
He did. See above. Godet observes: "the imperfect malignantly expresses the idea that the violation of the Sabbath has become with Him a sort of maxim."
17. Worketh. The discussion turned on work on the Sabbath. The Father's work in maintaining and redeeming the world has continued from the creation until the present moment (ewv arti): until now, not interrupted by the Sabbath.
And I work (kagw ergazomai). Or, I also work. The two clauses are coordinated. The relation, as Meyer observes, is not that of imitation, or example, but of equality of will and procedure. Jesus does not violate the divine ideal of the Sabbath by His holy activity on that day. "Man's true rest is not a rest from human, earthly labor, but a rest for divine, heavenly labor. Thus the merely negative, traditional observance of the Sabbath is placed in sharp contrast with the positive, final fulfillment of spiritual service, for which it was a preparation" (Westcott).
His Father (patera idion). Properly, His own Father. So Rev. 19. Verily, verily. See on i. 51.
But what He seeth. Referring to can do nothing, not to of himself. Jesus, being one with God, can do nothing apart from Him.
The Father do (ton patera poiounta). Rev., rightly, doing. The participle brings out more sharply the coincidence of action between the Father and the Son: "the inner and immediate intuition which the Son perpetually has of the Father's work" (Meyer).
Likewise (omoiwv). Better, as Rev., in like manner. Likewise is popularly understood as equivalent to also; but the word indicates identity of action based upon identity of nature.
20. Loveth (filei). To love is expressed by two words in the New Testament, filew and ajgapaw. Agapaw indicates a reasoning, discriminating attachment, founded in the conviction that its object is worthy of esteem, or entitled to it on account of benefits bestowed. Filew represents a warmer, more instinctive sentiment, more closely allied to feeling, and implying more passion. Hence ajgapaw is represented by the Latin diligo, the fundamental idea of which is selection, the deliberate choice of one out of a number, on sufficient grounds, as an object of regard. Thus filew emphasizes the affectional element of love, and ajgapaw the intelligent element. Socrates, in Xenophon's "Memorabilia," advises his friend Aristarchus to alleviate the necessities of his dependents by furnishing means to set them at work. Aristarchus having acted upon his advice, Xenophon says that the women in his employ loved (efiloun) him as their protector, while he in turn loved (hgapa) them because they were of use to him ("Memorabilia," ii. 7, §12). Jesus' sentiment toward Martha and Mary is described by hjgapa, John xi. 5. Men are bidden to love (agapan) God (Matt. xxii. 37; 1 Corinthians viii. 3); never filein, since love to God implies an intelligent discernment of His attributes and not merely an affectionate sentiment. Both elements are combined in the Father's love for the Son (Matthew iii. 17; John iii. 35; iv. 20). Agaph is used throughout the panegyric of love in 1 Corinthians 13, and an examination of that chapter will show how large a part the discriminating element plays in the Apostle's conception of love. The noun agaph nowhere appears in classical writings. As Trench remarks, it "is a word born within the bosom of revealed religion."'Eraw, in which the idea of sensual passion predominates, is nowhere used in the New Testament. Trench has some interesting remarks on its tendency toward a higher set of associations in the Platonic writings ("Synonyms," p. 42).
Greater works will He show Him. As Jesus does whatever He sees the Father do (ver. 19), the showing of greater works will be the signal for Jesus to do them. On works, as a characteristic word in John, see on iv. 47.
Ye may marvel. The ye is emphatic (umeiv) and is addressed to those who questioned His authority, whose wonder would therefore be that of astonishment rather than of admiring faith, but might lead to faith. Plato says, "Wonder is the feeling of a philosopher, and philosophy begins in wonder" ("Theaetetus," 105); and Clement of Alexandria, cited by Westcott, "He that wonders shall reign, and he that reigns shall rest." Compare Acts iv. 13.
21. Raiseth - quickeneth. Physically and spiritually.
The Son quickeneth. Not raiseth and quickeneth. The quickening, however (zwopoiei, maketh alive), includes the raising, so that the two clauses are coextensive. In popular conception the raising precedes the quickening; but, in fact, the making alive is the controlling fact of the raising. Egeirei, raiseth, means primarily awaketh.
22. For the Father (oude gar o pathr). The A.V. misses the climax in oujde; not even the Father, who might be expected to be judge.
Hath committed (dedwken). Rev., given. The habitual word for the bestowment of the privileges and functions of the Son. See ver. 36; iii. 35; vi. 37, 39; x. 29, etc.
All judgment (thn krisin pasan). Literally, the judgment wholly.
23. Which sent Him. A phrase peculiar to John, and used only by the Lord, of the Father. See iv. 34; vi. 38, 39; vii. 16, 28, 33, etc.
24. Heareth. Closely connected with believeth.
Hath eternal life. See on iii. 36.
Shall not come into condemnation (eijv krisin oujk ercetai). The present tense, cometh not. So Rev. Not condemnation, but judgment, as Rev. See on iii. 17. Wyc., cometh not into doom. The present, cometh, states the general principle or order.
From death (ek qanatou). Rev., correctly, out of death, pointing to the previous condition in which he was.
25. The dead. Spiritually.
26. As - so (wsper - outwv). The correspondence is that of fact, not of degree.
Hath he given (edwken). Rev., more strictly, gave, the aorist tense pointing back to the eternal past.
27. Authority. See on i. 12.
The Son of man. Better, a son of man. The article is wanting. The authority is assigned to Him as being very man. John uses the article everywhere with this phrase, except here and Apoc. i. 13; xiv. 14. See on Luke vi. 22.
28. The graves (toiv mnhmeioiv). Rev., better; tombs. Two words are used in the New Testament for the place of burial, tafov, and mnhmeion or mnhma. The former emphasizes the idea of burial (qaptw, to bury); the latter of preserving the memory of the dead; from mimnhskw, to remind.
29. Have done good - have done evil. Note again the use of the different verbs for doing with good and evil. See on iii. 21. On the word for evil (faula), see on iii. 20.
Resurrection of life (ean egw). The phrase occurs only here in the New Testament: so resurrection of judgment (anastasin krisewv).
30. Of the Father. Omit. Rev., of Him that sent.
31. If I (ean egw). The I expressed for emphasis: I alone.
True (alhqhv). As distinguished from false. See on i. 9.
33. Ye sent. Rev., rightly, have sent. The perfect tense, with allusion to something abiding in its results. Similarly, bare witness should be hath born. Note the expressed ye (umeiv), emphatically marking the contrast between the human testimony which the Jews demanded, and the divine testimony on which Jesus relies (ver. 34).
34. But I (egw de). Emphatic, in contrast with ye (ver. 33).
Receive (lambanw). See on iii. 32.
Testimony (thn marturian). Rev., properly the witness. The restoration of the article is important. It has the force of my, marking the witness as characteristic of Christ's work. The only testimony which I accept as proof.
From man. Or from a man, with a primary reference to the Baptist. Rev. renders, the witness which I receive is not from man.
These things. With reference to the Baptist.
Ye may be saved. The ye (umeiv), marking them as those who might be influenced by the inferior, human testimony; though they did not apprehend the divine testimony.
35. A burning and shining light (o lucnov o kaiomenov kai fainwn). Rev., correctly, the lamp that burneth and shineth. Lucnov, lamp, as contrasted with the light (fwv). See i. 5, 7, 8, 9; and compare viii. 12; ix. 5; xii. 46. Wyc., lantern. The Baptist did not, like Jesus, shine by his own light. The definite article with lamp, points to it as a familiar household object. Burning hints at the fact that the lamp gives but a transitory light. In burning the oil is consumed.
Ye were willing. Again the emphatic uJmeiv, ye.
To rejoice (agalliasqhnai). The word signifies exultant, lively joy. See Matt. v. 12; Luke i. 47; x. 21; 1 Pet. i. 6. The interest in the Baptist was a frivolous, superficial, and short-lived excitement. Bengel says, "they were attracted by his brightness, not by his warmth."
36. Greater witness (thn marturian meizw). The article, omitted in A.V., has the force of my, as in ver. 34. Rev., the witness which I have is greater.
Hath given. See on ver. 22.
To finish (ina teleiwsw). Literally, in order that I should accomplish. Rev., accomplish. See on iv. 34.
The same works (auta ta erga). Rev., more correctly, the very works.
37. Himself (autov). The best texts substitute ejkeinov, he; reading, "the Father which sent me, He hath born witness." So Rev. Voice - shape. Not referring to the descent of the dove and the voice from heaven at Jesus' baptism, but generally and figuratively to God's witness in the Old Testament Scriptures. This is in harmony with the succeeding reference to the word.
The scriptures (tav grafav). Literally, the writings; possibly with a hint at the contrast with the word (ver. 38).
They (ekeinai). Those very scriptures.
41. I receive not honor from men. The Greek order is: glory from men I receive not. Compare ver. 34. His glory consists in his loving fellowship with God. Men who do not love God are not in sympathy with Him.
42. I know (egnwka). See on ii. 24.
The love of God. Love toward God. This was the summary of their own law. The phrase occurs elsewhere in the Gospels only in Luke xi. 42. In you (en eautoiv). Rev., rightly, in yourselves. Compare vi. 53; 1 John v. 10; Mark iv. 17.
44. Ye believe. Again the emphatic ye, the reason for the emphasis being given in the succeeding clause.
Which receive (lambanontev). Literally, receiving (as ye do): seeing that ye receive.
Seek not the honor that cometh from God only (kai thn doxan thn monou Qeou ou zhteite). The Rev. gives it capitally, following the Greek order: and the glory that cometh from the only God ye seek not. Not God only, which entirely overlooks the force of the definite article; but the only God. Compare 1 Tim. vi. 15, 16; John xvii. 3; Rom. xvi. 27.
45. I will accuse (kathgorhsw). From kata, against, and ajgoreuw, to speak in the assembly (agora). Hence, properly, to bring an accusation in court. John uses no other verb for accuse, and this only here, viii. 6, and Apoc. xii. 10. Once in the New Testament diaballw occurs (Luke xvi. 1, on which see note), signifying malicious accusation, and secret, as distinguished from public, accusation (kathgoria). Aijtiaomai occurs once in the compound prohtiasameqa, we before laid to the charge (Rom. iii. 9). This has reference especially to the ground of accusation (aitia). Egkalew occurs only in Acts, with the exception of Romans viii. 33. It means to accuse publicly, but not necessarily before a tribunal. See Acts xxiii. 28, 29; xxvi. 2, 7.
In whom ye trust (eiv on umeiv hlpikate). A strong expression. Literally, into whom ye have hoped. Rev., admirably, on whom ye have set your hope.
47. Writings (grammasin). It is important to understand the precise sense of this word, because it goes to determine whether Jesus intended an antithesis between Moses' writings and His own words, or simply between Moses (ekeinou) and Himself (emoiv).
Gramma primarily means what is written. Hence it may describe either a single character or a document. From this general notion several forms develop themselves in the New Testament. The word occurs in its narrower sense of characters, at Luke xxiii. 38; 2 Cor. iii. 7; Galatians vi. 11. In Acts xxviii. 21, it means official communications. Paul, with a single exception (2 Cor. iii. 7), uses it of the letter of scripture as contrasted with its spirit (Rom. ii. 27, 29; vii. 6; 2 Cor. iii. 6). In Luke xvi. 6, 7, it denotes a debtor's bond (A.V., bill). In John vii. 15, Acts xxvi. 24) it is used in the plural as a general term for scriptural and Rabbinical learning. Compare Sept., Isa. xxix. 11,12) where a learned man is described as ejpitamenov grammata, acquainted with letters. Once it is used collectively of the sacred writings - the scriptures (2 Timothy iii. 15), though some give it a wider reference to Rabbinical exegesis, as well as to scripture itself. Among the Alexandrian Greeks the term is not confined to elementary instruction, but includes exposition, based, however, on critical study of the text. The tendency of such exegesis was often toward mystical and allegorical interpretation, degenerating into a petty ingenuity in fixing new and recondite meanings upon the old and familiar forms. This was illustrated by the Neo-Platonists' expositions of Homer, and by the Rabbinical exegesis. Men unacquainted with such studies, especially if they appeared as public teachers, would be regarded as ignorant by the Jews of the times of Christ and the Apostles. Hence the question respecting our Lord Himself: How knoweth this man letters (grammata John vii. 15)? Also the comment upon Peter and John (Acts iv. 13) that they were unlearned (agrammatoi). Thus, too, those who discovered in the Old Testament scriptures references to Christ, would be stigmatized by Pagans, as following the ingenious and fanciful method of the Jewish interpreters, which they held in contempt. Some such feeling may have provoked the words of Festus to Paul: Much learning (polla grammata) doth make thee mad (Acts xxvi. 24). It is well known with what minute care the literal transcription of the sacred writings was guarded. The Scribes (grammateiv) were charged with producing copies according to the letter (kata to gramma).
The one passage in second Timothy cannot be urged in favor of the general use of the term for the scriptures, especially since the best texts reject the article before iJera gramma, so that the meaning is apparently more general: "thou hast known sacred writings." The familiar formula for the scriptures was aiJ grafai aJgiai.. A single book of the collection of writings was known as biblion (Luke iv. 17), or biblov (Luke xx. 42); never grafh, which was the term for a particular passage. See on Mark xii. 10. 27 It seems to me, therefore, that the antithesis between the writings of Moses, superstitiously reverenced in the letter, and minutely and critically searched and expounded by the Jews, and the living words (rJhmasin, see on Luke i. 37), is to be recognized. This, however, need not exclude the other antithesis between Moses and Jesus personally.