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    THEME OF THE EPISTLE. - God has given a revelation of salvation in two stages. The first was preparatory and transient, and is completed. The second, the revelation through Jesus Christ, is final. The readers who have accepted this second revelation are warned against returning to the economy of the first.

    1. God. Both stages of the revelation were given by God.

    At sundry times (polumerwv). Rend. in many parts. N.T.o . o LXX, but polumerhv Wisd. vii. 22. In the first stage of his revelation, God spake, not at once, giving a complete revelation of his being and will; but in many separate revelations, each of which set forth only a portion of the truth. The truth as a whole never comes to light in the O.T. It appears fragmentarily, in successive acts, as the periods of the Patriarchs, Moses, the Kingdom, etc. One prophet has one, another element of the truth to proclaim.

    In divers manners (polutropwv). Rend. in many ways. N.T.o . LXX, 4 Macc. iii. 21. This refers to the difference of the various revelations in contents and form. Not the different ways in which God imparted his revelations to the prophets, but the different ways in which he spoke by the prophets to the fathers: in one way through Moses, in another through Elijah, in others through Isaiah, Ezekiel, etc. At the founding of the Old Testament kingdom of God, the character of the revelation was elementary. Later it was of a character to appeal to a more matured spiritual sense, a deeper understanding and a higher conception of the law. The revelation differed according to the faithfulness or unfaithfulness of the covenant-people. Comp. Ephesians 3. 10, the many-tinted wisdom of God, which is associated with this passage by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 1. 4, 27). "Fitly, therefore, did the apostle call the wisdom of God many-tinted, as showing its power to benefit us in many parts and in many ways."

    Spake (lalhsav). See on Matthew 28. 18. Often in the Epistle of the announcement of the divine will by men, as vii. 14; ix. 19: by angels, as ii. 2. by God himself or Christ, as ii. 3; v. 5; xii. 25. In Paul, almost always of men: once of Christ, 2 Cor. xiii. 3: once of the Law, personified, Rom. iii. 9.

    In time past (palai) Better, of old. The time of the Old Testament revelation. It indicates a revelation, not only given, but completed in the past.

    Unto the fathers (toiv patrasin). Thus absolutely, John vii. 22; Romans ix. 5; xv. 8. More commonly with your or our.

    By the prophets (en toiv profhtaiv). Rend. "in the prophets," which does not mean in the collection of prophetic writings, as John vi. 45; Acts xiii. 40, but rather in the prophets themselves as the vessels of divine inspiration. God spake in them and from them. Thus Philo; "The prophet is an interpreter, echoing from within (endoqen) the sayings of God" (De Praemiis et Poenis, 9)

    2. In these last times (ep). Lit. at the last of these days. The exact phrase only here; but comp 1 Pet. v. 20 and Jude 18. LXX, ejp' ejscatou twn hJmerwn at the last of the days, Num. xxiv. 14; Deut. iv. 30; Jer. xxiii. 20; xxv. 18; Dan. x. 14. The writer conceives the history of the world in its relation to divine revelation as falling into two great periods. The first he calls aiJ hJmerai au=tai these days (i. 2), and oj kairov oJ ejnesthkwv the present season (ix. 9). The second he describes as kairov diorqwsewv the season of reformation (ix. 10), which is oj kairov oJ mellwn the season to come: comp. hJ oijkoumenh hJ mellousa the world to come (ii. 5); mellwn aijwn the age to come (vi. 5); poliv hJ mellousa the city to come (xii. 14). The first period is the period of the old covenant; the second that of the new covenant. The second period does not begin with Christ's first appearing. His appearing and public ministry are at the end of the first period but still within it. The dividing-point between the two periods is the sunteleia tou aijwnov the consummation of the age, mentioned in ix. 26. This does not mean the same thing as at the last of these days (i. 2), which is the end of the first period denoted by these days, but the conclusion of the first and the beginning of the second period, at which Christ appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. This is the end of the kairov ejnesthkwv the present season: this is the limit of the validity of the old sacrificial offerings: this is the inauguration of the time of reformation. The phrase ejp' ejscatou twn hJmerwn toutwn therefore signifies, in the last days of the first period, when Christ was speaking on earth, and before his crucifixion, which marked the beginning of the second period, the better age of the new covenant.

    Hath spoken unto us (elalhsen hmin). Rend. spake, referring to the time of Christ's teaching in the flesh. To us God spake as to the fathers of old.

    By his son (en uiw). Lit. in a son. Note the absence of the article. Attention is directed, not to Christ's divine personality, but to his filial relation. While the former revelation was given through a definite class, the prophets, the new revelation is given through one who is a son as distinguished from a prophet. He belongs to another category. The revelation was a son-revelation. See ch. ii. 10-18. Christ's high priesthood is the central fact of the epistle, and his sonship is bound up with his priesthood. See ch. v. 5. For a similar use of uiJov son without the article, applied to Christ, see ch. iii. 6; v. 8; vii. 28.

    Whom he hath appointed heir of all things (on eqhken klhronomon pantwn). For eqhken appointed, see on John xv. 16. For klhronomov heir, see on inheritance, l Peter i. 4; and comp. on Christ as heir, Mark xii. 1-12. God eternally predestined the Son to be the possessor and sovereign of all things. Comp. Psalm lxxxix. 28. Heirship goes with sonship. See Rom. viii. 17; Gal. iv. 7. Christ attained the messianic lordship through incarnation. Something was acquired as the result of his incarnation which he did not possess before it, and could not have possessed without it. Equality with God was his birthright, but out of his human life, death, and resurrection came a type of sovereignty which could pertain to him only through his triumph over human sin in the flesh (see ver. 3), through his identification with men as their brother. Messianic lordship could not pertain to his preincarnate state: it is a matter of function, not of inherent power and majesty. He was essentially Son of God; he must become Son of man.

    By whom also he made the worlds (di ou kai epoihsen touv aiwnav). Dia commonly expresses secondary agency, but, in some instances, it is used of God's direct agency. See 1 Cor. i. 1; 2 Corinthians i. 1; Gal. iv. 7. Christ is here represented as a mediate agency in creation. The phrase is, clearly, colored by the Alexandrian conception, but differs from it in that Christ is not represented as a mere instrument, a passive tool, but rather as a cooperating agent. "Every being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will of the Logos" (Godet); yet "the Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father doing" (John v. 19). With this passage Col. i. 16 should be studied. There it is said that all things, collectively (ta panta), were created in him (en autw) and through him (di' aujtou as here). The former expression enlarges and completes the latter. Di' aujtou represents Christ as the mediate instrument. jEn aujtw indicates that "all the laws and purposes which guide the creation and government of the universe reside in him, the Eternal Word, as their meeting-point." 164 Comp. John i. 3; 1 Corinthians viii. 6. For touv aijwnav the worlds, see additional note on 2 Thessalonians i. 9. Rend. for by whom also he made, by whom he also made. The emphasis is on made, not on worlds: on the fact of creation, not on what was created. In the writer's thought heirship goes with creation. Christ is heir of what he made, and because he made it. As pantwn, in the preceding clause, regards all things taken singly, aijwnav regards them in cycles. jAiwnas does not mean times, as if representing the Son as the creator of all time and times, but creation unfolded in time through successive aeons. All that, in successive periods of time, has come to pass, has come to pass through him. Comp. 1 Cor. x. 11; Ephesians iii. 21; Heb. ix. 26; 1 Tim. i. 17; LXX, Tob. xiii. 6, 10; Ecclesiastes iii. 11. See also Clement of Rome, Ad Corinth. 35,oJ dhmiourgov kai pathr twn aijwnwn the Creator and Father of the ages. Besides this expression, the writer speaks of the world as kosmov (iv. 3; x. 5); hJ oijkoumenh (i. 6), and ta panta (i. 3).

    3. Being (wn). Representing absolute being. See on John i. 1. Christ's absolute being is exhibited in two aspects, which follow: The brightness of his glory (apaugasma thv doxhv autou). Of God's glory. For brightness rend. effulgence. jApaugasma, N.T.o . LXX, only Wisd. vii. 26. o Class. It is an Alexandrian word, and occurs in Philo. 165 Interpretation is divided between effulgence and reflection. 166 Effulgence or outraying accords better with the thought of the passage; for the writer is treating of the preincarnate Son; and, as Alford justly remarks, "the Son of God is, in this his essential majesty, the expression and the sole expression of the divine light; not, as in his incarnation, its reflection." The consensus of the Greek fathers to this effect is of great weight. The meaning then is, that the Son is the outraying of the divine glory, exhibiting in himself the glory and majesty of the divine Being. "God lets his glory issue from himself, so that there arises thereby a light-being like himself" (Weiss). Doxa glory is the expression of the divine attributes collectively. It is the unfolded fullness of the divine perfections, differing from morfh qeou form of God (Philip. ii. 6), in that morfh is the immediate, proper, personal investiture of the divine essence. Doxa is attached to deity. morfh is identified with the inmost being of deity Doxa is used of various visible displays of divine light and splendor, as Exod. xxiv. 17; Deut. v. 24; Exod. xl. 34; Num. xiv. 10, 15; xix. 42; Ezekiel x. 4; xliii. 4. 5; l. 28, in 23; Lev. ix. 23, etc. We come nearer to the sense of the word in this passage in the story of Moses's vision of the divine glory, Exod. xxxiii. 18-23; xxxiv. 5, 7.

    The express image of his person (carakthr thv upostasewv autou) Rend the very image (or impress) of his substance The primary sense of uJpostasiv substance is something which stands underneath; foundation, ground of hope or confidence, and so assurance itself. In a philosophical sense, substantial nature; the real nature of anything which underlies and supports its outward form and properties. In N.T., 2 Cor. ix. 4, 11, 17, Heb. iii. 14; xi. 1, signifying in every instance ground of confidence or confidence In LXX, it represents fifteen different words, and, in some cases, it is hard to understand its meaning notably 1 Sam. xiii. 21 In Ruth i. 12, Psalm xxxvii. 8, Ezek. xix. 5, it means ground of hope. in Judg. vi. 4, Wisd. xvi. 21, sustenance in Psalm xxxviii. 5; cxxxvi. 15, the substance or material of the human frame: in 1 Sam. xiii. 23; Ezek. xxvi. 11, an outpost or garrison: in Deut. xi. 6; Job xxii. 20, possessions. The theological sense, person, is later than the apostolic age. Here, substantial nature, essence. Carakthr from carassein to engrave or inscribe, originally a graving-tool; also the die on which a device is cut. It seems to have lost that meaning, and always signifies the impression made by the die or graver. Hence, mark, stamp, as the image on a coin (so often) which indicates its nature and value, or the device impressed by a signet. N.T.o . LXX, Lev. xiii. 28; 2 Macc. iv. 10; 4 Macc. xv. 4. The kindred caragma mark, Acts xvii. 29; Apoc. xiii. 16, 17. Here the essential being of God is conceived as setting its distinctive stamp upon Christ, coming into definite and characteristic expression in his person, so that the Son bears the exact impress of the divine nature and character.

    And upholding all things (ferwn te ta panta). Rend. maintaining. Upholding conveys too much the idea of the passive support of a burden. "The Son is not an Atlas, sustaining the dead weight of the world" (quoted by Westcott). Neither is the sense that of ruling or guiding, as Philo (De Cherub. 11), who describes the divine word as "the steersman and pilot of the all." It implies sustaining, but also movement. It deals with a burden, not as a dead weight, but as in continual movement; as Weiss puts it, "with the all in all its changes and transformations throughout the aeons." It is concerned, not only with sustaining the weight of the universe, but also with maintaining its coherence and carrying on its development. What is said of God, Col. i. 17, is here said or implied of Christ: ta panta ejn aujtw sunesthken all things (collectively, the universe) consist or maintain their coherence in him. So the Logos is called by Philo the bond (desmov) of the universe; but the maintenance of the coherence implies the guidance and propulsion of all the parts to a definite end. All things (ta panta) collectively considered; the universe; all things in their unity. See ch. ii. 10; Rom. viii. 32; xi. 36; 1 Cor. viii. 6; Eph. i. 10; Col. i. 16.

    By the word of his power (tw rhmati thv dunamewv autou). The phrase N.T.o ., but comp Luke i. 37. and see note. The word is that in which the Son's power manifests itself. jAutou his refers to Christ. Nothing in the context suggests any other reference. The world was called into being by the word of God (ch. 11. 3), and is maintained by him who is "the very image of God's substance."

    When he had by himself purged our sins (kaqarismon twn amartiwn poihsamenov). Omit by himself; 167 yet a similar thought is implied in the middle voice, poihsamenov, which indicates that the work of purification was done by Christ personally, and was not something which he caused to be done by some other agent. Purged, lit. having made purification The phrase N.T.o LXX, Job vii. 21. Kaqarismov purification occurs in Mark, Luke John, 2nd Peter, o P., and only here in Hebrews. The verb kaqarizein to purify is not often used in N.T of cleansing from sin. See 2 Cor. vii. 1; 1 John i. 7, 9 Of cleansing the conscience, Hebrews ix. 14. Of cleansing meats and vessels, Matt. xxiii. 25, 26, Mark vii. 19, Acts x. 15; xi. 9. Of cleansing the heart, Acts xv. 9. The meaning here is cleansing of sins. In the phrase "to cleanse from sin," always with ajpo from. In carrying on all things toward their destined end of conformity to the divine archetype, the Son must confront and deal with the fact of sin, which had thrown the world into disorder, and drawn it out of God's order. In the thought of making purification of sins is already foreshadowed the work of Christ as high priest, which plays so prominent a part in the epistle.

    Sat down on the right hand of the majesty on high (ekaqisen en dexia thv megalwsunhv en uyhloiv) Comp. Psalm cx. 1, ch. viii. 1; x. 12; xii. 2; Eph. i. 20; Apoc iii. 21. The verb denotes a solemn, formal act; the assumption of a position of dignity and authority The reference is to Christ's ascension. In his exalted state he will still be bearing on all things toward their consummation, still dealing with sin as the great high priest in the heavenly sanctuary. This is elaborated later. See ch. 8; ix. 12 ff. Megalwsunh majesty, only here, ch. viii. 1; Jude 25. Quite often in LXX. There is suggested, not a contrast with his humiliation, but his resumption of his original dignity, described in the former part of this verse. jEn uJyhloiv, lit. in the high places. Const. with sat down, not with majesty. The phrase N.T.o . LXX, Psalm xcii. 4; cxii. 5. jEn toiv uJyistoiv in the highest (places), in the Gospels, and only in doxologies. See Matthew xxi. 9; Mark xi. 10; Luke ii. 14. jEn toiv ejpouranioiv in the heavenly (places), only in Ephesians See i. 3, 20; ii. 6; iii. 10; vi. 12.

    4. The detailed development of the argument is now introduced. The point is to show the superiority of the agent of the new dispensation to the agents of the old - the angels and Moses. Christ's superiority to the angels is first discussed.

    Being made so much better than the angels (tosoutw kreittwn genomenov twn aggelwn). The informal and abrupt introduction of this topic goes to show that the writer was addressing Jewish Christians, who were familiar with the prominent part ascribed to angels in the O.T. economy, especially in the giving of the law. See on Gal. iii. 9. For being made, rend. having become; which is to be taken in close connection with sat down, etc., and in contrast with wn being, ver. 3. It is not denied that the Son was essentially and eternally superior to the angels; but his glorification was conditioned upon his fulfillment of the requirements of his human state, and it is this that is emphasized. After having passed through the experience described in Philip. ii. 6-8, he sat down on the right hand of the divine majesty as messianic sovereign, and so became or proved to be what in reality he was from eternity, superior to the angels. Tosoutw- osw so much - as. Never used by Paul. Kreittwn better, superior, rare in Paul, and always neuter and adverbial. In Hebrews thirteen times. See also 1 Pet. iii. 17; 2 Pet. ii. 21. Often in LXX. It does not indicate here moral excellence, but dignity and power. He became superior to the angels, resuming his preincarnate dignity, as he had been, for a brief period, less or lower than the angels (ch. ii. 7). The superiority of Messiah to the angels was affirmed in rabbinical writings. He hath by inheritance obtained (keklhronomhken). More neatly, as Rev., hath inherited, as a son. See ver. 2, and comp. Rom. viii. 17. For the verb, see on Acts xiii. 19, and 1 Pet. i. 4.

    More excellent (diaforwteron). Diaforov only once outside of Hebrews, Rom. xii. 6. The comparative only in Hebrews. In the sense of more excellent, only in later writers. Its earlier sense is different. The idea of difference is that which radically distinguishes it from kreittwn better. Here it presents the comparative of a comparative conception. The Son's name differs from that of the angels, and is more different for good. Than they (par autouv). Lit. beside or in comparison with them. Para, indicating comparison, occurs a few times in Luke, as iii. 13; xiii. 2; xviii. 4. In Hebrews always to mark comparison, except xi. 11, 12.

    5. The writer proceeds to establish the superiority of the Son to the angels by O.T. testimony. It is a mode of argument which does not appeal strongly to us. Dr. Bruce suggests that there are evidences that the writer himself developed it perfunctorily and without much interest in it. The seven following quotations are intended to show the surpassing excellence of Christ's name as set forth in Scripture. The quotations present difficulty in that they appear, in great part, to be used in a sense and with an application different from those which they originally had. All that can be said is, that the writer takes these passages as messianic, and applies them accordingly; and that we must distinguish between the doctrine and the method of argumentation peculiar to the time and people. Certain passages in Paul are open to the same objection, as Gal. iii. 16; iv. 22-25.

    To which (tini). Note the author's characteristic use of the question to express denial. Comp. ver. 14; ii. 3; iii. 17; vii. 11; xii. 7. First quotation from Psalm ii. 7. The Psalm is addressed as a congratulatory ode to a king of Judah, declaring his coming triumph over the surrounding nations, and calling on them to render homage to the God of Israel. The king is called Son of Jahveh, and is said to be "begotten" on the day on which he is publicly recognized as king. Words of the same Psalm are quoted Acts iv. 25, and these words Acts xiii. 33.

    Thou art my Son. Note the emphatic position of uiJov son. See on ver. 4. In the O.T. son is applied to angels collectively, but never individually. See Psalm xxix. 1; lxxxix. 6. Similarly, son is applied to the chosen nation, Exodus iv. 22; Hos. xi. 1, but to no individual of the nation.

    Have I begotten (gegennhka). Recognized thee publicly as sovereign; established thee in an official sonship-relation. This official installation appears to have its N.T. counterpart in the resurrection of Christ. In Acts xiii. 33, this is distinctly asserted; and in Rom. i. 4, Paul says that Christ was "powerfully declared" to be the Son of God by the resurrection from the dead. Comp. Col. i. 18; Apoc. i. 5. 168 Second quotation, 2 Sam. vii. 14. The reference is to Solomon. David proposes to build a temple. Nathan tells him that this shall be done by Solomon, whom Jahveh will adopt as his son. In 2 Cor. vi. 18, Paul applies the passage to followers of the Messiah, understanding the original as referring to all the spiritual children of David.

    A father - a son (eiv pateraeiv uion). Lit. for or as a father - son. This usage of eijv mostly in O.T. citations or established formulas. See Matt. xix. 5; Luke ii. 34; Acts xix. 27; 1 Cor. iv. 3.

    6. Third quotation, marking the relation of angels to the Son. And again, when he bringeth in, etc. (otan de palin eisagagh). Const. again with bringe th in. "When he a second time bringeth the first-begotten into the world." Referring to the second coming of Christ. Others explain again as introducing a new citation as in ver. 5; but this would require the reading palin de otan and again, when. In Hebrews, palin, when joined to a verb, always means a second time. See v. 12; vi. 1,

    2. It will be observed that in this verse, and in v. 7, 8, God is conceived as spoken of rather than as speaking; the subject of legei saith being indefinite. This mode of introducing citations differs from that of Paul. The author's conception of the inspiration of Scripture leads him to regard all utterances of Scripture, without regard to their connection, as distinct utterances of God, or the Holy Spirit, or the Son of God; whereas, by Paul, they are designated either as utterances of Scripture in general, or of individual writers. Very common in this Epistle are the expressions, "God saith, said, spake, testifieth," or the like. See ch. ii. 11, 13; iii. 7; iv. 4, 7; vii. 21; x. 5, 8, 15, 30. Comp. with these Rom. i. 17; ii. 24; iv. 17; vii. 7; ix. 13; x. 5, 16, 20, 21; xi. 2. %Otan eijsagagh whenever he shall have brought. The event is conceived as occurring at an indefinite time in the future, but is viewed as complete. Comp. John xvi. 4; Acts xxiv. 22. This use of otan with the aorist subjunctive never describes an event or series of events as completed in the past.

    The first-begotten (ton prwtotokon). Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Comp. Rom. viii. 29; Col. i. 15, 18; Apoc. i. 5. Monogenhv only-begotten (John i. 14, 18; iii. 16, 18; 1 John iv. 9, never by Paul) describes the unique relation of the Son to the Father in his divine nature: prwottokov first-begotten describes the relation of the risen Christ in his glorified humanity to man. The comparison implied in the word is not limited to angels. He is the first-born in relation to the creation, the dead, the new manhood, etc. See Col. i. 15, 18. The rabbinical writers applied the title first-born even to God. Philo (De Confus. Ling. 14) speaks of the Logos as prwtogonov or presbutatov the first-born or eldest son.

    And let all the angels of God worship him (kai proskunhsatwsan autw pantev aggeloi qeou). Proskunein to worship mostly in the Gospels, Acts, and Apocrypha. In Paul only 1 Cor. xiv. 25. Very often in LXX. Originally, to kiss the hand to: thence, to do homage to. Not necessarily of an act of religious reverence (see Matt. ix. 18; xx. 20), but often in N.T. in that sense. Usually translated worship, whether a religious sense is intended or not: see on Acts x. 25. The quotation is not found in the Hebrew of the O.T., but is cited literally from LXX, Deuteronomy xxxii. 43. It appears substantially in Psalm xcvi. 7. For the writer of Hebrews the LXX was Scripture, and is quoted throughout without regard to its correspondence with the Hebrew.

    7. Fourth quotation, Psalm ciii. 4, varies slightly from LXX in substituting a flame of fire for flaming fire.

    Who maketh his angels spirits (o poiwn touv aggelouv autou pneumata). For spirits rend. winds 169 This meaning is supported by the context of the Psalm, and by John iii. 8. Pneuma often in this sense in Class. In LXX, 1 Kings xviii. 45; xix. 11; 2 Kings iii. 17; Job i. 19. Of breath in N.T., 2 Thess. ii. 8; Apoc. xi. 11. In Hebrew, spirit and wind are synonymous. The thought is according to the rabbinical idea of the variableness of the angelic nature. Angels were supposed to live only as they ministered. Thus it was said: "God does with his angels whatever he will. When he wishes he makes them sitting: sometimes he makes them standing: sometimes he makes them winds, sometimes fire." "The subjection of the angels is such that they must submit even to be changed into elements." "The angel said to Manoah, 'I know not to the image of what I am made; for God changes us each hour: wherefore then dost thou ask my name? Sometimes he makes us fire, sometimes wind."' The emphasis, therefore, is not on the fact that the angels are merely servants, but that their being is such that they are only what God makes them according to the needs of their service, and are, therefore, changeable, in contrast with the Son, who is ruler and unchangeable. There would be no pertinency in the statement that God makes his angels spirits, which goes without saying. The Rabbis conceived the angels as perishable. One of them is cited as saying, "Day by day the angels of service are created out of the fire. stream, and sing a song, and disappear, as is said in Lam. iii. 23, 'they are new every morning.'" For leitourgouv ministers, see on ministration, Luke i. 23, and ministered, Acts xiii. 2.

    8. Fifth quotation, Psalm xlv. 7, 8. A nuptial ode addressed to an Israelitish king. The general sense is that the Messiah's kingdom is eternal and righteously administered.

    Thy throne, O God (o qronov sou o qeov). I retain the vocative, although the translation of the Hebrew is doubtful. The following renderings have been proposed: "thy throne (which is a throne) of God": "thy throne is (a throne) of God": "God is thy throne." Some suspect that the Hebrew text is defective.

    Forever and ever (eiv ton aiwna tou aiwnov). Lit. unto the aeon of the aeon. 170 See additional note on 2 Thess. i. 9.

    A sceptre of righteousness (h rabdov thv euquthtov). Rend. the sceptre. The phrase N.T.o . o LXX. jEuquthv, lit. straightness, N.T.o . It occurs in LXX.

    9. Iniquity (anomian). Lit. lawlessness.

    Hath anointed (ecrisen). See on Christ, Matt. i. 1. The ideas of the royal and the festive unction are combined. The thought includes the royal anointing and the fullness of blessing and festivity which attend the enthronement.

    Oil of gladness (elaion agalliasewv). The phrase N.T.o . o LXX. Agalliasiv exultant joy. Comp. Luke i. 44; Acts ii. 46, and the verb ajgalliasqai, Matt. v. 12; Luke x. 21, etc. The noun only here in Hebrews, and the verb does not occur.

    Fellows (metocouv). With exception of Luke v. 7, only in Hebrews. Lit. partakers. In the Psalm it is applied to other kings: here to angels.

    10. Sixth quotation (10-12), exhibiting the superior dignity of the Son as creator in contrast with the creature. Psalm ci. 26-28. The Psalm declares the eternity of Jahveh.

    And - in the beginning (kaikat arcav). And connects what follows with unto the Son he saith, etc., ver. 8. Kat' ajrcav in the beginning, N.T.o . Often in Class., LXX only Psalm xviii. 152. The more usual formula is ejn ajrch or ajp' ajrchv.

    Hast laid the foundation (eqemeliwsav). Only here in Hebrews. In Paul, Eph. iii. 18; Col. i. 23.

    11. They (autoi). The heavens: not heaven and earth.

    Remainest (diameneiv). Note the present tense: not shalt remain. Permanency is the characteristic of God in the absolute and eternal present.

    12. Vesture (peribolaion). Only here and 1 Cor. xi. 5. From periballein to throw around: a wrapper, mantle.

    Shalt thou fold them up (elixeiv autouv). Rather, roll them up. A scribal error for ajllaxeiv shalt change. After these words the LXX repeats wJv iJmation as a garment from ver. 11.

    Shall not fail (ouk ekleiyousin). Shall not be ended. With this exception the verb only in Luke's Gospel. See Luke xvi. 9; xxii. 32; xxiii. 45. Very frequent in LXX.

    13. Seventh quotation, Psalm 109. No one of the angels was ever enthroned at God's right hand.

    Sit (kaqou). Or be sitting, as distinguished from ejkaqisen, ver. 3, which marked the act of assuming the place.

    On my right hand (ek dexiwn mou). Lit. "from my right hand." The usual formula is ejn dexia. The genitive indicates moving from the right hand and taking the seat. The meaning is, "be associated with me in my royal dignity." Comp. Dan. vii. 13, 14, and the combination of the Psalm and Dan. in Christ's words, Mark xiv. 62. Comp. also Matt. xxiv. 30; Acts ii. 34; 1 Cor. xv. 25; 1 Pet. iii. 22.

    14. Ministering spirits (leitourgika pneumata). Summing up the function of the angels as compared with Christ. Christ's is the highest dignity. He is co-ruler with God. The angels are servants appointed for service to God for the sake of (dia) the heirs of redemption. Leitourgika ministering, N.T.o . See on ministers, ver. 7.


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