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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - ROMANS 13

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    CHAPTER XIII

    On the circumstances which are supposed to have called out the first part of this chapter, see Farrarr, "Life and Work of Paul," 2, 260 sqq.

    1. Every soul. Every man. See on ch. xi. 3.

    Higher powers (exousiaiv uperecousaiv). Lit., authorities which have themselves over. See on Mark ii. 10; John i. 12.

    The powers that be (ai de ousai). Lit., the existing. Powers is not in the text, and is supplied from the preceding clause.

    Are ordained (tetagmenai eisin). Perfect tense: Have been ordained, and the ordinance remains in force. See on set under authority, Luke vii. 8.

    2. He that resisteth (o antitassomenov). Lit., setteth himself in array against. See on 1 Pet. v. 5; Acts xviii. 6.

    Resisteth (anqesthken). Rev., better, withstandeth. See on ch. ix. 19. Ordinance (diatagh). From tassw to put in place, which appears in the first resisteth. He setteth himself against that which is divinely set. Damnation (krima). Judicial sentence. Rev., better, judgment.

    4. Beareth (forei). Beareth and weareth. A frequentative form of ferw to bear.

    Sword (macairan). See on Apoc. vi. 4. Borne as the symbol of the magistrate's right to inflict capital punishment. Thus Ulpian: "They who rule whole provinces have the right of the sword (jus gladii)." The Emperor Trajan presented to a provincial governor, on starting for his province, a dagger, with the words, "For me. If I deserve it, in me."

    6. Pay ye tribute (forouv teleite). Teleite ye pay is, literally, ye accomplish or fulfill carrying the sense of the fulfillment of an obligation. Forouv tribute is from ferw to bring something brought. Rev. makes the verb indicative, ye pay.

    God's ministers (leitourgoi Qeou). See on ministration, Luke i. 23, and ministered, Acts xiii. 2. In ver. 4, diakonov is used for minister. The word here brings out more fully the fact that the ruler, like the priest, discharges a divinely ordained service. Government is thus elevated into the sphere of religion. Hence Rev., ministers of God's service.

    Attending continually. The same word as continuing steadfastly in ch. xii. 12.

    7. To all. Probably all magistrates, though some explain all men.

    Tribute - custom (foron - telov). Tribute on persons: custom on goods.

    8. Another (ton eteron). Lit., the other, or the different one, the word emphasizing more strongly the distinction between the two parties. Rev., his neighbor.

    9. Thou shalt not commit adultery, etc. Omit thou shalt not bear false witness. The seventh commandment precedes the sixth, as in Mark x. 19; Luke xviii. 20; Jas. ii. 11.

    It is briefly comprehended (anakefalaioutai). Only here and Eph. i. 10. Rev., it is summed up. Ana has the force of again in the sense of recapitulation. Compare Lev. xix. 18. The law is normally a unit in which there is no real separation between the commandments. "Summed up in one word." The verb is compounded, not with kefalh head, but with its derivative kefalaion the main point.

    Namely thou shalt love, etc. (en tw agaphseiv). The Greek idiom is, it is summed up in the thou shalt love, the whole commandment being taken as a substantive with the definite article.

    Neighbor (ton plhsion). See on Matt. vi. 43.

    11. And that knowing the time - now. Referring to the injunction of ver. 8. Knowing, seeing that ye know. The time (ton kairon), the particular season or juncture. Rev., season. See on Matt. xii. 1. Now (hdh), better, already.

    Our salvation (hmwn h swthria). Others, however, and better, as Rev., construe hJmwn of us (salvation of us, i.e., our) with nearer, and render salvation is nearer to us. This is favored by the order of the Greek words. The other rendering would lay an unwarranted emphasis on our. The reference is apparently to the Lord's second coming, rather than to future glory.

    12. Is far spent (proekoyen). The A.V. gives a variety of renderings to this verb. Luke ii. 52, increased; Gal. i. 14, profited; 2 Tim. iii. 9, proceed; 13, wax. The word originally means to beat forward or lengthen out by hammering. Hence to promote, and intransitively to go forward or proceed.

    Let us cast off (apoqwmeqa). As one puts off the garments of the night. For this use of the simple tiqhmi, see on giveth his life, John x. 11.

    13. Honestly (euschmonwv). Honest is originally honorable, and so here. Compare Wyclif's version of 1 Cor. xii. 23: "And the members that be unhonest have more honesty; for our honest members have need of none." From euj well, schma fashion. See on Matt. xvii. 2. Hence becomingly. Compare 1 Cor. xiv. 40; 1 Thess. iv. 12. The word refers more particularly to the outward life, and thus accords with walk, and in the day the time of observation.

    Rioting (kwmoiv). Lit., revellings. See on 1 Pet. iv. 3.

    Drunkenness (meqais). See on Luke xxi. 34; John ii. 10.

    Wantonness (aselgeiaiv). See on lasciviousness, Mark vii. 22. All these three are plural: riotings, drunkennesses, wantonnesses.

    Envying (zhlw). Rev., jealousy. See on Jas. iii. 14.

    14. Provision (pronoian). Etymologically akin to take thought for, in ch. xiii. 17.

    Flesh. In the moral sense: the depraved nature.

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