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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - ROMANS 14

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    CHAPTER XIV

    1. Weak in the faith. Probably referring to a class of Jewish Christians with Essenic tendencies. 67 Better, as Rev., in faith, the reference being to faith in Christ, not to christian doctrine. See on Acts vi. 7.

    Receive ye (proslambanesqe). Into fellowship. See on Matt. xvi. 22. Doubtful disputations (diakriseiv dialogismwn). Lit., judgings of thoughts. The primary meaning of dialogismov is a thinking-through or over. Hence of those speculations or reasonings in one's mind which take the form of scruples. See on Mark vii. 21. Diakrisiv has the same sense as in the other two passages where it occurs (1 Cor. xii. 10; Hebrews v. 14); discerning with a view to forming a judgment. Hence the meaning is, "receive these weak brethren, but not for the purpose of passing judgment upon their scruples."

    2. Believeth that he may eat (pisteuei fagein). The A.V. conveys the sense of having an opinion, thinking. But the point is the strength or weakness of the man's faith (see ver. 1) as it affects his eating. Hence Rev., correctly, hath faith to eat.

    Herbs (lacana). From lacainw to dig. Herbs grown on land cultivated by digging: garden-herbs, vegetables. See on Mark iv. 32; Luke xii. 42.

    3. Despise (exouqeneitw). The verb means literally to throw out as nothing. Rev., better, set at nought.

    Judge (krinetw). Judgment is assigned to the weak brother, contempt to the stronger. Censoriousness is the peculiar error of the ascetic, contemptuousness of the liberal. A distinguished minister once remarked: "The weak brother is the biggest bully in the universe!" Both extremes are allied to spiritual pride.

    Hath received (proselabeto). The aorist points to a definite time - when he believed on Christ, though there is still a reference to his present relation to God as determined by the fact of his reception then, which may warrant the rendering by the perfect.

    4. Who art thou? (su tiv ei) Thou, first in the Greek order and peculiarly emphatic. Addressing the weak brother, since judgest corresponds with judge in ver. 3.

    Servant (oikethn). Strictly, household servant. See on 1 Pet. ii. 18. He is a servant in Christ s household. Hence not another man's, as A.V., but the servant of another, as Rev. Allotrion of another is an adjective.

    He shall be holden up (staqhsetai). Rev., shall be made to stand; better, both because the rendering is more truthful, and because it corresponds with the kindred verb stand - he standeth, make him stand.

    Is able (dunatei). Stronger than dunatai can. The sense is, is mighty. Hence Rev., hath power.

    5. Esteemeth every day alike (krinei pasan hJmeran). Alike is inserted. Lit., judgeth every day; subjects every day to moral scrutiny.

    Be fully persuaded (plhroforeisqw). Better, Rev., assured. See on most surely believed, Luke i. 1.

    In his own mind. "As a boat may pursue its course uninjured either in a narrow canal or in a spacious lake" (Bengel).

    6. He that regardeth not - doth not regard it. Omit.

    7. To himself. But unto Christ. See ver. 8. Hence the meaning "a Christian should live for others," so often drawn from these words, is not the teaching of the passage.

    9. Might be Lord (kurieush). Lit., might Lord it over. Justifying the term Lord applied to Christ in vers. 6, 8.

    10. Why dost thou judge (su ti krineiv). Thou emphatic, in contrast with the Lord. So Rev., "thou, why dost thou Judge?" Referring to the weak brother. Compare judge as in ver. 4. The servant of another is here called brother.

    Judgment seat of Christ (tw bhmati tou Cristou). The best texts read Qeou of God So Rev. For judgment-seat, see on to set his foot on, Acts vii. 5.

    11. As I live, etc. From Isa. xlv. 23. Hebrew: By myself I swear... that to me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. Septuagint the same, except shall swear by God.

    Shall confess (exomologhsetai). Primarily, to acknowledge, confess, or profess from (ex) the heart. To make a confession to one's honor; thence to praise. So Luke x. 21 (Rev., in margin, praise for thank); Rom. xv. 9. Here, as Rev. in margin, shall give praise. See on Matt. xi. 25.

    13. Stumbling-block (proskomma). Compare ch. ix. 32, 33; xlv. 20. Skandalon occasion of falling is also rendered stumbling-block in other passages. Some regard the two as synonymous, others as related to different results in the case of the injured brother. So Godet, who refers stumbling-block to that which results in a wound, and cause of stumbling to that which causes a fall or sin.

    14. I know - am persuaded (oida - pepeismai). "A rare conjunction of words, but fitted here to confirm against ignorance and doubt" (Bengel). For I know, see on John ii. 4. The persuasion is not the result of his own reasoning, but of his fellowship in the Lord Jesus. So Rev, for by the Lord, etc.

    Unclean (koinon). Lit., common. In the Levitical sense, as opposed to holy or pure. Compare Mark vii. 2, "With defiled (koinaiv common), that is to say, with unwashen hands." See Acts x. 14.

    15. Be grieved (lupeitai) The close connection with destroy indicates that the meaning falls short of be destroyed, but is stronger than made to feel pain. It is a hurt to conscience, which, while not necessarily fatal, may lead to violation or hardening of conscience, and finally to fall. Compare 1 Corinthians viii. 9-12.

    Meat (brwma). A general term for food.

    Charitably (kata agaphn). Lit., according to love. Rev. in love. See on 2 Peter i. 6.

    Him (ekeinon). The pronoun has a strongly defining force, explained by the following phrase.

    16. Your good (umwn to agaqon). Referring, most probably, to the liberty of the strong. Others think that the whole Church is addressed, in which case good would refer to the gospel doctrine. 68 Be evil spoken of (blasfhmeisqw). See on blasphemy, Mark vii. 22. In 1 Corinthians x. 30, it is used of evil-speaking by members of the Church, which favors the reference of good to the strong.

    17. The kingdom of God. See on Luke vi. 20, and compare Matt. iii. 2. "The heavenly sphere of life in which God's word and Spirit govern, and whose organ on earth is the Church" (Lange). Not the future, messianic kingdom.

    Meat and drink (brwsiv kai posiv). Rev., eating and drinking. Both words, however, occur frequently in the sense of A.V. Meat (brwma), that which is eaten, occurs in ver. 15. The corresponding word for that which is drunk (pwma) is not found in the New Testament, though poma drink occurs 1 Cor. x. 4; Heb. ix. 10, and both in classical and New-Testament Greek, posiv the act of drinking is used also for that which is drunk. See John vi. 55. A somewhat similar interchange of meaning appears in the popular expression, such a thing is good eating; also in the use of living for that by which one lives.

    Righteousness (dikaiosunh). On its practical, ethical side, as shown in moral rectitude toward men.

    Peace (eirhnh). Not peace with God, reconciliation, as ch. v. 1, but mutual concord among Christians.

    Joy (cara). Common joy, arising out of the prevalence of rectitude and concord in the Church. The whole chapter is concerned with the mutual relations of Christians, rather than with their relations to God In the Holy Ghost. Most commentators construe this with joy only.

    Meyer says it forms one phrase. Compare 1 Thess. i. 6 While this may be correct, I see no objection to construing the words with all these terms. So Godet: "It is this divine guest who, by His presence, produces them in the Church."

    19. Things which make for peace (ta thv eirhnhv). Lit. the things of peace. So the next clause, things of edification. See on build you up, Acts xx. 32. Edification is upbuilding.

    One another (thv eiv allhlouv). The Greek phrase has a defining force which is lost in the translations. Lit., things of edification, that, namely, which is with reference to one another. The definite article thus points Paul's reference to individuals rather than to the Church as a whole.

    20. Destroy (katalue). A different word from that In ver. 15. It means to loosen down, and is used of the destruction of buildings. Hence according with edification in ver. 19. See on Mark xiii. 2; Acts v. 38.

    Work of God. The christian brother, whose christian personality is God's work. See 2 Cor. v. 17; Eph. ii. 10; Jas. i. 18.

    With offense (dia proskommatov). Against his own conscientious scruple. Lit., through or amidst offense.

    21. To eat flesh - drink wine. The two points of the weak brother's special scruple. Omit or is offended or is made weak.

    22. Hast thou faith (su pistin eceiv). The best texts insert hn which. "The faith which thou hast have thou to thyself," etc. So Rev. Condemneth not himself (krinwn). Rev., better, judgeth. Who, in settled conviction of the rightness of his action, subjects himself to no self-judgment after it.

    Alloweth (dokimazei). Rev., approveth. See on 1 Pet. i. 7. "Christian practice ought to be out of the sphere of morbid introspection."

    23. Faith. In Christ. "So far as it brings with it the moral confidence as to what in general and under given circumstances is the right christian mode of action" (Meyer).

    Some authorities insert here the doxology at ch. xvi. 25-27. According to some, the Epistle to the Rom. closed with this chapter. Chapter 16 was a list of disciples resident at different points on the route, who were to be greeted. Phoebe is first named because Cenchreae would be the first stage. Ephesus would be the next stage, where Aquila and Priscilla would be found. Chapter 15 was a sort of private missive to be communicated to all whom the messengers should visit on the way. The question seems to be almost wholly due to the mention of Aquila and Priscilla in ch. 16, and to the fact that there is no account of their migration from Ephesus to Rome, and of an after-migration again to Ephesus (2 Tim. iv. 19). But see on ch. xvi. 14.

    Others claim that chs. 1-11, 16. were the original epistle; that Phoebe's journey was delayed, and that, in the interval, news from Rome led Paul to add 12-15.

    Others again, that ch. 16 was written from Rome to Ephesus.

    Against these theories is the stubborn fact that of the known extant MSS. of Paul (about three hundred) all the MSS. hitherto collated, including all the most important, give these chapters in the received connection and order, with the exception of the doxology. See on the doxology, ch. 16.

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