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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    1 KINGS 10

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    CHAPTER X

    The queen of Sheba visits Solomon, and brings rich presents; and tries him by hard questions, which he readily solves, 1- 3. She expresses great surprise at his wisdom, his buildings, his court, &c.; and praises God for placing him on the Jewish throne, 4-9. She gives him rich presents, 10. What the navy of Hiram brought from Ophir, 11, 12. The queen of Sheba returns, 13. Solomon's annual revenue, 14, 15. He makes two hundred targets and three hundred shields of gold, 16, 17. His magnificent ivory throne, 18-20. His drinking vessels all of gold, 21. What the navy of Tharshish brought every three years to Solomon, 22. His great riches, numerous chariots, and horsemen, 23-27. He brings chariots and horses out of Egypt, 28, 29.

    NOTES ON CHAP. X

    Verse 1. "When the queen of Sheba heard" - As our Lord calls her queen of the south, (Matt. xii. 42), it is likely the name should be written Saba, Azab, or Azaba, all of which signify the south. She is called Balkis by the Arabians, but by the Abyssinians Maqueda. See the account at the end of this chapter. With hard questions.] twdyjb bechidoth; Septuagint, en ainigmasi, riddles. With parables and riddles, says the Arabic.

    Verse 2. "She came to Jerusalem with-spices, &c." - Those who contend that she was queen of the Sabaeans, a people of Arabia Felix, towards the southern extremity of the Red Sea, find several proofs of their opinion:

    1. That the Sabaeans abounded in riches and spices.

    India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabaei "India furnishes ivory, and the effeminate Sabaeans their frankincense." VIRG. Geor. i., ver. 57.

    And again:-

    Divisae arboribus patriae: sola India nigrum Fert ebenum; solis est thurea virga Sabaeis. Geor. ii., ver. 116.

    All sorts of trees their several countries know: Black ebon only will in India grow; And odourous frankincense on the Sabaean bough.

    DRYDEN.- Ubi templum illi centumque Sabaeo Thure calent arae. Where to her fame a hundred altars rise, And pour Sabaean odours to the skies.

    PLINY (Hist. Nat. lib. xii., c. 17) observes, Non alia ligni genera in usu sunt quam odourata; cibosque Sabaei coquunt thuris ligno; alii myrrhae. "The Sabaeans use odourous wood only, and even use the incense tree and myrrh to cook their victuals."

    2. All ancient authors speak, not only of their odouriferous woods, but of their rich gold and silver mines, and of their precious stones. See Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvii., c. 6, &c.

    3. It is also well known that the Sabaeans had queens for their sovereigns, and not kings. So Claudian, in Eutrop. lib. i.- Medis levibusque Sabaeis Imperat hic sexus, reginarumque sub armis Barbariae pars magna jacet.

    By this is meant, says Mr. Bruce, the country between the tropic and mountains of Abyssinia, the country of shepherds, from berber, a shepherd. And he contends that these Sabaeans were a distinct people from the Ethiopians and the Arabs, and that SABA was a distinct state.

    Verse 3. "Solomon told her all her questions" - Riddles, problems, fables, apologues, &c., formed the principal part of the wisdom of the East; indeed they use and delight in them to the present day. See the case of Samson and his friends, Judg. xiv. 12, 14, and the notes there.

    Verse 4. "Had seen all Solomon's wisdom" - By the answers which he gave to her subtle questions.

    "And the house that he had built" - Most probably his own house.

    Verse 5. "The meat of his table" - The immense supply of all kinds of food daily necessary for the many thousands which were fed at and from his table. See chap. iv. 22, 23, and the notes there.

    "And the sitting of his servants" - The various orders and distinctions of his officers.

    "The attendance of his ministers" - See the account of these and their attendance, chap. iv. 1, &c.

    "And their apparel" - The peculiarity of their robes, and their splendour and costliness.

    "And his cup-bearers" - The original wyqm mashkaiv may as well be applied to his beverage, or to his drinking utensils, as to his cup-bearers.

    "And his ascent by which he went up" - It seems very strange that the steps to the temple should be such a separate matter of astonishment. The original is hwhy tyb hl[y ra wtl[w which all the versions have translated, And the holocausts which he offered in the house of the Lord.

    "The Vulgate, Septuagint, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, all express this sense: so does the German translation of Luther, from which, in this place, we have most pitifully departed: And seine Brandopfer, die er in dem Hause des Herrn opferte; "And his burnt-offering which he offered in the house of the Lord." There was no more spirit in her." She was overpowered with astonishment; she fainted. I have seen precisely the same effect produced; a lady who was herself an artist, viewing some exquisitely finished oriental paintings, was so struck with astonishment that she twice nearly fainted, and was obliged to leave the room. What happened to the queen of Sheba is a natural and not an uncommon effect which will be produced in a delicate sensible mind at the sight of rare and extraordinary productions of art.

    Of the profusion of Solomon's sacrifices we have already had proof, chap. viii. 63; ix. 25.

    Verse 8. "Happy are thy men" - All these are very natural expressions from a person in her state of mind.

    Verse 10. "A hundred and twenty talents of gold" - The worth of these one hundred and twenty talents of gold, according to Mr. Reynolds, is equal to 843, 905. 10s. 4 3/4d. of our British sterling. But the spices and precious stones might have been yet of more value. After this verse the 13th should be read, which is here most evidently misplaced; and then the account of the queen of Sheba will be concluded, and that of Solomon's revenue will stand without interruption.

    Verse 11. "Great plenty of almug trees" - In the parallel place, 2 Chron. ix. 10, 11, these are called algum trees, the mem and the g gimel being transposed; probably the latter is the more correct orthography. What the algum trees were we do not exactly know. The Vulgate calls it ligna thyina, the thya or lignum vitae wood; and Mr. Parkhurst thinks that the original ymwgla algumim, comes from la al, not, and g gem, to fill; because the lignum vitae is of so close a texture that it can imbibe no water, and cannot be affected by wet weather. The Septuagint translate it xula pukina, pine timber; the Syriac (Syriac) kaise dakisotho, probably cypress wood, or what the translators render ligna brasilica; the Arabic translates coloured wood, and subjoins a paraphrase, for that wood was by nature painted with various colours. Perhaps the Arabic comesnearest the truth; wood shaded of different colours, such as the rose wood and such like, which are brought to us from various parts of the East Indies. The whole passage as it stands in the Arabic is this: "And the ships of Hiram brought gold from the land of Hind, (India,) and they carried also much coloured wood, (but this wood is naturally painted of various colours,) and very precious jewels.

    And Solomon put some of that same painted wood which was brought to him in the house of the Lord, and in his own house; and with it he adorned them." And for inlaying and veneering nothing can be finer than this wood.

    Verse 13. "All her desire whatsoever she asked" - Some imagine she desired progeny from the wise king of Israel; and all the traditions concerning her state that she had a son by Solomon called Menilek, who was brought up at the Israelitish court, succeeded his mother in the kingdom of Saba, and introduced among his subjects the Jewish religion. See at the end of the chapter.

    Verse 14. "The weight of gold-was six hundred threescore and six talents" - This would amount in our money to 4, 683, 675 12s. 8 1/2d. sterling.

    This seems to be what he got annually of bullion; but independently of this, he had tribute of all the kings of Arabia, duties from merchantmen, and the traffic of spice merchants; see ver. 25.

    Verse 16. "Solomon made two hundred targets of beaten gold" - I have already conjectured that the hnx tsinnah might resemble the Highland targe or target, with a dagger projecting from the UMBO or center.

    Verse 17. "He made three hundred shields" - The gm magen was a large shield by which the whole body was protected.

    Mr. Reynolds computes that the two hundred targets, on each of which were employed three hundred shekels of gold, were worth 28, 131 16s. 9 1/2d.

    And the three hundred shields, in forming each of which three pounds of gold were employed, were worth 210, 976 7s. 7d.

    Verse 19. "The throne was round behind: and there were stays on either side" - This description seems to indicate that the throne was in the form of one of our ancient round-topped, two-armed chairs. This throne or chair of state was raised on a platform, the ascent to which consisted of six steps.

    What we call stays is in the Hebrew tdy yadoth, hands, which serves to confirm the conjecture above.

    Verse 22. "A navy of Tharshish" - For probable conjectures concerning this place, and the three years' voyage, see at the end of this and the preceding chapter. Apes] ypq kophim; probably a species of monkey rather than ape.

    Verse 23. "Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches" - Mr. Reynolds, stating the yearly tribute of Solomon, 666 talents of gold, at about four times as much as his father left him, hence reckons that he had 4, 909, 371 8s. 8d. each year, 94, 410 19s. 9 1/4d. per week, 13, 487 5s. 8d. per day, taking each day, week, and year, one with another.

    Verse 25. "They brought every man his present" - This means tribute; and it shows us of what sort that tribute was, viz., vessels of gold and silver, probably ingots; garments of very rich stuffs; armour, for little of this kind was ever made in Judea; spices, which doubtless sold well in that country; horses, which were very rare; and mules, the most necessary animal for all the purposes of life.

    Verse 26. "He had a thousand and four hundred chariots" - See the note on chap. iv. 26.

    Verse 27. "Made silver-as stones" - He destroyed its value by making it so exceedingly plenty.

    "As the sycamore trees" - He planted many cedars, and doubtless had much cedar wood imported; so that it became as common as the sycamore trees, which appear to have grown there in great abundance. This is considered to be a tree that partakes of the nature of the fig tree, and of the mulberry. Of the former it has the fruit, and of the latter the leaves; that is, the fruit had a considerable resemblance to the fig, and the leaf to that of the mulberry tree: hence its name sycamore, from the Greek sukon, a fig, and morea, a mulberry tree.

    Verse 28. "Horses brought out of Egypt" - It is thought that the first people who used horses in war were the Egyptians; and it is well known that the nations who knew the use of this creature in battle had greatly the advantage of those who did not. God had absolutely prohibited horses to be imported or used; but in many things Solomon paid little attention to the Divine command.

    "And linen yarn" - The original word, hwqm mikveh, is hard to be understood, if it be not indeed a corruption.

    The versions are all puzzled with it: the Vulgate and Septuagint make it a proper name: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and from Coa, or Tekoa." Some think it signifies a tribute, thus Bochart: "They brought horses to Solomon out of Egypt; and as to the tribute, the farmers of this prince received it at a price." They farmed the tribute, gave so much annually for it, taking the different kinds to themselves, and giving a round sum for the whole.

    Some suppose that MIKVEH signifies the string or cord by which one horse's head is tied to the tail of another; and that the meaning is, Solomon brought droves of horses, thus tied, out of Egypt.

    Rabbi Solomon Jarchi, in his comment on the parallel place, 2 Chron. i. 14, says that hwqm mikveh signifies a collection or drove of horses, or what the Germans call stutte, a stud. He observes on that place, "That he has heard that there was a company of merchants in Egypt, who bought horses from the Egyptians at a certain price, on condition that no person should be permitted to bring a horse out of Egypt but through them." Houbigant supposes the place to be corrupt, and that for hwqm mikveh we should read hbkrm mercabah, chariots: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and chariots; and the king's merchants received the chariots at a price: and a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver," &c. This makes a very good and consistent sense; but none of the versions acknowledged it, nor is there any various reading here in any of the MSS. yet collated.

    If we understand it of thread, it may refer to the byssus or fine flax for which Egypt was famous; but I do not see on what authority we translate it linen thread. Bochart's opinion appears to me the most probable, as the text now stands; but the charge contended for by Houbigant makes the text far more simple and intelligible.

    Verse 29. "A chariot came up-for six hundred shekels" - This was the ordinary price of a chariot, as a hundred and fifty shekels were for a horse.

    "Kings of the Hittites" - These must have been the remains of the original inhabitants of Canaan, who had gone to some other country, probably Syria, and formed themselves into a principality there. It seems that neither horses nor chariots came out of Egypt but by means of Solomon's servants.

    MR. BRUCE'S ACCOUNT OF SOLOMON'S VOYAGE TO OPHIR

    "WE are not to wonder, if the prodigious hurry and flow of business, and the immensely valuable transactions they had with each other, had greatly familiarized the Tyrians and Jews with their correspondents, the Cushites and shepherds, on the coast of Africa. This had gone so far as, very naturally, to create a desire in the queen of Azab, the sovereign of that country, to go herself and see the application of the immense treasures that had been exported from her country for a series of years, and the prince who so magnificently employed them. There can be no doubt of this expedition; as Pagan, Arab, Moor, Abyssinian, and all the countries around, vouch for it nearly in the terms of Scripture.

    "Her name, the Arabs say, was Belkis; the Abyssinians, Maqueda. Our saviour calls her queen of the south, without mentioning any other name, but gives his sanction to the truth of the voyage. 'The queen of the south (or Saba, or Azab) shall rise up in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it, for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold a greater than Solomon is here.' No other particulars, however, are mentioned about her in Scripture; and it is not probable that our saviour would have said she came from the uttermost parts of the earth, if she had been an Arab, and had near fifty degrees of the continent behind her. But when we consider that the boundaries of the known land, to the southward, were at that time Raptum or Prassum, as we have just seen, these, being the uttermost parts of the known earth, were, with great propriety, so styled by our saviour; and of these she was undoubtedly sovereign. The gold, the myrrh, cassia, and frankincense were all the produce of her own country.

    "Whether she was a Jewess or a pagan is uncertain. Sabaism was the religion of all the East; it was the constant attendant and stumbling block of the Jews: but considering the multitude of that people then trading from Jerusalem, and the long time it continued, it is not improbable she was a Jewess. 'And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions,' 1 Kings x. 1; 2 Chron. ix. 1. Our saviour moreover speaks of her with praise, pointing her out as an example to the Jews. And in her thanksgiving before Solomon, she alludes to God's blessing on the seed of Israel for ever, which is by no means the language of a pagan, but of a person skilled in the ancient history of this nation.

    "She likewise appears to have been a person of learning, and of that sort of learning which was then almost peculiar to Palestine, not to Ethiopia; for we know that one of the reasons of her coming was to examine whether Solomon was really the learned man he was said to be. She came to try him in allegories or parables, in which Nathan had instructed him.

    "The annals of the Abyssinians, being very full upon this point, have taken a middle opinion, and by no means an improbable one. They say she was a pagan when she left Azab, but, being full of admiration at Solomon's works, she was converted to Judaism in Jerusalem, and bore him a son whom he called Menilek, and who was their first king.

    "The Abyssinians, both Jews and Christians, believe the forty-fifth Psalm to be a prophecy of the queen's voyage to Jerusalem; that she was attended by a daughter of Hiram's from Tyre to Jerusalem; and that the last part of it contains a declaration of her having a son by Solomon, who was to be a king over a nation of the Gentiles.

    "To Saba or Azab, then, she returned with her son Menilek; whom, after keeping him some years, she sent back to his father to be instructed.

    Solomon did not neglect his charge; and he was anointed and crowned king of Ethiopia in the temple of Jerusalem, and at his inauguration took the name of David. After this he returned to Azab, and brought with him a colony of Jews, among whom were many doctors of the law of Moses, particularly one of each tribe, to make judges of in his kingdom; from whom the present umbares, or supreme judges (three of whom always attended the king) are said and believed to be descended. With these came also Azarias, the son of Zadok the priest, and brought with him a Hebrew transcript of the law, which was delivered into his custody, as he bore the title of nebret, or high priest; and this charge, though the book itself was burnt with the church of Axum in the Moorish war of Adel, is still continued, as it is said, in the lineage of Azarias, who are nebrets, or keepers of the church of Axum, at this day. All Abyssinia was thereupon converted, and the government of the church and state modelled according to what was then in use at Jerusalem.

    "By the last act of the queen of Saba's reign, she settled the mode of succession in her country for the future. First, she enacted, that the crown should be hereditary in the family of Solomon for ever. Secondly, that, after her, no woman should be capable of wearing that crown, or being queen; but that it should descend to the heir male, however distant, in exclusion of all heirs female, however near; and that these two articles should be considered as the fundamental laws of the kingdom, never to be altered or abolished. And, lastly, that the heirs male of the royal house should always be sent prisoners to a high mountain, where they were to continue till their death, or till the succession should open to them.

    "The queen of Saba having made these laws irrevocable by all her posterity, died after a long reign of forty years, in 986 before Christ, placing her son Menilek upon the throne, whose posterity, the annals of Abyssinia would teach us to believe, have ever since reigned. So far, indeed, we must bear witness to them that this is no new doctrine, but has been steadfastly and uniformly maintained from their earliest account of time; first, when Jews, then in later days, after they had embraced Christianity. We may farther add, that the testimony of all the neighbouring nations is with them on this subject, whether friends or enemies. They only differ in the name of the queen, or in giving her two names.

    "I shall therefore now give a list of their kings of the race of Solomon, descended from the queen of Saba, whose device is a lion passant, proper, upon a field gules; and their motto, Mo Anbasa am Nizilet Solomon am Negade Juda; which signifies 'The lion of the race of Solomon and tribe of Judah hath overcome.' List of the kings of Abyssinia, from Maqueda, Queen of Saba, to the Nativity Reigned yrs. Reigned Yrs.

    Menilek, or David I. 4 Katzina. 9 Hendedya,or Zagdur . 1 Wazeha 1 Awida 11 Hazer 2 Ausyi 3 Kalas 6 Sawe 31 Solaya 16 Gesaya 15 Falaya 26 Katar 15 Aglebu 3 Mouta 20 Asisena. 1 Bahas 9 Brus 29 Kawida 2 Mohesa 1 Kanaza 10 Bazen 16 Bruce's Travels, vol. ii., p. 395.

    Mr. Bruce justly finds fault with this table as being defective; several kings must necessarily have been lost out of this list. It is probably a late invention, the genealogical tables having been lost or destroyed; and no wonder when we consider the numerous predatory wars in which the people of Abyssinia have been frequently engaged.

    I need scarcely add that the very learned Samuel Bochart has endeavoured to prove by arguments not to be despised, that the Scripture Ophir is the island Taprobanes or Serendib, now called Ceylon. With any other opinions on this subject I think it unnecessary to trouble the reader. That the voyage which Mr. Bruce describes would take up three years, I think he has satisfactorily proved; but on other points and resemblances many readers will doubtless hesitate, while some may suppose his theory is the most plausible of any yet offered to the public on this very obscure subject.

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