Verse 14. "Shall a tumult arise" - The enemy shall soon fall upon thy people, and take all thy fortified places.
"As Shalman spoiled Beth-arbel" - Some think that this refers to Jerubbaal, or Gideon's victory over Zalmunna, general of the Midianites; see Judg. vii., viii. Others think that an allusion is made here to the destruction of Arbela, a city of Armenia, by Shalmaneser, here called Shalman; and this while he was only general of the Assyrian forces, and not yet king. I think the history to which this refers is unknown. It seems that it was distinguished by some remarkable ferocities.
"The mother was dashed in pieces upon her children." - But when, where, how, and by whom, still remain unknown. Conjecture in such a case must be useless.
Verse 15. "So shall Beth-el do unto you" - This shall be the consequence of your idolatry.
"In a morning shall the king of Israel utterly be cut off." - Suddenly, unexpectedly. Hoshea, the king of Israel, shall be cut off by the Assyrians.
There are some allusions to facts in this chapter, which cannot be easily verified, as we have not sufficient acquaintance with the history of those times.