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  • ADAM CLARKE'S BIBLE COMMENTARY -
    ISAIAH 38

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    CHAPTER XXXVIII

    Account of Hezekiah's dangerous sickness and miraculous recovery, 1-9. Tender and beautiful song of thanksgiving, in which this pious king breathed out the sentiments of a grateful heart, when his life was, as it were, restored. This ode may be adapted to other cases; and will always afford profit and pleasure to those who are not void of feeling and piety, 10-22.

    NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVIII

    Verse 1. "In those days" - The reader is requested to consult the notes on 2 Kings xx. in reference to the principal parts of this chapter.

    Verse 2. "Then Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall" - The furniture of an eastern divan or chamber, either for the reception of company or for private use, consists chiefly of carpets spread on the floor in the middle; and of sofas, or couches ranged on one or more sides of the room, on a part raised somewhat above the floor. On these they repose themselves in the day, and sleep at night. It is to be observed that the corner of the room is the place of honour. Dr. Pococke, when he was introduced to the Sheikh of Furshout, found him sitting in the corner of his room. He describes another Arab Sheikh "as sitting in the corner of a large green tent, pitched in the middle of an encampment of Arabs; and the Bey of Girge as placed on a sofa in a corner to the right as one entered the room." -Harmer's Observ.

    ii. p. 60. Lady Mary Montague, giving an account of a visit which she made to the Kahya's lady at Adrianople, says, "She ordered cushions to be given me; and took care to place me in the corner, which is the place of honour." -Letter xxxiii. The reason of this seems to be, that the person so placed is distinguished, and in a manner separated, from the rest of the company, and as it were guarded by the wall on each side. We are to suppose Hezekiah's couch placed in the same situation; in which turning on either side, he must turn his face to the wall; by which he would withdraw himself from those who were attending upon him in his apartment, in order to address his private prayer to God.

    Verse 3. And he said, I beseech thee, O JEHOVAH, remember now how I have endeavoured to walk before thee in truth, and with a perfect heart; and have done that which is good in thine eyes. And Hezekiah wept, and lamented grievously. - L.

    Verse 4. "Now [before Isaiah was gone out into the middle court" - the word of JEHOVAH came unto him, saying, Go [back,] and say unto Hezekiah, Thus saith JEHOVAH the God of David thy father, I have heard thy supplication; I have seen thy tears. Behold [I will heal thee; and on the third day thou shalt go up into the house of JEHOVAH.

    Verse 5. "And" - I will add unto thy days fifteen years. And I will deliver thee, and this city, from the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will protect this city. And [Hezekiah said, By what sign shall I know that I shall go up into the house of JEHOVAH?

    Verse 7. "And Isaiah said," - This shall be the sign unto thee from JEHOVAH, that JEHOVAH still bring to effect this word which he hath spoken.

    The words in the translation included within crotchets are supplied from the parallel place, 2 Kings xx. 4, 5, to make the narration more perfect. I have also taken the liberty, with Houbigant, of bringing forward the two last verses of this chapter, and inserting them in their proper places of the narration with the same mark. Kimchi's note on these two verses is as follows: "This and the following verse belong not to the writing of Hezekiah; and I see no reason why they are written here after the writing; for their right place is above, after And I will protect this city, ver. 6. And so they stand in the book of Kings, "2 Kings xx. 7, 8. The narration of this chapter seems to be in some parts an abridgment of that of 2 Kings xx. The abridger, having finished his extract here with the eleventh verse, seems to have observed, that the seventh and eighth verses of 2 Kings xx. were wanted to complete the narration: he therefore added them at the end of the chapter, after he had inserted the song of Hezekiah, probably with marks for their insertion in their proper places; which marks were afterwards neglected by transcribers. Or a transcriber might omit them by mistake, and add them at the end of the chapter with such marks. Many transpositions are, with great probability, to be accounted for in the same way.

    Verse 6. "I will defend this city." - The other copy, 2 Kings xx. 6, adds: "for mine own sake, and for the sake of David my servant; " and the sentence seems somewhat abrupt without it.

    Verse 8. "Which is gone down "By which the sun is gone down"" - For mb bashshemesh, the Septuagint, Syriac, and Chaldee read mh , hashshemesh. - Houbigant. In the history of this miracle in the book of Kings, (2 Kings xx. 9-11,) there is no mention at all made of the sun, but only of the going backward of the shadow: which might be effected by a supernatural refraction. The first o hliov, the sun, in this verse is omitted in the Septuagint, MS. Pachom.

    Verse 9. "The writing of Hezekiah" - Here the book of Kings deserts us, the song of Hezekiah not being inserted in it. Another copy of this very obscure passage (obscure not only from the concise poetical style, but because it is probably very incorrect) would have been of great service.

    The MSS. and ancient Versions, especially the latter, will help us to get through some of the many difficulties which we meet with in it.

    Verse 11. "The Lord "JEHOVAH"" - hy Yah, hy Yah, seems to be hwhy Yehovah, in MS. Bodl., and it was so at first written in another. So the Syriac. See Houbigant. I believe hwhy Yehovah was the original reading. See the note on chap. xii. 2.

    Verse 12. "Mine age-is removed from me as a shepherd's tent" - y[r roi is put for h[r roeh, say the rabbis (Sal. Den Melec on the place;) but much more probably is written imperfectly for y[r roim, shepherds. See note on chap. v. 1.

    "I shall be removed from this state to another, as a shepherd removes his tent from one place to another for the sake of his flock. Is not this a strong intimation of his belief in a future state? I have cut off like a weaver my life "My life is cut off as by the weaver"" - ytdpq kippadti. This verb is rendered passively, and in the third person, by the Syriac, Chaldee, and Vulgate.

    Verse 13. The last line of the foregoing verse ynmylt hlyl d[ wym migom ad layelah tashlimeni, "In the course of the day thou wilt finish my web; " or, as the common version has it, "From day even to night wilt thou make an end of me, "is not repeated at the end of this verse in the Syriac version; and a MS. omits it. It seems to have been inserted a second time in the Hebrew text by mistake.

    "I reckoned till morning, &c. "I roared until the morning like the lion"" - For ytyw shivvithi, the Chaldee has tymhn nihameith: he read ytga shaagti, the proper term for the roaring of a lion; often applied to the deep groaning of men in sickness. See Psalm 22., xxxii. 3; xxxviii. 9; Job iii. 24.

    The Masoretes divide the sentence, as I have done; taking yrak caari, like a lion, into the first member; and so likewise the Septuagint.

    Verse 14. "Like-a swallow "Like the swallow"" - sysk kesis; so read two MSS., Theodot., and Hieron.

    "Mine eyes fail" - For wld dallu the Septuagint read wlk calu, exelipon.

    Compare Psa. lxix. 4; cxix. 82, 123; Lam. ii. 11; iv. 17, in the Hebrew and in the Septuagint.

    "O LORD "O Lord"" - For hwhy Jehovah, thirty MSS. and eight editions read ynda Adonai.

    "Undertake for me "Contend for me"" - hq[ ashekah, with shin, Jarchi: this sense of the word is established by Gen. xxvi. 20: "He called the name of the well q[ esek, because they strove with him: " wq[th hithasseku, equivalent to wbyry yaribu, at the beginning of the verse.

    Verse 15. "I shall go softly all my years in the bitterness of my soul "Through the rest of my years will I reflect on this bitterness of my soul"" - hdda eddaddeh; recogitabo, Vulg., reputabo, Hieron. in loc.

    Verse 16. "By these things men live "For this cause shall it be declared"" - peri authv gar anhggelh soi, kai exhgeirav mou thn pnohn, Sept. They read in their copies yjwr yyjtw l wwjy hyl[ not very different from the present text, from which all the ancient Versions vary. They entirely omit two words, hb lklw ulecol bahen; as to which there is some variation in the MSS. One MS. has lkbw ubechol, and in all; two others lkw vechol, and all, and ten MSS. have hb bahem, in them, in the masculine gender.

    Taking this as in the common Version, we may observe, it is not an unfrequent case, that afflictions, and especially such as tend to a speedy death, become the means, not only of saving the soul, but also of lengthening the life.

    "Make me to live "Hast prolonged my life."" - A MSS. and the Babylonish Talmud read ynyjtw vetachayeni, and so the ancient Versions. It must necessarily be in the second person.

    Verse 17. "For peace I had great bitterness "My anguish is changed into ease"" - rm yl rm mar li mar, "mutata mthi est amaritudo. " Paronomasia; a figure which the prophet frequently admits. I do not always note it, because it cannot ever be preserved in the translation, and the sense seldom depends upon it. But here it perfectly clears up the great obscurity of the passage. See Lowth on the place.

    "Thou hast rescued" - tkj chashachta, with k caph, instead of q koph; so the Septuagint and Vulgate; Houbigant. See Chappelow on Job xxxiii. 18.

    "From perdition" - ylb tjm mishshachath beli, ina mh apolhtai, Sept. ut non periret, "that it may not perish. " Vulg. Perhaps inverting the order of the words. See Houbigant.

    "Thou hast in love to my soul" - tqj chashakta, "thou hast lovingly embraced " or kissed "my soul out of the pit of corruption."

    Verse 19. "Thy truth" - tma la el amittecha. A MS. omits la el; and instead of la el, an ancient MS. and one edition read ta eth. The same mistake as in Psa. ii. 7.

    Verse 21. "Let them take a lump of figs, &c." - God, in effecting this miraculous cure, was pleased to order the use of means not improper for that end. "Folia, et, quae non maturuere, fici, strumis illinuntur omnibusque quae emollienda sunt discutiendave." -PLIN. Nat. Hist. xxiii. 7.

    "Ad discutienda ea, quae in corporis parte aliqua coierunt, maxime possunt-ficus arida, "&c. - CELSUS, v. 11. See the note on 2 Kings xx. 7.

    Philemon Holland translates the passage as a medical man: "The milke or white juice that the figge tree yieldeth is of the same nature that vinegre: and therefore it will cruddle milke as well as rennet, or rendles. The right season of gathering this milkie substance is before that the figs be ripe upon the tree; and then it must be dried in the shadow: thus prepared, it is good to break impostumes, and keepe ulcer open."

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