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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - 2CORINTHIANS 11

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    CHAPTER XI

    1. Folly. As my boasting may seem to you. Ironically spoken of that legitimate self-vindication demanded by the circumstances. Rev., foolishness.

    Bear with me (anecesqe). Some render as indicative: ye do bear with me.

    2. I am jealous (zhlw). The translation is correct. The word is appropriate to the image which follows, in which Paul represents himself as the marriage-friend who has betrothed the bride to the bridegroom, and consequently shares the bridegroom's jealousy of his bride (see on John iii. 29). Compare the Old-Testament passages in which God is represented as the spouse of His people: Isa. liv. 5; lxii. 5; Jer. iii. 1; Ezek. xvi. 8; Hos. ii. 18, 19. For the different senses of the word, see on envying, Jas. iii. 14. 156 Theodoret's comment on the passage is: "I was your wooer for your husband, and the mediator of your marriage; through me you received the bridegroom's gifts; wherefore I am now affected with jealousy."

    I have espoused (hrmosamhn). Only here in the New Testament. Lit., have fitted together. Used in the classics of carpenter's or joiner's work; of arranging music, tuning instruments, and fitting clothes or armor. As here, of betrothing or taking to wife. The Septuagint usage is substantially the same.

    Present. Compare Eph. v. 27.

    3. The serpent. Paul's only allusion to the story of the serpent in Eden. Eve. In accordance with the representation of the Church as the bride. Simplicity that is in Christ. Rev. adds, and the purity, following Westcott and Hort's text. Simplicity, single-hearted loyalty. In Christ; better, as Rev., towards (eiv).

    4. Another Jesus - another Spirit (allon - eteron). Rev., another Jesus, a different Spirit. See on Matt. vi. 24. Another denies the identity; a different denies the similarity of nature. It is the difference of "individuality and kind" (Alford). See on Gal. i. 6, 7.

    Ye might well bear (kalwv hneicesqe). Following the reading which makes the verb in the imperfect tense, putting the matter as a supposed case. The Rev. follows the reading ajnecesqe, present tense, and puts it as a fact: ye do well to bear. Lit., ye endure them finely. The expression is ironical. You gladly endure these false teachers, why do you not endure me?

    5. The very chiefest apostles (twn uperlian apostolwn). Lit., those who are preeminently apostles. Not referring to the genuine apostles, but ironically to the false teachers, the false apostles of ver. 13. Compare ch. xii. 11. Farrar renders the extra-super apostles.

    6. Rude (idiwthv). See on 1 Cor. xiv. 16.

    Have been made manifest (fanerwqentev). The correct reading is fanerwsantev, active voice, we have made it manifest.

    7. Abasing myself. By working at his trade.

    Preached the Gospel - freely (dwrean) gratuitously. Rev., for nought, is not an improvement, but is quite as ambiguous as freely. Without charge would be better. Paul's very self-denial in this matter had been construed to his injury by his opponents, as indicating his want of confidence in the Corinthian Church, and his making gain for himself under the guise of disinterestedness. It was also urged that a real apostle would not thus relinquish his right to claim subsistence from the Church. Hence his question, Did I commit a sin, etc.?

    8. I robbed (esulhsa). Only here in the New Testament, though it appears in the verb iJerosulew to commit sacrilege, Rom. ii. 22, and in iJerosuloi robbers of churches, Acts xix. 37. Originally to strip off, as arms from a slain foe, and thence, generally, to rob, plunder, with the accompanying notion of violence. Paul thus strongly expresses the fact that he had accepted from other churches more than their share, that he might not draw on the Corinthians.

    Wages (oywnion). See on Rom. vi. 23.

    9. I was chargeable (katenarkhsa). Only in this epistle. From narkh numbnees, deadness; also a torpedo or gymnotus, which benumbs whatever touches it. Compare Homer: "His hand grew stiff at the wrist" ("Iliad," viii., 328). Meno says to Socrates: "You seem to me both in your appearance and in your power over others, to be very like the flat torpedo-fish (narkh), who torpifies (narkan poiei) those who come near him with the touch, as you have now torpified (narkan) me, I think" (Plato, "Meno," 80). The compound verb used here occurs in Hippocrates in the sense of growing quite stiff. The simple verb occurs in the Sept., Gen. xxxii. 25, 32, of Jacob's thigh, which was put out of joint and shrank. Compare Job xxxiii. 19. According to the etymology of the word, Paul would say that he did not benumb the Corinthians by his demand for pecuniary aid. Rev., rather mildly, I was not a burden.

    10. No man shall stop me of this boasting (h kauchsiv auth ou fraghsetai eiv eme). Lit., this boasting shall not be blocked up as regards me. The boasting is that of preaching gratuitously. For the verb, compare Rom. iii. 19; Heb. xi. 33.

    12. I will do. Will continue to do; refuse to receive pay.

    Cut off (ekkoyw). Lit., cut out. See on Luke xiii. 7, and compare Romans xi. 24.

    Occasion (thn aformhn). The force of the article must be carefully noted; the particular occasion of fault-finding which concerned his pecuniary relations with the Corinthians. His refusal to receive pay cut out from among other causes of complaint this one.

    They may be found even as we. I can find no satisfactory explanation of this clause, and will not attempt to add to the hopeless muddle of the commentators. It is evident that the false teachers had sought occasion for glorifying themselves in comparison with Paul; that they consequently caught eagerly at every pretext for disparaging him; and that this disparagement was in some way connected with Paul's refusal to receive compensation from the Corinthians. Further, that Paul's way of counteracting their attempts was by persisting in this refusal. The intimation in the last clause is apparently to the effect that by this course he will not only remove the occasion for attack, but that the result will show both his opponents and himself in their true light. Compare find and be found, ch. xii. 20.

    13. Transforming themselves (metaschmatizomenoi). Rev., better, fashioning, thus preserving the distinctive force of schma outward fashion, which forms part of the compound verb. See on Matt. xvii. 2; 1 Corinthians iv. 6.

    14. Satan. See on Luke x. 18. The rabbinical writings represent the devil rather as the enemy of man than of God or of good. They use none of the New-Testament names for the Evil One except Satan, and contain no mention of a kingdom of Satan. Edersheim says: "Instead of the personified principle of evil to which there is response in us - we have only a clumsy and often a stupid hater." 157 It is also to be observed that in the Septuagint the usage is limited to the enemy of man, as is that of diabolov devil by which Satan is translated. See 1 Chron. xxi. 1; Esther vii. 4; viii. 1; Psalm 108 (109.) 5; Job i. 6; Zech. iii. 1, 2.

    17. Confidence (upostasei). See on ch. ix. 4.

    20. Bringeth you into bondage (katadouloi). Only here and Galatians ii. 4, where it is used of the efforts of the Jewish party to bring the christian Church under the ceremonial law. Compare Gal. v. 1.

    Devour (katesqiei). Your property. Compare Matt. xxiii. 14.

    Take (lambanei). A.V. supplies of you, evidently with reference to property, which has already been touched upon in devour. The meaning is to take as a prey, as Luke v. 5.

    Exalteth himself (epairetai). As ch. x. 5. It is noticeable that these are the only two instances out of nineteen in the New Testament where the word is used figuratively.

    Smite you on the face. The climax of insult. Compare Matt. v. 39; Luke xxii. 64; Acts xxiii. 2. Also the injunction to a bishop not to be a striker, 1 Tim. iii. 3; Tit. i. 7. Stanley notes the decree of the Council of Braga, A.D. 675, that no bishop, at his will and pleasure, shall strike his clergy.

    21. As concerning reproach (kata atimian). Better, Rev., by way of disparagement. Intensely ironical. Yes, you have borne with these enslavers and devourers and smiters. I could never ask you to extend such toleration to me. I speak as one without position or authority, having shown myself weak as you know.

    I speak foolishly (en afrosunh). Rev., in foolishness. My pretensions are equal to theirs, but, of course, it is folly to advance them, and they amount to nothing. Yet, even speaking in this foolish way, I possess every qualification on which they plume themselves.

    22. Hebrews. See on Acts vi. 1.

    Israelites. See on Acts iii. 12, and compare Philip. iii. 5, and the phrase Israel of God, Gal. vi. 16, and an Israelite indeed, John i. 48. Seed of Abraham. Compare Matt. iii. 9; John viii. 33; Rom. ix. 7; xi. 1; Gal. iii. 16; Heb. ii. 16. The three names are arranged climactically, Hebrews pointing to the nationality; Israelites to the special relation to God's covenant; seed of Abraham to the messianic privilege. Compare with the whole, Philip. iii. 4, 5.

    23. Ministers of Christ Referring to his opponents' claim to have a closer connection with Christ than he had. See the note on 1 Corinthians i. 12.

    As a fool (parafronwn). Only here in the New Testament. See the kindred parafronia madness, 2 Pet. ii. 16. Lit., being beside myself Rev., as one beside myself. This expression is stronger than that in ver. 21, because the statement which it characterizes is stronger. Up to this point Paul has been asserting equality with the other teachers. Now he asserts superiority "I more;" and ironically characterizes this statement from their stand-point as madness.

    More abundant (perissoterwv). Lit., more abundantly, as Rev. Stripes above measure (uperballontwv). This peculiar form of suffering is emphasized by details. He specifies three Roman scourgings, and five at the hands of the Jews. Of the former, only one is recorded, that at Philippi (Acts xvi. 22, 23. See on Acts xxii. 25), and none of the latter. The Jewish scourge consisted of two thongs made of calf's or ass's skin, passing through a hole in a handle. Thirteen blows were inflicted on the breast, thirteen on the right, and thirteen on the left shoulder. The law in Deut. xxv. 3 permitted forty blows, but only thirty-nine were given, in order to avoid a possible miscount. During the punishment the chief judge read aloud Deut. xxviii. 58, 59; Deut. xxix. 9; Psalm lxviii. 38, 39. The possibility of death under the infliction was contemplated in the provision which exonerated the executioner unless he should exceed the legal number of blows. Paul escaped Roman scourging at Jerusalem on the ground of his Roman citizenship. It is not related that he and Silas urged this privilege at Philippi until after the scourging. It is evident from the narrative that they were not allowed a formal hearing before the magistrates; and, if they asserted their citizenship, it may have been that their voices were drowned by the mob. That this plea did not always avail appears from the case cited by Cicero against Verres, that he scourged a Roman citizen in spite of his continued protest under the scourge, "I am a Roman citizen" (see on Acts xvi. 37), and from well-known instances of the scourging of even senators under the Empire.

    Prisons. At Philippi, and other places not recorded.

    Deaths. Perils of death, as at Damascus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea.

    25. Beaten with rods. Roman scourgings.

    Stoned. At Lystra, Acts xiv. 19.

    Thrice I suffered shipwreck. The shipwreck at Malta, being later, is, of course, not referred to; so that no one of these three is on record. 158 A night and a day (nucqhmeron). A compound term occurring only here in the New Testament, and rarely in later Greek.

    Have I been in the deep (en tw buqw pepoihka). Lit., I have made (spent) a night and a day in the deep. For a similar use of poiew to make, see Acts xv. 33; xviii. 23; xx. 3; Jas. iv. 13. buqov bottom or depth occurs only here. Of the event itself there is no record.

    26. Perils of rivers. From the sudden swelling of mountain streams or flooding of dry water-courses. "The rivers of Asia Minor, like all the rivers in the Levant, are liable to violent and sudden changes, and no district in Asia Minor is more singularly characterized by its water-floods than the mountainous tract of Pisidia, where rivers burst out at the bases of huge cliffs, or dash down wildly through narrow ravines" (Conybeare and Howson, i., ch. 6.).

    Robbers. The tribes inhabiting the mountains between the table-land of Asia Minor and the coast were notorious for robbery. Paul may have encountered such on his journey to the Pisidian Antioch, Acts xiii. 14. Mine own countrymen. Conspiracies of the Jews at Damascus, Lystra, Thessalonica, Beroea, etc.

    The Gentiles. As at Philippi and Ephesus.

    False brethren. Judaizing Christians, as Gal. ii. 4.

    27. Watchings. See on ch. vi. 5.

    28. Those things that are without (twn parektov). Some explain, external calamities; others, the things which are left out in the enumeration, as Matt. v. 32; Acts xxvi. 29. Better, the latter, so that the literal meaning is, apart from the things which are beside and outside my enumeration: or, as Alford, not to mention those which are beside these. The word does not occur in classical Greek, and no instance of its usage in the former sense occurs in the New Testament or in the Septuagint. See Rev., margin.

    That which cometh upon me (episustasiv). Lit., a gathering together against. Both here and Acts xxiv. 12, the best texts read ejpistasiv onset. Rev., that which presseth upon me. "The crowd of cares."

    Farrar remarks upon vers. 23-28, that it is "the most marvelous record ever written of any biography; a fragment beside which the most imperiled lives of the most suffering saints shrink into insignificance, and which shows us how fractional at the best is our knowledge of the details of St. Paul's life." Eleven of the occurrences mentioned here are not alluded to in Acts.

    29. Burn. With sorrow over the stumbling or with indignation over the cause. This and 1 Cor. vii. 9 are the only instances in which the word is used figuratively.

    30. The things which concern mine infirmities (ta thv asqeneiav mou). He will be attested as a true apostle by the sufferings which show his weakness, which make him contemptible in his adversaries' eyes, and not by the strength of which his opponents boast.

    31. Blessed, etc. See on Rom. ix. 5, and compare Rom. i. 25.

    32. The governor (eqnarchv). Only here in the New Testament. A governor ruling in the name of a king: a prefect.

    Aretas. Or Hareth, the father-in-law of Herod Antipas. Hs capital was the rock-city of Petra, the metropolis of Arabia Petraea. Herod's unfaithfulness to his daughter brought on a quarrel, in which Herod's army was defeated, to the great delight of the Jews. The further prosecution of the war by Roman troops was arrested by the death of Tiberius, and it is supposed that Caligula assigned Damascus as a free gift to Aretas.

    Kept with a garrison (efrourei). Imperfect tense, was maintaining a constant watch. Compare Acts ix. 24: They watched the gates day and night.

    To apprehend (piasai). See on Acts iii. 7.

    33. Through a window (dia quridov). Only here and Acts xx. 9.

    Diminutive of qura a door. The same expression is used in Sept., Joshua ii. 15, of the escape of the spies from Jericho, and 1 Sam. xix. 12, of David's escape from Saul by the aid of Michal.

    Basket (sarganh). Lit., braided work; a rope-basket or hamper. Luke, in his narrative of the incident, uses spuriv, for which see on Matthew xiv. 20.

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