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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - 2TIMOTHY 3

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    CHAPTER III

    1. Comp. the beginning of 1 Timothy 4.

    This know (touto ginwske). The phrase N.T.o . Comp. Paul's ginwskein uJmav boulomai I would have you to know, Philippians. i. 12; and qelw de uJmav eijdenai I would you should know, 1 Corinthians. xi. 3.

    In the last days (ep escataiv hmeraiv). The phrase only here in Pastorals, Acts ii. 17, James. v. 3. Similar expressions are ejn kairw ejscatw in the last season, 1 Pet. i. 5: ejp' ejscatou twn cronwn at the last of the times, 1 Pet. i. 20: ejp' ejscatou cronou at the last time, Jude xviii. ejp' ejscatwn twn hJmerwn at the last of the days, 2 Pet. iii. 3: ejn uJsteroiv kairoiv in the latter seasons, 1 Tim. iv. 1. The times immediately preceding Christ's second appearing are meant. Comp. Heb. i. 2; James. v. 3.

    Perilous times (kairoi calepoi). Only here and Matt. viii. 28. Lit. hard times: schwere Zeiten. Kairov. denotes a definite, specific season. See on Matt. xii. 1; Acts i. 17.

    Shall come (ensthsontai). Or will set in. Mostly in Paul. Only here in Pastorals. See on Gal. i. 4.

    2. Lovers of their own selves (filautoi). Better, lovers of self. N.T.o . LXX. Aristotle, De Repub. ii. 5, says: "It is not loving one's self, but loving it unduly, just as the love of possessions."

    Covetous (filarguroi). Better, lovers of money. Only here and Luke xvi. 14. For the noun filarguria love of money, see on 1 Tim. vi. 10. Love of money and covetousness are not synonymous. Covetous is pleonekthv; see 1 Cor. v. 10, 11; Eph. v. 6. See on Romans i. 29.

    Boasters (alazonev). Or swaggerers. Only here and Rom. i. 30. See on ajlazoneiaiv boastings, Jas. iv. 16.

    Proud (uperhfanoi). Or haughty. See on uJperhfania pride, Mark vii. 22.

    Blasphemers (blasfhmoi). See on 1 Tim. i. 13. Better, railers. See also on, blasfhmia blasphemy, Mark. vii. 22.

    Unthankful (acaristoi). Only here and Luke vi. 35.

    Unholy (anosioi). Only here and 1 Tim. i. 9 (note).

    3. Without natural affection (astorgoi). Only here and Rom. i. 31. o LXX. See on ajgaph love, Gal. v. 22, under stergein to love with a natural affection.

    Truce-breakers (aspondoi). N.T.o . o LXX. Rend. implacable. From aj not, and spondai a treaty or truce. The meaning is, refusing to enter into treaty, irreconcilable. 140 Incontinent (akrateiv). Or intemperate, without self-control. N.T.o . Once in LXX, Prov. xxvii. 20. Akrasia incontinence, Matt. xxiii. 25; 1 Corinthians vii. 5; 1 Macc. vi. 26; Ps. of Solomon. iv. 3.

    Fierce (anhmeroi). Or savage. N.T.o . o LXX. Comp. ajnelehmonev merciless, Rom. i. 31.

    Despisers of those that are good (afilagaqoi). Better, haters of good. N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. Comp. the opposite, filagaqon lover of good, Tit. i. 8.

    4. Traitors (prodotai). Or betrayers. Only here, Luke. vi. 16; Acts vii. 52. Heady (propeteiv). Precipitate, reckless, headstrong in the pursuit of a bad end under the influence of passion. Only here and Acts xix. 36. In LXX, slack, loose, hence foolish, Prov. x. 14, and dividing or parting asunder, as the lips; of one who opens his lips and speaks hastily or thoughtlessly, Prov. xiii. 3. Comp. Sir. ix. 18.

    High-minded (tetufwmenoi). Better, besotted or clouded with pride. See on 1 Tim. iii. 6, and comp. 1 Tim. vi. 4.

    Lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God (filhdonoi mallon hfiloqeoi). Pleasure-lovers rather than God-lovers. Both words N.T.o . o LXX.

    5. A form (morfwsin). Only here and Rom. ii. 20. Morfh Form (for the want of any other rendering) is the expression or embodiment of the essential and permanent being of that which is expressed Morfwsiv, lit. forming or shaping. Yet the meaning differs in different passages. In Rom. ii. 20, morfwsiv is the truthful embodiment of knowledge and truth as contained in the law of God. Here, the mere outward semblance, as distinguished from the essential reality.

    The power (thn dunamin). The practical virtue. Comp. 1 Corinthians iv. 20. It is impossible to overlook the influence of Rom. i. 29-31 in shaping this catalogue.

    Turn away (apotrepou). N.T.o . Comp. paraitou avoid, chapter. ii. 23; ejktrepomenov turning away, 1 Tim. vi. 20; and ejkklinete turn away, Rom. xvi. 17.

    6. Of this sort (ek toutwn). Lit. of these. The formula often in Paul. Which creep (oi endunontev). N.T.o . Thrust themselves into. Comp. Jude 4, pareiseduhsan crept in privily (see note); 2 Pet. ii. 1 (note), pareisaxousin shall privily bring in; and Gal. ii. 4, pareisaktouv brought in by stealth.

    Lead captive (aicmalwtizontev). Only here in Pastorals. See on captives, Luke iv. 18; and 2 Cor. x. 5.

    Silly women (gunaikaria). N.T.o . o LXX. Silly is expressed by the contemptuous diminutive. Comp. Vulg. mulierculas.

    Laden (seswreumena). Only here and Rom. xii. 20, citation. In LXX, see Judith xv. 11, of loading a wagon with the property of Holofernes. It implies heaped up; heavily laden.

    Led away (agomena). Away is superfluous. It is only an inference. The meaning is under the direction of. Comp. Rom. viii. 14; Gal. v. 18. Divers (poikilaiv). In Pastorals only here and Tit. iii. 3. Lit. variegated, of different tints. See on manifold wisdom, Ephesians. iii. 10. 141

    7. Ever learning. From any one who will teach them. See on 1 Timothy v. 13. It is a graphic picture of a large class, by no means extinct, who are caught and led by the instructions of itinerant religious quacks. Never able (mhdepote dunamena). Because they have not the right motive, and because they apply to false teachers. Ellicott thinks that there is in dunamena a hint of an unsuccessful endeavor, in better moments, to attain to the truth.

    8. As (on tropon). The formula occurs in the Synoptic Gospels (see Matt. xxiii. 37; Luke xiii. 34), and in Acts (i. 11; vii. 28), but not in Paul. Jannes and Jambres. According to tradition, the names of the chiefs of the magicians who opposed Moses. Exod. vii. 11, 22.

    Of corrupt minds (katefqarmenoi ton noun). Better, corrupted in mind. The verb, N.T.o . Comp. diefqarmenwn ton noun corrupted in mind, 1 Tim. vi. 5.

    Reprobate (adokimoi). In Pastorals only here and Tit. i. 16. A Pauline word. See on Rom. i. 28, and castaway, 1 Cor. ix. 27.

    9. Shall proceed (prokoyousin). See on chapter ii. 16.

    Folly (anoia). Only here and Luke vi. 11 (note). The senselessness of their teaching, with an implication of is immoral character.

    Manifest (ekdhlov). N.T.o . LXX, 3 Macc. iii. 19; vi. 5.

    10. Hast fully known (parhkolouqhsav). Better, thou didst follow. See on 1 Tim. iv. 6. o P.

    Manner of life (agwgh). Or conduct. N.T.o . LXX, mostly 2nd and 3rd Macc.. Often in Class., but mostly in a transitive sense, leading, conducting.

    Purpose (proqesei). See on Acts xi. 23; Rom. ix. 11. In Paul, only of the divine purpose.

    Long-suffering, charity, patience. For long-suffering, see on Jas. v. 7. For charity rend love, and see on Gal. v. 22. For patience, see on 2 Peter. i. 6; James. v. 7.

    11. Persecutions, afflictions (diwgmoiv, paqhmasin). Diwgmov persecution, only here in Pastorals. Occasionally in Paul. Paqhma, only here in Pastorals. Often in Paul, usually in the sense of sufferings, but twice of sinful passions, Rom. vii. 5; Galatians. v. 24.

    Antioch, Iconium, Lystra. See Acts xiii. 50; xiv. 2 ff.; xiv. 19. 'these cities may have been selected as illustrations because Timothy was at home in that region. See Acts xvi. 1, 2. Antioch is mentioned by Paul, Galatians. ii. 11. Iconium and Lystra nowhere in his letters.

    Delivered (erusato) Often in Paul. Originally, to draw to one's self; to draw out from peril. Paul, in Rom. xi. 26, applies the prophecy of Isaiah. lxix. 20 to Christ, who is called a oJ rJuomenov the deliverer, LXX.

    12. Who will live (oi qelontev zhn). Whose will is to live, or who are bent on living.

    Godly (eusebwv). Only here and Tit. ii. 12. Comp. kat' eujsebeian according to godliness, 1 Tim. vi. 3; Tit. i. 1; and ejn pash eujsebeia in all godliness, 1 Tim. ii. 2. See also 1 Tim. iv. 7; vi. 11, and on godliness, 1 Tim. ii. 2.

    Shall suffer persecution (diwcqhsontai). In this sense only here in Pastorals.

    13. Seducers (gontev). N.T.o . Better, impostors or deceivers. From goan to howl. Originally, one who chants spells; a wizard, sorcerer. Hence, a cheat.

    Shall wax worse and worse (prokoyousin epi to ceiron). Lit. shall proceed to the worse. The formula, Past o . Comp. verse 9 and chapter ii. 16. Deceiving (planwntev). Properly, leading astray. See on planoiv seducing, 1 Tim. iv. 1.

    14. Hast been assured of (epistwqhv). N.T.o . Quito often in LXX. So 2 Samuel vii. 16, shall be established (of the house of David): Psalm lxxxvii. 37, steadfast in his covenant.

    15. From a child (apo brefouv). Mostly in Luke. o P. Only here in Pastorals. See on 1 Pet. ii. 2. Comp. Mark ix. 21, ejk paidioqen from a child.

    The holy Scriptures (iera grammata). Note particularly the absence of the article. Grammata is used in N.T. in several senses. Of characters of the alphabet (2 Corinthians. iii. 7; Gal. vi. 11): of a document (Luke xvi. 6, take thy bill): of epistles (Acts xxviii. 21): of the writings of an author collectively (Jas. v. 47): of learning (Acts xxvi. 24, polla grammatra much learning). In LXX, ejpistamenov grammata knowing how to read (Isa. xxix. 11, 12). The Holy Scriptures are nowhere called iJera grammata in N.T. In LXX, grammata is never used of sacred writings of any kind. Both Josephus and Philo use ta iJera grammata for the O.T. Scriptures. 142 The words here should be rendered sacred learning. The books in the writer's mind were no doubt the Old Testament. Scriptures, in which Timothy, like every Jewish boy, had been instructed; but he does not mean to designate those books as iJera grammata. He means the learning acquired from Scripture by the rabbinic methods, according to which the Old Testament books were carefully searched for meanings hidden in each word and letter, and especially for messianic intimations. Specimens of such learning may be seen here and there in the writings of Paul as 1 Corinthians. ix. 9 f.; x. 1 f.; Galatians. iii. 16f.; iv. 21 f. In Acts iv. 13, the council, having heard Peter's speech, in which he interpreted Psalm cxviii. 22 and Isa. xxviii. 16 of Christ, at once perceived that Peter and John were ajgrammatoi, not versed in the methods of the schools. Before Agrippa, Paul drew thc doctline of the Resurrection from the Old Testament, whereupon Festus exclaimed,"much learning (polla grammata, thy acquaintanee with the exegesis of the schools) hath made thee made (Acts xxvi. 24). To Agrippa, who was "expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews" (Acts xxvi. 3), the address of Paul, a pulpil of Hillel, was not surprising, although he declared that Paul's reasoning did not appeal to him. In John vii. 15, when Jesus taught in the temple, the.Jews wondered and said: the; "How knoweth this man letters?" That a.Jew should know the Scriptures was not strange The wonder lay in the exegetical skill of one who had not been trained by the literary methods of the time.

    To make thee wise (se sofisai). Only hero and 2 Pet. i. 16;. See note there on cunningly devised. To give thee understanding of that which lies behind the letter; to enable thee to detect in the Old Testaments. books various hidden allusions to Christ; to draw from the Old Testaments the mystery of messianic salvation, and to interpret the Old Testaments with Christ as the key. This gives significance to the following words through faith which is in Christ,Jesus. Jesus Christ was the key of Scripture, and through faith in him Shripture became a power unto salvation. The false teachers also had their learning but used it in expounding Jewish fables, genealogies, etc. Hence, their expositions, instead of making wise unto salvation, were vain babblings; profane and old wives' fables (1 Timothy iv. 7; 2 Tim. ii. 16). Const. through faith, etc., with make wise, not with salvation.

    16. All Scripture (pasa grafh). Better, every Scripture, that is, every passage of Scripture. Scripture as a whole is as aiJ grafai or aiJ grafai agiai. Iera is never used with grafh. Grafh is the single passage, usually defined by this, or that, or the, or which saith. 143 Is given by inspiration of God (qeopneustov). N.T.o . o LXX. From qeov God and pnein to breathe. God-breathed. The word tells us nothing of the peculiar character or limits of inspiration beyond the fact that it proceeds from God. In construction omit is, and rend. as attributive of grafh every divinely-inspired Scripture.

    And is profitable (kai wfelimov). According to A.V., kai and is merely the copula between two predicates of grafh. It is divinely inspired and is profitable. According to the interpretation given above, kai has the force of also. Every divinely-inspired Scripture is, besides being so inspired and for that reason, also profitable, etc. Wfelimov profitable, Past o . See on 1 Timothy iv. 8.

    For doctrine (prov didaskalian). Better, teaching. Comp. to make thee wise, ver. 15.

    Reproof (elegmon). Better, conviction. N.T.o . o Class. Comparatively frequent in LXX, mostly in the sense of rebuke: sometimes curse, punishment. See Ps. of Solomon. x. 1, but the reading is disputed with ejlegcw. See on the verb ejlegcein, John iii. 20.

    Correction (epanorqwsin). N.T.o . Twice in LXX. Restoring to an upright state (ojrqov erect); setting right.

    Instruction (paideian). Better, chastisement or discipline. See on Eph. vi. 4. In LXX mostly correction or discipline, sometimes admonition. Specially of God's chastisement by means of sorrow and evil

    17. Perfect (artiov). N.T.o . LXX. Rev. complete; but the idea is rather that of mutual, symmetrical adjustment of all that goes to make the man: harmonious combination of different qualities and powers. Comp. katartisiv perfecting, 2 Cor. xiii. 9: katartismov perfecting (as accomplished), Eph. iv. 12: katartisai make perfect or bring into complete adjustment, Heb. xiii. 21.

    Thoroughly furnished (exhrtismenov). The same root as artiov. It fills out the idea artiov; fitted out. Only here and Acts xi. 5 (note). o Class.

    Unto all good works (prov pan ergon agaqon). More correctly, every good work. Any writing which can produce such profitable results vindicates itself as inspired of God. It is to be noted that the test of the divine inspiration of Scripture is here placed in its practical usefulness.

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