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1. I charge (diamarturomai). See on 1 Tim. v. 21.
At his appearing (kai thn epifaneian). Rend. "and by his appearing," ejpifaneian thus depending on diamarturomai, and the accusative being the ordinary accusative of conjuration, with which by must be supplied. The A.V. follows the reading kata at. For ejpifaneia appearing, see on 1 Tim. vi. 14; 2 Thess. ii. 8. For, basileia kingdom, see on Luke vi. 20.
2. Be instant (episthqi). Better, be ready. Once in Paul, 1 Thessalonians v. 3. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Lit. stand by, be at hand, be present. To come suddenly upon, Luke ii. 38. Hence, be ready. Instant signifies urgent, importunate, persevering. Lat. instant to press upon. Thus Latimer, "I preached at the instant request of a curate." So N.T., Rom. xii. 12, "Continuing instant in prayer."
In season (eukairwv). Only here and Mark. xiv. 11. LXX once, Sir. xviii.
Out of season (akairwv). N.T.o . LXX once, Sir. xxxv. 4. Comp. ajkaireisqai to lack opportunity, Philippians. iv. 10. Timothy is not advised to disregard opportuneness, but to discharge his duty to those with whom he deals, whether it be welcome or not.
Rebuke (epitimhson). In Pastorals only here. o P. Mostly in the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequent. It has two meanings: rebuke, as Matt. viii. 26; Luke xvii. 3, and charge, as Matt. xii. 16; xvi. 20, commonly followed by ina that or legwn saying (Matt. xx. 31; Mark. i. 25; iii. 12; viii. 30; Luke iv. 35), but see Luke ix. 21. The word implies a sharp, severe rebuke, with, possibly, a suggestion in some cases of impending penalty (timh); charge on pain of. This might go to justify the rendering of Holtzmann and von Soden, threaten. To charge on pain of penalty for disobedience implies a menace, in this case of future judgment.
Exhort (parakaleson). See on consolation, Luke vi. 24; comfort, Acts 931. Tischendorf changes the order of the three imperatives, reading elegxon, parakaleson, ejpitimhson. In that case there is a climax: first convict of error, then, exhort to forsake error, finally threaten with the penalty of persistence in error.
With all long-suffering and doctrine (en pash makroqumia). Pash, every possible exhibition of long, suffering, etc. For doctrine Rend. teaching. The combination is Suggestive. Long-suffering is to be maintained against the temptations to anger presented by the obstinacy and perverseness of certain hearers; and such are to be met, not merely with rebuke, but also with sound and reasonable instruction in the truth. So Calvin: "Those who are strong only in fervor and sharpness, but are not fortified with solid doctrine, weary themselves in their vigorous efforts, make a great noise, rave,... make no headway because they build without foundation." Men will not be won to the truth by scolding's. They should understand what they hear, and learn by perceive why they are rebuked" (Bahnsen). Didach teaching, only here and Tit. i. 9 in Pastorals. The usual sword is didaskalia. Paul uses both.
Sound doctrine (thv ugiainoushv didaskaliav). Or healthful teaching. The A.V. overlooks the article which is important. The teaching plays a prominent part in these Epistles, and signifies more than teaching in general. See on 1 Tim. i. 10.
Shall they heap to themselves teachers (eautoiv episwreu sousin didaskalouv). A vigorous and graphic statement. Episwreuein to heap up, N.T.o . Comp. seswreumena laden, chapter iii. 6. The word is ironical; shall invite teachers enmasse. 144 In periods of unsettled faith, skepticism, and mere curious speculation in matters of religion, teachers of all kinds swarm like the flies in Egypt. The demand creates the supply. The hearers invite and shape their own preachers. If the people desire a calf to worship, a ministerial calf-maker is readily found. "The master of superstition is the people, and in all superstition wise men follow fools " (Bacon, Ess. 17).
Having itching ears (knhqomenoi thn akohn). Or, being tickled in their hearing. Knhqein to tickle, N.T.o . o LXX. Knhqomenoi itching. Hesychius explains, "hearing for mere gratification." Clement of Alexandria describes certain teachers as "scratching and tickling, in no human way, the ears of those who eagerly desire to be scratched" (Strom. 5). Seneca says: " Some come to hear, not to learn, just as we go to the theater, for pleasure, to delight our ears with the speaking or the voice or the plays" (Ep. 108). Akoh, A. verse ears, in N.T. a report, as Matt. iv. 24; xiv. 1;24.xxiv. 6: in the plural, ears (never ear in singular), as Mark. vii. 35; Luke vii. 1: hearing, either the act, as Acts xxviii. 26; Rom. x. 17, or the sense, 1 Corinthians xii. 17, here, and verse 4.
Endure afflictions (kakopaqhson). Or suffer hardship. See on chapter ii. 9, and comp. chapter iv. 5.
Of an evangelist (euaggelistou). Here, Acts xxi. 8 and Eph. iv. 11. In the last passage, a special function, with apostles, prophets, pastors, and teachers. A traveling, minister whose work was not confined to a particular church. So Philip, Acts viii. 5-13, 26-40. A helper of the apostles. An apostle, as such, was an evangelist (1 Cor. i. 17), but every evangelist was not an apostle. In The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (about 100 A.D.) it is prescribed that an apostle shall not remain in one place longer than two days, and that when he departs he shall take nothing with him except enough bread to last until his next station (chapter. 11). Make full proof of thy ministry (thn diakonian sou plhroforhson). Better, fulfill or fully perform. In Pastorals only here and verse 17 See on Luke i. 1. In LXX once, Ecclesiastes. viii. 11, is fully persuaded. Only in this passage in the active voice. Comp. plhrwsantev thn diakonian having fulfilled their ministration, Acts xii. 25: ejplhrou ton dromon was fulfilling his course, Acts xiii. 25, and ton dromon I have finished the course, verse 7. For diakonian ministry, see on 1 Timothy i. 12.
6. For I am now ready to be offered (egw gar hdh spendomai). I, emphatic contrast with su thou, verse 5. Already. What he is now suffering is the beginning of the end. Spendesqai to be poured out as a libation, only here and Philip. ii. 17 (note). In the active voice quite often in LXX.
Departure (analusewv). N.T.o . o LXX. Comp. ajnalusai to depart, Philippians. i. 23. The figure is explained by some of loosing a Ship from its moorings; by others of breaking camp. In Philippians the latter is the more probable explanation, because Paul's situation in the Custody of the Praetorians at Rome would naturally suggest a military metaphor, and because he is habitually sparing of nautical metaphors. Comp. 2 Corinthians v. 1, and Clement of Rome, ad Corinth. xliv. "Blessed are the presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure (analusin) was fruitful and ripe."
7. I have fought a good fight (ton kalon agwna hgwnismai). For a good fight rend. the good fight. For the phrase, see on 1 Tim. vi. 12. Comp. Philip. i. 27, 30; 1 Cor. ix. 25; Col. ii. 1; 1 Thessalonians ii. 2; Eph. vi. 11 ff.
8. Henceforth (loipon). Lit. as to what remains. Loipon or to loipon either finally, as 2 Cor. xiii. 11; or henceforth as here, Mark. xiv. 41; 1 Corinthians vii. 29, Heb. x. 13: or for the rest, besides, as 1 Thessalonians iv. 1 (note); 2 Thess. iii. 1.
A crown of righteousness (o thv dikaiosunhv stefanov). The phrase N.T.o . See on stefanoutai is crowned, chapter. ii. 5. Rend. the crown. Judge (krithv). Comp. verse 1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. o P. Only here in Pastorals. Applied to Christ, Acts x. 42 Jas. v. 9; to God, Hebrews xii. 28; Jas. iv. 12.
Shall give (apodwsei). Most frequent in Synoptic Gospels. It may mean to give over or away, as Matt. xxvii. 58; Acts v. 8; Heb. xii. 16: or to give back, recompose, as here, Matt. vi. 4, 6, 18; Rom. ii. 6. At that day (en ekeinh th hmera). See on chapter i. 12. That love his appearing (toiv hgaphkosi thn epifaneian autou). For love rend. have loved. Appearing, Christ's second coming: see on 1 Timothy vi. 14; 2 Thess. ii. 8. The phrase N.T.o . Some have interpreted appearing as Christ's first coming into the world, as chapter i. 10; but the other sense is according to the analogy of 1 Cor. ii. 9; Philip. iii. 20; Heb. ix. 28.
"And ech of hem doth al his diligence To doon unto the feste reverence." Clerke's T. 195
10. Demas. A contraction of Demetrius or Demarchus. He is mentioned Col. iv. 13 and Philemon 24. It is supposed that he was a Thessalonian. On leaving Paul he went to Thessalonica; and in Philemon his name is mentioned next to that of Aristarchus the Thessalonian. That no epithet is attached to his name in Col. iv. 14 (comp. "Luke the beloved physician") may be a shadow of Demas's behavior mentioned here, in case Colossians was written later than 2nd Timothy.
Hath forsaken (egkateleipen). In Pastorals here and verse 16. See on 2 Corinthians iv. 9. The compounded preposition ejn indicates a condition or circumstances in which one has been left, as the common phrase left in the lurch. Comp. Germ. im Stiche.
Having loved (agaphsav). The participle is explanatory, because he loved.
This present world (ton nun aiwna). See on 1 Tim. vi. 17. Contrast love his appearing, verse 8.
Crescens (Krhskhv). N.T.o . Unknown.
11. Luke. See Intro. to Luke. His connection with Paul appears first in Acts xvi. 10. He remained at Philippi after Paul's departure, and was there seven years later, when Paul revisited the city (Acts xx. 5, 6). He accompanied Paul to Jerusalem (Acts xxi. 15), after which we lose sight of him until he appears at Caesarea (Acts xxvii. 2), whence he accompanies Paul to Rome. He is mentioned Col. iv. 14 and Philemon 24.
Mark. Mentioned Col. iv. 10; Philemon 24; 1 Pet. v. 13. Probably John Mark (Acts xii. 12, 25; xv. 37), called the cousin of Barnabas (Col. vi. 10). The first mention of him since the separation from Paul (Acts xv. 39) occurs in Colossians and Philemon. He is commended to the church at Colossae. In 1st Peter he sends salutations to Asia. In both Colossians and Philemon his name appears along with that of Demas. In Colossians he is named shortly before Luke and along with Aristarchus who does not appear here. He (Mark) is about to come to Asia where 2nd Timothy finds him. The appearance in Colossians of Aristarchus with Mark and of Demas with Luke is probably the point of connection with the representation in 2nd Timothy.
Profitable for the ministry (eucrhstov eiv diakonian). Eucrhstov profitable, only here, chapter ii. 21, Philemon 11. For for the ministry rend. for ministering or for service, and see on 1 Tim. i. 12.
12. Tychicus. A comparatively uncommon name in N.T., but found in inscriptions of Asia Minor and on Asiatic coins. He is mentioned Acts xx. 4, 5; Eph. vi. 21; Col. iv. 7. In Acts xx. 4 he is described as a native of proconsular Asia.
18. The cloak (felonhn). 145 Hesychius, however, explains as a glwssokomon, originally a case for keeping the mouthpieces of wind-instruments; thence, generally, Glwssokomon is the word for the disciples' treasury-chest (bag, Jas. xii. 6). Also a box for transporting or preserving parchments. Specimens have been found at Herculaneum. In LXX, 2 Sam. vi. 11, the ark of the Lord (but the reading varies): in 2 Chronicles xxiv. 8, the chest placed by order of Joash at the gate of the temple, to receive contributions for its repair. Joseph. Ant. vi. 1, 2, of the coffer into which the jewels of gold were put for a trespass-offering when the ark was sent back (1 Sam. vi. 8). Phrynicus 146 defines it as "a receptacle for books, clothes, silver, or anything else." Failonhv or fainolhv a wrapper of parchments, was translated figuratively in Latin by toga or paenula "a cloak," sometimes of leather; also the wrapping which a shopkeeper put round fish or olives; also the parchment cover for papyrus rolls. Accordingly it is claimed that Timothy is here bidden to bring, not a cloak, but a roll-case. So the Syriac Version. There seems to be no sufficient reason for abandoning the translation of A.V.
Carpus. Not mentioned elsewhere.
The books (biblia). Biblov or, biblion was the term most widely used by the Greeks for book or volume. The usual derivation is from, bublov the Egyptian papyrus. Comp. Lat. liber "the inner bark of a tree," also " book." 147 Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiii. 11) says that the pith of the papyrus plant was cut in slices and laid in rows, over which other rows were laid crosswise, and the whole was massed by pressure. The name for the blank papyrus sheets was carthv (charta) paper. See on 2 John 12. Timothy is here requested to bring some papyrus documents which are distinguished from the vellum manuscripts.
Parchments (membranav). N.T.o . Manuscripts written on parchment or vellum. Strictly speaking, veilum was made from the skins of young calves and the common parchment from those of sheep, goats, or antelopes. It was a more durable material than papyrus and more expensive. The Latin name was membrana, and also pergamena or pergamina, from Pergamum in Mysia where it was extensively manufactured, and from which it was introduced into Greece. As to the character and contents of these documents which Timothy is requested to bring, we are of course entirely ignorant. 148
Did me much evil (polla moi kaka enedeixato). Lit. shewed me much ill-treatment. Comp. 1 Tim. i. 16.
May the Lord reward (apodwsei). More correctly shall reward. A.V. follows the reading ajpodwh.
15. Greatly withstood (lian antesth). Comp. chapter iii. 8, and Gal. ii. 11. This may refer to the occurrences at Ephesus (Acts xix. 33), or to Alexander's attitude during Paul's trial. The former is more probable. Lian greatly, not in Paul, except in the compound uJperlian, 2 Corinthians xi. 5; xii. 11. Only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels.
16. At my first answer (en th prwth mou apologia). Apologia defense in a judicial trial. Comp. Acts xxv. 16. Also against private persons, as 1 Cor. ix. 3; 2 Cor. vii. 11. Defense of the gospel against its adversaries, as Philippians. i. 7, 16; comp. 1 Pet. iii. 15 (note). It is impossible to decide to what this refers. On the assumption of a second imprisonment of Paul (see Introduction) it would probably refer to a preliminary hearing before the main trial. It is not improbable that the writer had before his mind the situation of Paul as described in Philippians since this Epistle shows at many points the influence of the Philippians letter. It should be noted, however, that ajpologia in Philip. i. 7, 16, has no specific reference to Paul's trial, but refers to the defense of the gospel under any and all circumstances. In any case, the first Romans imprisonment cannot be alluded to here. On that supposition, the omission of all reference to Timothy's presence and personal ministry at that time, and the words about his first defense, which must have taken place before Timothy left Rome (Philippians. ii. 19-23) and which is here related as a piece of news, are quite inexplicable.
Stood with me (paregeneto). As a patron or an advocate. The verb mostly in Luke and Acts: once in Paul, 1 Cor. xvi. 3: only here in Pastorals. It means to place one's self beside; hence, to come to, and this latter sense is almost universal in N.T. In the sense of coming to or standing by one as a friend, only here.
17. Strengthened (enedunamwsen). See on 1 Tim. i. 12.
The preaching (to khrugma). Better, the message (par excellence), the gospel message. Usually with a defining word, as of Jonah; of Jesus Christ; my preaching; our preaching. Absolutely, as here, 1 Corinthians i. 21; Tit. i. 3.
Might be fully known (plhroforhqh). See on verse 5. Lit. might be fulfilled; fully carried out by being proclaimed before rulers in the capital of the world. Comp. Rom. xv. 19; Acts xxiii. 11; xxviii. 31; Philippians i. 12-14.
Out of the mouth of the lion (ek stomatov leontov). Figurative expression for danger of death. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 32. As usual, all manner of special references have been imagined: the lions of the amphitheatre; Nero; the chief accuser; the Jews; the Devil.
18. Every evil work (ek ergou ponhrou). Every design and attempt against him and his work. Ponhrov evil cannot be limited to evil on its active side. See on 1 Cor. v. 13. The word is connected at the root with penesqai to be needy, and ponein to toil; and this connection opens a glimpse of that sentiment which associated badness with a poor and toiling condition. The word means originally full of or oppressed by labors; thence, that which brings annoyance or toil. Comp. hJmera ponhra evil day, Eph. v. 16; vi. 13: elkov ponhron a grievous sore, Revelation xvi. 2.
Heavenly kingdom (thn basileian thn epouranion). The phrase N.T.o . Epouraniov heavenly only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Heavenly kingdom, here the future, glorified life, as 1 Corinthians vi. 9, 10; xv. 50; Luke xiii. 29. In the same sense, kingdom of Christ and of God, Eph. v. 5; kingdom of their Father, Matthew xiii. 43; my Father's kingdom, Matt. xxvi. 29; kingdom prepared for you, Matt. xxv. 34; eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, 2 Peter i. 11.
Onesiphorus. Profit-bringer. Comp. chapter i. 16. One of the punning names so common among slaves. Comp. Chresimus, Chrestus, Onesimus, Symphorus, all of which signify useful or helpful.
20. Erastus. In Acts xix. 22, sent by Paul with Timothy to Macedonia from Ephesus. Rom. xvi. 23, the city-treasurer who sends salutations. He cannot be certainly identified with the one mentioned here. The writer merely selects names of well-known companions of Paul.
Sick (asqenounta). By Paul mostly in a moral sense, as weak in the faith, Rom. iv. 19; the law was weak, Rom. viii. 3; the weak brother, 1 Corinthians viii. 11. Of bodily sickness, Philip. ii. 26, 27.
21. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia. N.T.o .
22. The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Omit Jesus Christ. The closing benediction only here in this form.