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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - TITUS 1

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    CHAPTER I

    1. An apostle - according to the faith of God's elect, etc. The norm of the apostolate in each of the three Epistles is unique, and not Pauline. In 1 Timothy, according to the commandment of God: in 2 Timothy, according to the promise of life in Christ Jesus. Kata according to, not for the faith, but corresponding to the norm or standard of faith which is set for God's elect.

    And acknowledging of the truth (kai epignwsin alhqeiav). For acknowledging rend. knowledge. For the phrase, see on 1 Tim. ii. 4. Governed, like pistin faith, by kata. The writer is an apostle according to the faith of God's elect, and according to the truth which is contained in the faith, as that truth is intelligently apprehended and held.

    'Which is after godliness (thv kat eusebeian). Or according to godliness. Comp. 1 Tim. vi. 3. This addition describes the peculiar and essential character of the truth which is held and known by God's elect, namely, that it is concerned with the fear and obedience of God - all that constitutes true piety. See on 1 Tim. i. 10.

    2. In hope of eternal life (ep elpidi zwhv aiwniou). Const. with Apostle, verse 1. 149 Epi resting upon.

    God that cannot lie (o ayeudhv qeov). Ayeudhv N.T.o . Once in LXX, Wisd. vii. 17. Comp. Rom. iii. 4; Heb. vi. 18. Paul expresses the idea positively, by ajlhqhv truthful, Rom. iii. 4.

    Before the world began (pro cronwn aiwniwn). Lit. before eternal times. Before time began to be reckoned by aeons. See on 2 Tim. i. 9, and additional note on 2 Thess. i. 9.

    3. In due times (kairoiv idioiv). Better, in his (or its) own seasons. See on 1 Tim. ii. 6.

    Through preaching (en khrugmati). Rather, in a proclamation. See on 2 Timothy iv. 17.

    Which is committed unto me (o episteuqhn egw). Betters wherewith I was intrusted. See on 1 Tim. i. 11.

    4. Own (gnhsiw). See on 1 Tim. i. 2.

    According to the common faith (kata koinhn pistin). The phrase N.T.o . Koinov common, usually in contrast with kaqarov pure or agiov holy, as Acts x. 14; xi. 8; Apoc. xxi. 27. In the sense of general as here, Acts ii. 44; iv. 32; Jude 3. Comp. 2 Pet. i. 1. The "catholic" faith. Kata according to, as verse 1.

    5. In Crete. Crete is one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean. By the mythological writers it was called Aeria, Doliche, Idaea, Telchinia. According to tradition, Minos first gave laws to the Cretans, conquered the Aegean pirates, and established a navy. After the Trojan war the principal cities of the island formed themselves into several republics, mostly independent. The chief cities were Cnossus, Cydonia, Gortyna, and Lyctus. Crete was annexed to the Romans Empire B.C. 67. About Paul's visiting the island we have no information whatever beyond the hints in this Epistle. There is no absolute proof that Paul was ever there before the voyage to Rome. Although on that voyage some time appears to have been spent at Crete, there is no notice of Paul having received any greeting from the members of the Christian churches there. According to this Epistle, Paul and Titus had worked there together. Paul went away, and left Titus to organize the churches founded by himself. He sent this letter by Zenas and Apollos (iii. 13), and announced in it the coming of Artemas or of Tychicus. On their arrival Titus was to join Paul at Nicopolis, where Paul was proposing to winter.

    Shouldst set in order (epidiorqwsh). N.T.o . Lit. to set straight besides or farther; that is, should arrange what remained to be set in order after Paul's departure. Used by medical writers of setting broken limbs or straightening crooked ones. Diorqwsiv reformation, Hebrews. ix. 10: diorqwma correction, Acts xxiv. 3.

    Ordain elders (katasthshv presbuterouv). Kaqistanai appoint or constitute. In Paul only Rom. v. 19. For the sense here comp. Matthew xxiv. 45, 47; Luke xii. 14; Acts vi. 3. The meaning of the injunction is, that Titus should appoint, out of the number of elderly men of approved Christian reputation, certain ones to be overseers (episkopoi) of the churches in the several cities. The eldership was not a distinct church office. See on 1 Tim. v. 1.

    I had appointed (dietaxamhn). Better, I gave thee charge. Mostly in Luke and Acts.

    6. Faithful children (tekna pista). Better, believing children; or, as Rev., children that believe. Comp. 1 Tim. iii. 4.

    Not accused of riot (mh en kathgoria aswtiav). Lit. not in accusation of profigacy. For kathgoria see on 1 Tim. v. 19. Aswtia, lit. unsavingness; hence, dissoluteness, profigacy. Comp. Luke xv. 13, of the prodigal son, who lived unsavingly (aswtwv). Only here, Eph. v. 18, and 1 Pet. iv. 4 (note).

    7. A bishop (ton episkopon). See on 1 Tim. iii. 1; v. 1. Rend. the bishop. It will be observed that the qualifications of the elders are fixed by those of the bishop. Appoint elders who shall be unaccused, etc. for the bishop must be unaccused, etc. The overseers must have the qualifications of approved presbyters.

    Steward of God (qeou oikonomon). Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 1, 2; 1 Peter iv. 10; and see on Rom. xvi. 23; Luke xvi. 1. The phrase N.T.o .

    Self-willed (auqadh). Only here and 2 Pet. ii. 10 (note).

    Soon angry (orgilon). N.T.o . Rarely in LXX and Class. Irascible.

    8. A lover of hospitality (filoxenon). Better, hospitable. See on 1 Timothy iii. 2.

    A lover of good men (filagaqon). N.T.o . Better, lover of good. Temperate (egkrath). N.T.o . Originally, having power over; possessed of; hence, controlling, keeping in hand. Egkrateia temperance, Acts xxiv. 25; Gal. v. 23; 2 Pet. i. 6. Egkrateuesqai to contain one's self, 1 Cor. vii. 9; ix. 25.

    9. Holding fast (antecomenon). Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Thessalonians v. 14 (note).

    The faithful word (tou pistou logou). The trustworthy, reliable word. Comp. 1 Tim. i. 15 (note).

    As he hath been taught (kata thn didachn). Lit. according to the teaching. Const. with word. Agreeing with the apostolic teaching. For didach teaching see on 2 Tim. iv. 2.

    May be able by sound doctrine both to exhort (dunatov h kai parakalein en th didaskalia th ugiainoush). Rend. "may be able both to exhort in the sound teaching." For dunatov able or powerful, see on 2 Tim. i. 12. Used by Paul in the phrase eij dunaton if it be possible, Rom. xii. 18; Gal. iv. 15: to dunaton that which is possible, Rom. ix. 22: of God, Rom. iv. 21; xi. 23: of men, in the ethical sense, Rom. xv. 1; 2 Cor. xii. 10; xiii. 9.

    Convince (elegcein). Better, convict. See on John iii. 20, and ejlegmon, 2 Timothy iii. 16.

    The gainsayers (touv antilegontav). In Pastorals only here and chapter ii. 9. Once in Paul, Rom. x. 21, cit. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Glainsay, Angl. Sax. gegn (Germ. gegen) "against," and;; say." Wiclif, Luke xxi. 15: For I schalgyue to you mouth and wisdom, to whiche alle youre aduersaries schulen not mowe agenstonde, and agenseye."

    10. Vain talkers (mataiologoi). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. See on vain jangling, 1 Tim. i. 6.

    Deceivers (frenapatai). N.T.o . o LXX, o Class. See on frenapatan to deceive, Gal. vi. 3.

    They of the circumcision (oi ek thv peritomhv). The phrase only here in Pastorals. Oi ejk peritomhv Acts x. 45; xi. 2; Rom. iv. 12; Galatians ii. 12; Col. iv. 11. There can be no doubt of the presence of Jews in Crete. Tacitus (Hist. v. 2) even makes the absurd statement that the Jews were Cretan exiles; and that from their residence in the vicinity of the Cretan Mount Ida they were called Idaei, whence Judaei. There appears to have been some confusion between the Palestinians and the Philistines - the Cherethim or Cherethites, who, in Exekiel. xxv. 16; Zephariah. ii. 5 are called in LXX Krhtev Jews were in the island in considerable numbers between the death of Alexander and the final destruction of Jerusalem. In 1 Macc. xv. 23 the Cretan city of Gortyna is mentioned among the places to which letters were written by Lucius, the Rom. consul, on behalf of the Jews when Simon Maccabaeus renewed the treaty which his brother Judas had made with Rome. Josephus (Ant. xvii. 12,1; Bell. Jud. ii. 7, 1) says that Herod's pseudo-son Alexander imposed on the Cretan Jews on his way to Italy. Philo (Leg. ad Cai. 36) makes the Jewish envoys say to Caligula that all the principal islands of the Mediterranean, including Crete, were full of Jews.

    11. Whose mouths must be stopped (ouv dei epistomizein). Lit. whom it is necessary to silence. Epistomizein, N.T.o . o LXX. Originally, to put something into the mouth, as a bit into a horse's mouth. Epistomion is the stop of a water-pipe or of a hydraulic organ. Comp. fimoun 1 Tim. v. 18.

    Who subvert (oitinev anatrepousin). The double relative is explanatory of must; in as much as they, etc. For subvert rend. overthrow. See on 2 Tim. ii. 18.

    Houses (oikouv). Families.

    12. One of themselves (tiv ex autwn). Autwn refers to the gainsayers, vv. 9, 10. Tiv refers to Epimenides, contemporary with Solon, and born in Crete B.C. 659. A legend relates that, going by his father's order in search of a sheep, he lay down in a cave, where he fell asleep and slept for fifty years. He then appeared with long hair and a flowing beard, and with an astonishing knowledge of medicine and natural history. It was said that he had the power of sending his soul out of his body and recalling it at pleasure, and that he had familiar intercourse with the gods and possessed the power of prophecy. He was sent for to Athens at the request of the inhabitants, in order to pave the way for the legislation of Solon by purifications and propitiatory sacrifices, intended to allay the feuds and party discussions which prevailed in the city. In return for his services he refused the Athenians' offers of wealth and public honors, and asked only a branch of the sacred olive, and a decree of perpetual friendship between Athens and his native city. He is said to have lived to the age of 157 years, and divine honors were paid him by the Cretans after his death. He composed a Theogony, and poems concerning religious mysteries. He wrote also a poem on the Argonautic Expedition, and other works. Jerome mentions his treatise On Oracles and Responses, from which the quotation in this verse is supposed to have been taken. According to Diogenes Laertius (i. 10) Epimenides, in order to remove a pestilence from Athens, turned some sheep loose at the Areopagus, and wherever they lay down sacrificed to the proper God: whence, he says, there are still to be found, in different demes of the Athenians, anonymous altars. Comp. Acts xvii. 22, 23.

    The Cretans, etc. The words Krhtev - ajrgai form a hexameter line. Always (aei). Habitually.

    Liars (yeustai). In Pastorals here and 1 Tim. i. 10. Once in Paul, Rom. iii. 4. Mostly in John. The Cretan habit of lying passed into a verb, krhtizein to speak like a Cretan = to lie: also into a noun, krhtismov Cretan behavior = lying. Similarly, the licentiousness of Corinth appeared in the verb korinqiazesqai to practice whoredom, and in the noun korinqiasthv a whoremonger. Comp. Ov. Artis Amat. i. 296.

    "non hoc, centum quae sustinet urbes Quamvis sit mend, Crete Negro potest."

    "Crete, which a hundred cities doth maintain, Cannot deny this, though to lying given."

    A familiar saying was tria kappa kakista the three worst K's, Krhtev, Kappadokai, Kilikev Cretans, Cappadocians, Cilicians.

    Evil beasts (kaka qhria). Rude, cruel, and brutal.

    Slow-bellies (gasterev argai). Better, idle-bellies. Rev. gives the correct idea, idle gluttons. They are so given to gluttony that they are mere bellies. Comp. Philip. iii. 19. Gasthr, elsewhere in N.T. always in connection with childbearing. So mostly in LXX, but in a few instances as here. See Job xx. 23; Ps. xvi. 14; Sir. xxxvii. 5. In Job xx. 14 as the rendering of qereb, bowels. Argov idle, o P. However such words may have befitted the pagan seer, it is not pleasant to regard them as taken up and endorsed by the great Christian apostle, who thus is made to stigmatise as liars, beasts, and gluttons a whole people, among whom he had himself so successfully labored that several churches had been founded in a short time. They are strange words from a venerable Christian minister to a younger minister to whom he had intrusted the care of those very souls; and, in any case, are superfluous, as addressed to one who must have known the characteristics of the Cretans quite as well as the writer himself.

    13. Sharply (apotomwv). Only here and 2 Cor. xiii. 10 (note). Paul has ajpotomia severity, Rom. xi. 22 (note). LXX, ajpotomwv severely, only Wisd. v. 22; ajpotomov severe (not in N.T.), Wisd. v. 20; xi. 10; xii. 9. From ajpotemnein to cut of. It signifies abrupt, harsh, summary dealing.

    14. Not giving heed (mh prosecontev). Reprove sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, and may show their soundness by not giving heed, etc. See on 1 Tim. i. 4.

    To Jewish fables (Ioudaikoiv muqoiv). See on 1 Tim. i. 4. Note Jewish. The nature of these we do not know.

    Commandments of men (entolaiv anqrwpwn). See on 1 Timothy vi. 14. Comp. Col. ii. 22. Prescriptions concerning abstinence from meats, marriage, etc. The men are probably those of the circumcision, verse

    10. What they teach theoretically, by means of the myths, they bring to bear practically, by means of their precepts.

    That turn from the truth (apostrefomenwn thn alhqeian). Comp. 2 Timothy iv. 4, where the truth and fables appear in contrast.

    15. Unto the pure (toiv kaqaroiv). The pure in heart and conscience. See 2 Tim. i. 3.

    All things are pure. Comp. 1 Tim. iv. 4, 5; Acts x. 15; Mark. vii. 15, 18, 19; 1 Cor. x. 26, 30; Rom. xiv. 20. The aphorism is suggested by the commandments of men, verse 14.

    Unto them that are defiled (toiv memiammenoiv). Only here in Pastorals. See also John xviii. 28 (note); Heb. xii. 15; Jude 8. Only in John xviii. 28 in a ceremonial sense. Elsewhere of moral pollution. Nothing is pure. Their moral pollution taints everything with its own quality. The purest things become suggestors and ministers of impurity. Mind and conscience (o nouv kai h suneidhsiv). For nouv see On Rom. vii. 23: for suneidhsiv, on 1 Pet. iii. 16.

    16. They profess (oJmologousin). Better, confess. See on 2 Corinthians ix. 13, and comp. 1 Tim. vi. 12. Not loudly and publicly profess (as Huther), but confess as opposed to deny (John i. 20); comp. Hebrews xi. 13; Rom. x. 9, 10.

    Abominable (bdeluktoi). N.T.o . Class. LXX, Proverbs. xvii. 15; Sir. xli. 5; 2 Macc. i. 27. See on, bdelugma abomination, Matt. xxiv. 15, and comp. Apoc. xvii. 4, 5; xxi. 27. The kindred verb, bdelussesqai abhor, Rom. ii. 22; Apoc. xxi. 8.

    Reprobate (adokimoi). See on Rom. i. 28; 1 Cor. ix. 27, and comp. 2 Tim. iii. 8. The phrase reprobate unto every good work, N.T.o .

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