SEV Biblia, Chapter 16:21 y pondrá Aarón ambas manos suyas sobre la cabeza del macho cabrío vivo, y confesará sobre él todas las iniquidades de los hijos de Israel, y todas sus rebeliones, y todos sus pecados, poniéndolos así sobre la cabeza del macho cabrío, y lo enviará al desierto por mano de algún varón aparejado para esto .
Clarke's Bible Commentary - Leviticus 16:21 Verse 21. Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head, &c.] What this imposition of hands meant see in the notes on "Exodus xxix. 10", and see on "chap. i. 4".
And confess over him all the iniquities-transgressions-sins] The three terms used here, INIQUITIES, tnw[ avonoth, from hw[ avah, to pervert, distort, or turn aside; TRANSGRESSIONS, µy[Ťp peshaim, from [Ťp pasha, to transgress, to rebel; and SINS, tafj chattaoth, from afj chata, to miss the mark, are supposed by the Jews to comprise every thing that implies a breach of the Divine law, or an offense against God. See's note on "Gen. xii. 13". Maimonides gives us the confession in the following words:- "O Lord, thy people, the house of Israel, have sinned and done iniquity, and trespassed before thee. O Lord, make atonement now for the iniquities and transgressions and sins that thy people, the house of Israel, have sinned and transgressed against thee; as it is written in the law of Moses thy servant, saying: That in this day he shall make atonement for you, to cleanse you from all your sins before the Lord, and ye shall be clean."-See the Mishna, vol. ii., p. 329. When this confession was finished, the goat was sent by a proper hand to the wilderness, and there let loose; and nothing farther was ever heard of it. Did not all this signify that Christ has so carried and borne away our sins, that against them who receive him as the only true atoning sacrifice they should never more be brought to remembrance? On the head of the scape-goat, a piece of scarlet cloth was tied, and the tradition of the Jews states that if God accepted the sacrifice, the scarlet cloth turned white while the goat was led to the desert; but if God had not accepted this expiation, the redness continued, and the rest of the year was spent in mourning. From the foundation of the Church of God it was ever believed by his followers, that there were certain infallible tokens by which he discovered to genuine believers his acceptance of them and their services. This was sometimes done by a fire from heaven consuming the sacrifice; sometimes by an oracular communication to the priest or prophet; and at other times, according to the Jewish account, by changing the fillet or cloth on the head of the scape-goat from scarlet to white: but most commonly, and especially under the Gospel dispensation, he gives this assurance to true believers by the testimony of his Spirit in their consciences, that he has forgiven their iniquities, transgressions, and sins, for his sake who has carried their griefs, and borne their sorrows.
John Gill's Bible Commentary Ver. 21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat , etc.] In this order as the Targum of Jonathan says, his right hand upon his left hand on the head of the live goat; this was done in the name of the people, hereby transferring their sins, and the punishment of them, to it: and confess him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins ; which takes in their sins, greater or lesser, sins of ignorance and presumption, known or not known f572 , even all sorts of and all of them: the form of confession used in after times was this f573 ; O Lord, thy people, the house of Israel, have done perversely, have transgressed sinned berate thee, O Lord, expiate now the iniquities, transgressions, and sins, in which thy people, the house of Israel, have done perversely, transgressed, and sinned before thee, as it is written in the law of Moses thy servant ( Leviticus 16:30); and it is added, and the priests and people that stood in the court, when they heard the name Jehovah go out of the mouth of the high priest, they bowed, and worshipped, and fell upon their faces, and said, blessed be God, let the glory of his kingdom be for ever and ever: putting them upon the head of the goat ; that is, the iniquities, transgressions, and sins of the people of Israel before confessed, and that by confession of them, with imposition of hands; and which was typical of the imputation of the sins of the people of God to Christ, of the Lord laying, or causing to meet on him the iniquities of them all, and of his being made sin by imputation for them: and shall send [him] away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness ; whether the wilderness of Judea, or what other is intended, is not certain.
The Targum of Jonathan calls it the wilderness of Zuck; which, according to the Misnah f574 , was three miles from Jerusalem, at the entrance of the wilderness; and whereas in another Misnah f575 , instead of Bethchadudo, Bethhoron is mentioned, which is said also to be three miles from Jerusalem: it is not an improbable conjecture of Dr. Lightfoot f576 , that the goat was sent in the way to Bethhoron, which was the same distance from Jerusalem as the other place was, in the northern coast of Judea, and had very rough hills about it, and a narrow passage to it. The man, by whom he was sent, was one fit for the purpose, that knew the way to the wilderness, and was acquainted with it; a man of years and understanding, and of a disposition suitable for such a service; the Septuagint version renders it one that was “ready”; and the Targums, one that was “prepared” to go, or “appointed”, and got ready; Jarchi says, the day before; but the Targum of Jonathan a year ago: perhaps it designs one, that being once appointed, was continued, and so was used to it from time to time, and constantly did it: the phrase properly signifies “a man of time” or “opportunity” f577 ; Aben Ezra finds fault with those who render it a wise man, but observes, that some of their Rabbins say it was a priest that led the goat to the wilderness, which he approves of; according to the Misnah f578 , all were fit for this service (formerly common and unclean), but what the high priest did (afterwards) was fixed, and they did not suffer an Israelite to lead him (i.e. a common Israelite, one that was not a priest); according to the Talmud f579 , even a stranger, and an unclean person, was fit for this service. In the mystical sense, by this fit man, or man of opportunity, is not meant, according to Abarbinel, Nebuchadnezzar, who led the children of Israel into the wilderness of the people, into the Babylonish captivity; but rather, if it could be understood of Christ being sent, and carried into the wilderness of the Gentile world, upon his resurrection and ascension to heaven, the Apostle Paul might be thought of; who was a chosen vessel to carry his name there, and was eminently the apostle of the Gentiles: but seeing by Azazel, to whom this goat was let go, Satan seems to be meant; if, as some think f580 , Christ was baptized on the day of atonement, and on that day was led by the Spirit to the wilderness of Judea, there to be tempted of the devil, that might be considered as a very singular accomplishment of the type; and the Jews seem to expect the Messiah on the day of atonement f581 : or rather, as Witsius observes, the hand of the fit man may denote the power that rose up against Christ, namely, the Gentiles and the people of Israel, and particularly Pilate, who took care that Christ, burdened with the cross, an emblem of the curse, should be led without the gate, where he had his last conflict with the devil; (see Gill on “ Leviticus 16:10”). This is applied to Pilate by Origen f583 .
Matthew Henry Commentary Verses 15-34 - Here are typified the two great gospel privileges, of the remission of sin, and access to God, both of which we owe to our Lord Jesus. See the expiation of guilt. Christ is both the Maker and the Matter of the atonement; for he is the Priest, the High Priest, that make reconciliation for the sins of the people. And as Christ is the Hig Priest, so he is the Sacrifice with which atonement is made; for he is all in all in our reconciliation to God. Thus he was figured by the tw goats. The slain goat was a type of Christ dying for our sins; the scape-goat a type of Christ rising again for our justification. The atonement is said to be completed by putting the sins of Israel upo the head of the goat, which was sent away into a wilderness, a land no inhabited; and the sending away of the goat represented the free an full remission of their sins. He shall bear upon him all their iniquities. Thus Christ, the Lamb of God, takes away the sin of the world, by taking it upon himself, Joh 1:29. The entrance into heaven which Christ made for us, was typified by the high priest's entranc into the most holy place. See Heb 9:7. The high priest was to come ou again; but our Lord Jesus ever lives, making intercession, and alway appears in the presence of God for us. Here are typified the two grea gospel duties of faith and repentance. By faith we put our hands upo the head of the offering; relying on Christ as the Lord ou Righteousness, pleading his satisfaction, as that which alone is able to atone for our sins, and procure us a pardon. By repentance we afflict our souls; not only fasting for a time from the delights of the body, but inwardly sorrowing for sin, and living a life of self-denial assuring ourselves, that if we confess our sins, God is faithful an just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. By the atonement we obtain rest for our souls, and all the glorious liberties of the children of God. Sinner, get the blood of Christ effectually applied to thy soul, or else thou canst never loo God in the face with any comfort or acceptance. Take this blood of Christ, apply it by faith, and see how it atones with God __________________________________________________________________
Original Hebrew וסמך 5564 אהרן 175 את 853 שׁתי 8147 ידו 3027 על 5921 ראשׁ 7218 השׂעיר 8163 החי 2416 והתודה 3034 עליו 5921 את 853 כל 3605 עונת 5771 בני 1121 ישׂראל 3478 ואת 853 כל 3605 פשׁעיהם 6588 לכל 3605 חטאתם 2403 ונתן 5414 אתם 853 על 5921 ראשׁ 7218 השׂעיר 8163 ושׁלח 7971 ביד 3027 אישׁ 376 עתי 6261 המדברה׃ 4057